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Full text of "The Christian occupation of China : a general survey of the numerical strength and geographical distributon [sic] of the Christian forces in China, made by the Special committee on survey and occupation, China continuation committee, 1918-1921 / Milton T. Stauffer ; assisted by Tsinforn C. Wong, M. Gardner Tewksbury."

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BOOK« 275. 1.C44 1C C.I 

CHINA CONTINUATION COMMITTEE f C 

HP.ISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



3 1153 000b153M A 



THE 
CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION 

OF CHINA 



A GENERAL SURVEY OF THE 

NUMERICAL STRENGTH AND GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 

OF THE CHRISTIAN FORCES IN CHINA 

MADE BY THE 

SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON SURVEY AND OCCUPATION 

CHINA CONTINUATION COMMITTEE 

1918-1921 



Milton T. Stauffer, b.a., b.d. (H 
Secretary and Editor 



Assisted by 

Tsinforn C. Wong (£ES3?) 

M. Gardner Tewksbury, b.a. (ffEfi^) 



MEMBEB8 OP THE COMMITTEE: 



E. C. LOBENSTINE 

Chairman 
Y. H. Bau 

B. C. Beebe, M.D. 

G. H. BONDFIELD, D.D. 

C. L. BOYNTON 

C. Y. Cheng, d.d. 
8. Peter Chuan 
George Douglas, m.a. 



Henry Fowler, l.b.c.p. & s. 

F. D. GAMEWELL, D.D., LL.D. 

G. W. GlBB, M.A. 

J. A. O. GOTTEBEHG 

Z. T. Kacng 

John Y. Lee, Eh.D. 

Bishop W. 8. Lewis, d.d., ll.d. 

B. Y. Lo, Ph.D. 

H. W. Luce, m.a. 



A. B. Mackenzie, m.a. 

Lacy I. Moffett 

Bt. Bev. H. J. Molony, d.d. 

3. T. Proctor, d.d. 

C E. Patton, m.a., d.d. 

W. W. Peter, m.d., Ph.M., c.p.h. 

Frank Bawlinson, m.a., d.d. 

c. h. bobertson, b.s., m.e. 

Et. Bev. L. H. Boots, m.a., d.d. 



C. G. Sparham 

James Stark 

M. T. Staupper 

tong tsing-en 

Lindel Tsen, m.a. 

Y. Y. Tsu, Ph.D. 

A. L. WABNSHUIS, M.A., D.D. 

8. T. Wen- 
David Z. T. Yui, M.A., Litt.D. 



SHANGHAI 

CHINA CONTINUATION COMMITTEE 

1922 



DEFINITION OF WHAT CONSTITUTES ADEQUATE 
MISSIONARY OCCUPATION 

"The presence in a given field of Christian missionary 
agencies, whether foreign or native or both, whose 
numerical strength, geographical distribution, adaptation 
of methods, and vital spiritual character give premise 
under the blessing of God, first, of establishing within a 
leasonable time an indigenous Church, which through 
its life and work will propagate Christianity and leaven 
the nation or field within whose borders it stands ; and 
second, in cooperation with this Church, of presenting 
Christ to every individual with such clearness and 
completeness as to place upon him the responsibility of 
acceptance of or rejection of the Gospel. And any effort 
to say which of these is first — because in any arrangement 
you must name one first and the other second — will 
displace the other, and will certainly disarrange and 
throw out of proportion our missionary activity. Both of 
these things must be dominating aims." 

Robert E. Speer. 



INTRODUCTION 



The Survey owes its origin to the World Missionary Conference held 
in Edinburgh in 1910. That gathering marked the beginning of a new 
era in the missionary activities of the Christian Churches of Europe and 
America. It convinced the responsible leaders of the missionary movement 
that the day had passed when the Church could hope for the successful 
accomplishment of its missionary task by the independent activities of the 
many different societies engaged in such work, however successful they 
might be individually. 

The tour of Dr. John R. Mott through China in 1913, and the con- 
ferences held under his chairmanship, strengthened the conviction of 
missionaries and Chinese workers that if the growing Christian com- 
munities were to cope successfully with the problems and opportunities 
facing them on every side, some more definite provision for united plan- 
ning and effective cooperation was essential. 

The question, asked at each of the five sectional conferences, "Have 
the Christian forces in this area formed a clear and definite plan for its 
missionary occupation?," met everywhere with a negative reply. In the 
first conference of the series, held in Canton, it was stated that "the 
investigations before and during the conference, and the discussions held, 
clearly indicate the inadequacy of the information at present available, the 
complexity of the task of securing such information, and the necessity for 
a full knowledge of all the essential facts, if Mission Boards and the forces 
on the field are to plan with wisdom an effective advance." 

The matter was fully discussed at the National Conference (1913) and 
the necessity of a Survey made clear. The task of surveying the Christian 
Movement in China was entrusted by the National Conference to the Con- 
tinuation Committee which it appointed. That Committee soon after its 
organization began its work of investigation by the appointment of Special 
Committees to study particular problems of Christian work. While the 
actual problems studied have varied somewhat from year to year, these 
Special Committees have kept steadily at work and have done much both 
tc -make clear the actual situation and to show lines along which progress 
might be made. 

Among these Special Committees was one on Survey and Occupation. 
It began its work by making a missionary survey of the southwestern 
provinces. It was fortunate in seeming for this purpose the help of Mr. 
Thomas Cochrane, M.B., CM., a pioneer in Missionary Survey in China, 
whose book on the Missionary Occupation of China had recently 
appeared. The results of these investigations, published in 1915 
along with the Annual Report of the China Continuation Committee, 
were widely circulated. The survey aroused new interest in the evangeliza- 
tion of these provinces and to it is due, in no small measure, the selection 
of the province of Yunnan as the first field to be entered by the Chinese 
Home Missionary Society, an organization which has aroused deep interest 
among many Chinese Christians of different denominations. 

The China Continuation Committee also began to gather annually 
general statistics of the different missionary societies at work in China and, 
through them, of the Chinese Churches, which were growing up under 
their fostering care. This had been begun by individual missionaries in 
earlier conference reports, by the Rev. D. MacGillivray, D.D. in his "A 
Century of Missions in China," and subsequently by Dr. MacGillivray 
and others in annual publications. These men worked under great 
^difficulties owing to the general indifference to the subject on the part of 
1 most missionaries, resulting in a lack of accurate records, and making 
exceedingly difficult, and in many cases valueless, the effort to bring 
together under common headings statistics of different societies. 

The first real step taken in laying the foundations for the present 
Survey was the publication in 1914 of a Report on Statistics by the Con- 
tinuation Committee of the Edinburgh Conference. That Report included 
a selected list of statistical headings prepared for use In gathering statistics 
from missions in all lands. It included also careful definitions of many 
01 the headings used. 



The China Continuation Committee adopted the headings contained in 
this list as the basis of its statistical work, including a few additional head- 
ings recommended by the China Christian Educational Association. It 
heped that other countries would adopt the same list, in order that the 
results might be of mutual value. The Committee also secured the services 
of the Rev. C. h. Boynton as statistical secretary, and made him respon- 
sible for securing uniform statistical returns from the missionary societies 
in China. Mr. Boynton was peculiarly well fitted for the task and his 
work marks a decided advance in this field. The results were published 
from year to year in the China Mission Year Book for 1916, 1917, and 1918. 
Then, unfortunately, the series was interrupted owing to pressure of other 
duties upon Mr. Boynton, and eventually to his leaving the Committee for 
other work. The latest figures (1920) are to be found in Appendix H of 
this Volume. 

At the Annual Meeting of the China Continuation Committee in 1916 
it was decided that the preparation for a General Survey had advanced 
to a point which made it possible to undertake the Survey proposed by the 
National Conference in 1913. The Committee did not, however, at that 
time see the necessity of securing some one to give his full time to the 
work, and the matter was allowed to drag on for two years longer before 
the actual work of gathering the facts presented in this Volume was begun. 
However, the time was not wasted, as the interest created by the Survey 
Committee and by Mr. Boynton's work led to a number of detailed surveys 
by individual missions in China and also gave the Committee the benefit 
of the work of the late Rev. W. H. Findlay, whose plans for the India 
Survey were then being made. 

It was not, therefore, until the late spring of 1918 that this Survey was 
actually begun. Authority was then given to the Executive Committee to 
secure the full-time services of a Secretary for the work, and to supply him 
with the necessary staff and office facilities to enable him to carry it 
through. 

The Survey has been carried on under the general direction of the 
Survey Committee, 011 which the following persons have served for the 
periods indicated, the Chairman and Secretary remaining the same 
throughout : — 

Bev. E. C. Lobenstine, (PN), Executive Secretary CCC, Chairman, 1918-1922. 

Bev. M. T. Stauffee, (EGA), Secretary, 1918-1922. 

Y. H. Bau, Esq., General Manager, Commercial Press, Shanghai, 1919-1920. 

Rev. B. C. Beebe, M.D., (MEFB), Executive Secretary CMMA, Shanghai, 1918-1922. 

Bev. G. H. Boxdfield, D.D., Agent, British and Foreign Bible Society, Shanghai, 
1918-1920. 

BEV. C. L. Boynton, Statistical Secretary CCC, Shanghai, 1918-1920. 

Bev. C. Y. Cheng, D.D., Executive Secretary CCC, Shanghai, 1918-1922. 

S. Peteb Chuan, Esq., Literary Secretary, China for Christ Movement, CCC, Shang- 
hai, 1921-1922. 

George Douglas, M.A., (UFS), Liaoyang, Manchuria, 1918-1919. 

Henry Fowler, L.E.C.P. & S., (LMS), Far Eastern Secretary, The Mission to Lepers, 
Shanghai, 1918-1920, 1921-1922. 

Bev. F. D. Gamewell, D.D.,Ph.D.,LL.D, (MEFB), General Secretary CCEA, Shang- 
hai, 1918-1922. 

Bev. G. W. Gibb, M.A., (CIM), Deputy Chairman, China Council, Shanghai, 1919-1921. 

Bev. J. A. 0. Gotteberg, (NMS), Changsha, Hun., 1919-1920. 

Bev. Z. T. Katjng, (MES), Soochow, Ku., 1919-1922. 

John Y. Lee, Ph.D., Executive Secretary, Lecture Department, National Committee, 
YMCA, Shanghai, 1919-1922. 

Bev. Bishop W. S. Lewis, D.D..LL.D., (MEFB), Shanghai, 1919-1920. (Deceased). 

Bev. B. Y. Lo, Ph.D., Editor, "Chinese Christian Advocate," Shanghai, 1921-1922. 

Bev. H. W. Luce, M.A., (PN), Associate General Secretary CCEA, Shanghai, 
1918-1919. 

Bev. A. E. Mackenzie, M.A., (UFS), Hingking, Manchuria, 1919-192'. 

Bev. Lacy I. Moffett, (PS), Secretary, China for Christ Movement, Shanghai, 
1918-1920. 

Et. Bev. H. J. Molony, D.D., (CMS), Ningpo, Che., 1919-1920. 

Bev. J. T. Proctor, D.D., (ABF), Secretary, East China Mission, Shanghai, 1918- 
1920, 1921-1922. 

BEV. C. E. Patton, M.A., D.D., (PN), Acting Chairman, China Council, Shanghai, 
1921-1922. 



MM, 

H. mmmrm 



l on Biallh Eioeitioa. Shanghai, 
SBC). Editor. " Chinas* B«e«rile* ", Shanghai, 
tm Department. National Committee, YMCA, 



>... 



Secretary CCC, 



orxil Committee, VMC'A, 



iiin" tht ad\ disadvantages of a study 

iroogborit the whole of China as compared with a 

oagh-gotng study of a limited India plan, it was 

at I M tng the Church could be 

:u:ition in the whole country, and also 

to carry through to completion a sur- 

. as one undertaking, than to attempt to deal with 

a survey would not only have the advantage 

'_ the > try, it would in addition give a picture of the 

■ s-jine lime. 

' data to be gathered were reached only after 

ops of workers, both Chinese and foreigners, 

.'eking, Canton, Shanghai, etc., and at the 

I arc questions were asked regarding each item 

oposed ii-t, "Is it necessary for the purposes of the Survey?," 

:able accuracy for all China?" The fact that 

ris not obtainable under existing conditions 

'ii of some facts, which but for this reason would 

included. Among these are facts bearing on the financial 

the work, including the use of foreign funds and the whole ques- 

[-support. Certain preliminary investigations bearing on the 

ect will be found in Annual Reports of the China Continuation 

, but it must be confessed that while real progress has been 

be done before there is any consensus of opinion in 

that should govern the use of funds from abroad, 

that they contribute to the most speedy upbuilding of 

OS, self-propagating churches. Many of the statistics 

ions for Christian work published by the China 

:mittec and other organizations are unsatisfactory, both 

O few (acts arc given and because those that are, often include, 

::, items that do not strictly belong together, and 

ted separately in arriving at sound conclusions. 

the Committee to confine this Survey largely to a 

of facts and to leave to ethers the interpretation of these facts 

:i of judgments in regard to them. The difficulties of 

pretation are very great indeed. It will require the work of 

tenting a wide variety of gifts, and of experience gained 

different conditions, both in China and abroad, to understand 

fully, and to interpret wisely, the facts as revealed. Moreover, 

• the Committee essential to such interpretation that the 

r as it eould be revealed on a quantitative basis, 

I passing judgment on the strength and weakness 

of the meat as a whole, and the value of this and that 

particular method or piece of work. 

D takes to avoid presenting the facts revealed by the 

neb a way as even to seem to favour any particular church 

theory or m: The controlling purpose ever kept in mind has 

teen to secure as accurate facts as possible— and, in their absence, well 

persons qualified to make them— and to present 

these with absolute impartiality. At the risk of monotonous repetition the 

•i presented in a variety of combinations, both in the 

•ntcrests of accuracy— as this will make the detection of serious errors 

I in the hope that this will greatly facilitate a study of the 



Mien 






The main burden of gathering, classifying, and editing the immense 
amount of material contained in this Volume has fallen upon the Secretary 
of the Survey Committee, the Rev. Milton T. Staufier, an honorary 



missionary of the Amoy Mission of the Reformed Church in America. Mr. 
Stauffer came to China in the spring of 1916 as a student of missions. After 
graduating from Princeton University (iojo) and Union Theological 
Seminary -1913) be served for several years in the pastorate. He then 
decided to fit himself for a Chair of Missions in one of the Colleges and 
lead for a year in the Day Missions Library of Yale University at New 
Haven under the direction of the Rev. Harlan P. Beach, D.D. His entire 
time in China has been spent in work connected with the China Con- 
tinuation Committee, during the first two years largely in research work of 
a general kind, in connection with the work of the Special Committees. 
In May, 191S, he was elected Secretary of the Survey Committee, and since 
then has devoted himself exclusively to the Survey. Its successful com- 
pletion is due in very large measure to his special fitness for the task and 
interest iu the work, based on a profound conviction that these facts are 
necessary to a clear grasp of the actual situation and to the determining of 
sound policies both by the missionary societies of the West carrying on 
work in China , and by the Chinese Churches which are today laying 
foundations that will inevitably determine for years to come the character 
of the superstructure to be erected on them. 

The task facing him was a most difficult one, sufficient to discourage 
one of less faith and patience; but he has kept steadily at it for four years, 
carrying on a voluminous correspondence, following every lead that seemed 
to offer a chance of securing the facts sought, checking the innumerable 
reports received from different quarters, supervising the preparation of 
tables, maps, and charts, and writing much of the accompanying letter- 
press. 

He has sought and been able to enlist the hearty cooperation of a large 
number of pel sons throughout China, and has gathered around himself a 
staff to whom he has been able to impart his own faith in the underlying 
spiritual values of the work. In the beginning, while initial plans for the 
Survey were being laid, and later, when the question as to the form of the 
presentation of the material was under consideration, the Survey Committee 
was able to take an active part in the work. It is responsible for the 
decisions as to the general scope of the Survey and (he general methods of 
piesenting the material, but the bulk of the work has of necessity fallen 
upon the Secretary, with such help as the Chairman could from time to 
time give him. 

Financially the Survey has been a venture of faith. When the work 
was started, the Committee had no clear idea as to how much money would 
be required to complete it, nor the exact sources whence funds might be 
expected. From May 1st, 1918 to October 1st, 1919, the work 
was carried on the regular budget of the China Continuation 
Committee. Thereafter generous contributions, received from the 
Interchurch World Movement of North America, and later from 
the Committee on Social and Religious Surveys in New York and the 
Survey Trust of London, have made the completion of the work possible. 
The American Presbyterian Church, North, has very generously con- 
tributed the services, on salary, of Mr. M. Gardner Tewksbury, and the ' 
East China Mission of the American Baptist Mission, North, the services of 
Rev. Z. Y. Loh, who has helped with the Chinese Edition. 

The general objectives of the Survey as outlined by the Committee 
were : — 

1. To gather and present in compact form such information as 
responsible missionary leaders need to enable them to visualize clearly the 
work of their own missions in relation to the work of other missions ; to 
guide them to a more advantageous distribution of workers and funds, and 
to assist them in developing a greater degree of efficiency, coordination, 
and balance in the work of all the missions throughout China. 

2. To locate and delimit the numerous areas in China for which no 
mission organization has as yet made itself responsible, together with 
numerous other areas, situated within fields already claimed by missions 
as their particular responsibility, but which as yet remain practically 
untouched by any evangelistic effort. 

3- To set forth the present status of missionary %york throughout 
China in terms of population and of unit areas, as well as in terms of 
relative needs of these unit areas for different forms of missionary work 

4- To awaken a greater interest and a deeper sense of responsibility 
among the Chinese Christians for the evangelization of this country and 
by presenting the vision of the inadequacy of the foreign missionary "force 
and its inability ever to minister to more than a small fraction of China's 
religion, needs, to generate in the Chinese Church a missionary dynamic 
which shall be commensurate with the urgency and greatness of the task 



The end in view throughout has been an extremely practical one. The 
attempt has been made, with what success it must be left for others to 
judge, to make clear certain important aspects of the whole Protestant 
Christian Movement against the background of the nation's larger life. 

The first part of the book, accordingly, sketches in broad outlines the 
general conditions prevailing in China today both in the environment cf 
the Church and within the Church itself, thus affording a setting in the 
light of which one may proceed to the more detailed study of specific 
aspects of Christian work, and to that of a particular religious organization 
or section of the country. 

Some 240 pages are devoted to a detailed study, province by province, 
of the growth of the Church. In this section is gathered together the 
greater part of the information supplied to the Survey Committee by the 
different missions. The work of each society is set forth in relation to that 
of all the others working in the same province. Here also is shown, with 
considerable detail, the varied activities of the Church, its evangelistic 
outreach, its medical and benevolent work, and the provision made for the 
education of its youth and the development of its leadership. 

This part of the book is followed by one in which the same facts are re- 
grouped so as to facilitate a comparison of the different provinces, mission- 
ary societies, churches, and nationalities. Probably few will work through 
the entire provincial section, Part HI, but a study of a few provinces fol- 
lowed by these broader comparisons, Parts V-VIII, and by the more general 
topical presentation of the subject matter in the final sections of the book 
should give one a reasonably clear grasp of the developments in the 
Christian community, and enable one to understand better the significance 
of what is taking place. It is important that these developments be clearly 
understood, especially by those who are responsible for the direction of 
Christian work in China, for they have a very vital bearing upon the 
future of the Church. 

There is much to hearten one as he thus reviews the situation. The 
Christian Church has been steadily advancing. Year by year it reaches 
out into new centers. The number of mission stations has more than 
doubled since 1900. This means that many times this number of towns 
and villages have been brought into direct touch with the Christian 
Message and that the evangelistic work of the Church is steadily 
advancing. 

Educational work has also moved forward by leaps and bounds. 
Whereas a decade or two ago most missionary societies hesitated to launch 
out into the field of higher education and were satisfied for the most part 
to staff their institutions with teachers who had little, if any, special 
training for educational work, it has become clear that such a policy is not 
adequate and that the Church must either deprive its youth of the benefits 
of an education under Christian auspices, or provide a system of schools 
and colleges, whose educational standards are as high as those of the 
Government. Only thus can it assure the Church of the leadership which is 
essential to its be&t life. 

Even more striking are the changes taking place within the Chinese 
Christian community itself. The Church has become conscious of itself 
and of the fact that it possesses a message and a life which are of vital im- 
portance to the nation as a whole. This is without doubt the most signi- 
ficant fact in the present situation, and the entire picture given in this 
Survey needs to be interpreted with this in view. Through a limited 
number of its better trained workers, especially the younger men and 
women who have graduated from its higher educational institutions, some 
of whom have had the benefit of an education abroad, the Church has come 
to national self-expression. While leadership of this kind is confined, as 
yet, to a small group, it is steadily increasing both in numbers and in 
influence. 

The appearance of the Survey Report just as the First National Con- 
ference of the Christian forces throughout China is called to meet is in 
itself significant. This Conference seems likely to mark the closing of one 
period and the opening of a new one in the life of the Church. During 
the past the mission for the most part has dominated the situation, and 
the missionary has been primarily responsible for the initiation and 
carrying out of the Church's program. The coming period is expected 
to be one of transition, during which the burden of the work and its control 
will increasingly shift from the foreigner to the Chinese. The rising tide 
of national consciousness within Christian circles is leading to a profound 
dissatisfaction with certain aspects of the present situation on the part of 



many of the ablest and most consecrated Chinese Christians. They have 
a very intense and rightful desire that Christianity shall be freed from the 
incubus of being regarded as a "foreign religion" and that the denomi- 
national divisions of the West be not perpetuated permanently in China. 
They regard the predominance of foreign influence in the Church as one of 
the chief hindrances to a mere rapid spread of Christianity in China, and 
feel that it is indirectly responsible for many of the weaknesses of the 
Church. One of the more prominent younger Chinese recently voiced the 
opinion in the Chinese Recorder "that missionary work, excellent as it 
is, has not succeeded in creating in the Chinese Christian the sense of 
proprietorship in the work of the Church.." This is unfortunately only too 
true, and it must be the main task of the years immediately ahead to see 
that such a sense of proprietorship is created and that the Church becomes 
truly indigenous in China. 

To bring this about will not be an easy task and will call for much 
patience and forbearance on the part of Chinese and foreigners alike. It 
will make necessary readjustments in mission policy that will call for a 
larger faith in the guiding hand of God, especially in case the Chinese 
Churches should feel led to take steps which do not always seem wise to 
their Western brethren. 

The strong desire of the Chinese Christians that the Church should 
make its fullest contribution to the moral and spiritual interpretation of 
China seems to them to involve some means of closer cooperation between 
the several branches of the Christian Church in China than as yet exists. 
They feel the need of standing together as they face their difficult task and 
find little enthusiasm in the denominational differences which make effective 
cooperation difficult, and in some cases impossible. Such a situation as has 
developed in China and is reflected in this Survey and illustrated on page 
330 raises, therefore, questions of fundamental importance as to the future. 
They will not be easy of solution for they inevitably involve questions 
affecting matters of "Faith and Order." 

It should, however, be a cause of profound thankfulness that there is a 
strong desire on the part of many leading Christians that there be no 
separation between Church and Mission, but that the period of transition be 
one of whole-hearted cooperation between the two. This is essential if an 
opportunity is to be afforded the Western Churches to make their fullest 
contribution to the Church in China, and if the latter is net to deprive her- 
self of a contribution which she grec.tly needs. 

The situation is thus a most inspiring one, revealing as it does that the 
Church in China has "grown up" to the point where it is able and desirous 
of carrying its full share of the work. It is a challenge of God to move 
forward and to possess more land for His Kingdom. It calls for fresh 
courage and for larger faith. It should make the words of William Carey 
ring afresh in our ears, 

"Expect great things from God; 

Attempt great things for God." 

It is with some such background as this, therefore, that we would invite 
the reader to approach this Volume. He is urged not merely to cull a fact 
here and another tiere and to allow himself to ce tempted to make hasty 
generalizations on insufficient evidence, or from a failure to take into ac- 
count all of the factors that are necessary for reaching sound conclusions, 
even though seme of these facts must be sought elsewhere than in this 
Volume, which is largely confined to facts capable of statistical presenta- 
tion. Rather, he should try to see the situation here presented as a whole 
and in its light to approach the specific problems which have a direct 
bearing upon his own work and that of his own Church. 

It is fortunate that the Report of the Educational Commission, which 
recently completed its work, is to appear at about the same time as this 
book. That Report illustrates admirably the kind of surveys that are neces- 
sary to supplement this one. The Commission had before it the facts re- 
garding education in China contained in this Volume and thus 
was saved the necessity of gathering this information for itself. 
It was, therefore, able to confine its investigation to a study 
of typical institutions while yet being able to draw general con- 
clusions through having a full knowledge of the quantity of work 
being done and the location of educational institutions of different 
grades. The Commission's recommendations are certain to have a far 
reaching influence upon the future of Christian education in China, and 
should lead to certain important changes that will render far more effective 
the Chiistian educational work now being done. This Survey will be 



Mefed to wsppkawnt the Caamiamtm"* Report by showing both the 
ffiwiaiiiu of the task involved in patting into effect its recommendations 
•ad by aCardiag «*» infaMBoaoy society a means of estimating what will 
ac fa*ot«*d in bringing its own work into line with them. 

Similar Coomiwaes composed of persons from abroad, who are 
experts in the partkttlar field to be investigated, and of Chinese, and 
misskeafy workers are urgently needed in other fields as well, if the 
largest advantage is to be taken of the opportunity facing the Church in 
China. It I* especially important that no time be lost in instituting a 
thorough stady of what is the largest service which Western Christianity 
can reader the growing Chinese Churches tuu!er the conditions of today, 
and the best ways of making that service effective. 

In conclusion may we remind the reader that this Survey is a first 
attempt. For it we bespeak a kindly judgment. The Survey Committee 
is conscious both of serious omissions due to inability to secure important 
information which is certain to be called for, to errors of judgment, per- 



haps, on its part both in the selection and presentation of data, which 
pressure U time would not allow it to change, and to many inaccuracies. 
occasioned by the inherent difficulties and inevitable limitations under, 
which the work had to be done. 

We trust that the discovery of these errors will not lead to a discredit- 
ing of the value of the work herein set forth, but will rather convince 
those concerned c* the necessity of keeping more trustworthy records, 
in the future, of those facts which are found to have a direct bearing 
on the aims which the Christian Church at any given time should 
hold before itself and in determining policies through which those aims 
may be realized. Others will be able to improve both on the methods of 
survey used and on the accuracy of the data, as records are kept more 
legularly and the bearing of statistics on the shaping of the po 1 icies am} 
methods of work become more evident. ■, 

E. C. Lobenstine, 

Chairman of. the -Committee. 



PREFACE 



The main purpose of this Survey has been the speedier and more 
effective evangelization of China. Only such facts as bear an inherent 
relationship thereto have been collected and presented. This Survey is 
•distinguished from every other in that it is the first of its kind ever 
attempted for any large mission area, and also in that wherever it deals 
-with church, school and hospital efficiency it does so only in so far as these 
are directly related to evangelistic effectiveness and the spread of an 
-indigenous Christianity over the entire country. This main objective cf 
-the Survey not only accounts for most that has been done but also serves 
■to unify the whole and furnishes the distinctive marks by which each part 
is to be evaluated. There exists, therefore, a pre-determined relationship 
■between this Survey and the speedier and more effective evangelization of 
China. Some imagination may be needed at times to keep this relation- 
ship consistently before us, but unless this be done we shall soon find our- 
-selves raising questions like these : "Why have we been given all this 
Tnass of information?" "What is it all about?" "How does it affect me 
-or the plans of my mission ?" "Will this sort of thing ever save souls?" 
We may be interested or dazed, but not convinced of the vital relationship 
-of these facts to the best development of our work. 

The restricted character of this Survey makes it difficult to appreciate 
its central objective as fully as otherwise we might. Our study is limited, 
-as reference to the title page of this Volume shows, to the quantitative 
aspects of the Christian Occupation of China, or in other words, to the 
numerical strength and geographical extent of the Protestant Christian 
forces. The qualitative aspects of occupation are scarcely touched upon. 
Yet these factors affect the spread and effectiveness of the Christian 
-evangel as profoundly as quantitative factors or even more so and must lie 
Tegarded therefore as equally important desiderata. For example, the 
speedier and more effective evangelization of China is tremendously in- 
fluenced and conditioned today by such factors as methods of evangelism, 
-the quality of our preaching, teaching, and healing ministries, the 
Christian Message, the mobilization and training of Chinese Christian 
workers, the indigenous character of Christianity, the relationship between 
foreign and Chinese Christian workers, the degree of cooperation and 
union between various Christian bodies and various forms of Christian 
.activity, etc., etc. Obviously a consideration of the quantitative factors in 
any Christian Occupation of China can be justified only as a necessary and 
•preliminary study to the further consideration of qualitative factors such 
as have been mentioned above. 

This is no admission of weakness in the present Survey. Its quantita- 
tive limitations have been self-imposed. Throughout the Report our 
purpose has been primarily to set forth the facts of Christian Occupation 
.as comprehensively as possible without venturing to interpret them cr 
pass any judgment upon them either of commendation or of censure. We 
•helieve that bare facts regarding the numerical strength and geographical 
extent of the Christian forces in China, if faithfully set forth without pre- 
judice, and if so related to the main objectives of the Survey as to be more 
titan mere information, will of themselves cooner or later call for inter- 
pretation from those best qualified to give it. Moreover, qualitative with- 
out quantitative studies on which to stand rre like houses built upon sand. 
They represent a good deaf of theorizing but affect nothing because they 
are built upon surmises. 

It would have been presumptuous and most unwise for the Survey 
•Committee, much more for its secretary as editor, to attempt to pass 
judgment on the facts gathered representing as they do activities of many 
-different societies, each holding different ecclesiastical viewpoints and 
' different administrative policies, each labouring in a different part cf 
China amid very different local conditions and in fields where the duration 
cf occupancy varies greatly. To attempt more than has been attempted 
-therefore, would have been to court failure from the beginning and to 
.greatly lessen the value and general acceptance of this Report. 



The study of the qualitative factors of Christian Occupation with the 
aid of such quantitative data as thi« Survey reveal has already begun. 
Such matters as the mobilization and training of Chinese leaders, the 
Christian Message, the relation of missions and missionaries to an increas- 
ingly indigenous, self -propagating, and self-supporting Church, union and 
cooperation, etc., are being carefully studied by specially appointed Com- 
missions in preparation for the National Christian Conference this spring. 
Such topical studies are almost certain to be taken up later in provincial 
committees, mission meetings and local church councils. A careful com- 
parison by one mission between its work and the adequacy of its field 
occupation and that of other missions cannot but provoke the most helpful 
kind of self-examination. Thus, in the next ten or even twenty years the 
terminus ad quern, of which this Survey is now only the terminus a quo, 
may be reached. Is this too much to hope for ? 

In preparing this Report the Committee has endeavoured, first, to 
furnish such information of a general character as bears directly on the 
Christian Occupation of China; second, to give the facts concerning both 
the degree and the extent of Christian Occupation as revealed today in the 
form of maps, diagrams, statistical tables and letterpress ; and third, to 
relate these facts as expressed in absolute terms with area, population, 
etc., thus affording some idea of relative values and making possible com- 
parisons between the Christian Occupation of any given hsien, city, mission 
field or province with that of others. In this way relative strength or 
weakness is strikingly brought out. One sees where the emphasis is 
greatest and by the aid of a variety of comparisons the greatest possible 
light is thrown on every quantitative factor of Christian Occupation. 

It will be found by experiment that the value and significance of 
statistical information nearly always lies not in the figures themselves 
but in their relation to other figures. Percentages and ratios reduce 
figures to a common standard thus making comparisons possible, not only 
between different geographical areas or mission fields at any given time, 
but also between the degree of Christian Occupation of the same area as it 
is today and as it was in years past. 

General Plan of the Report • In Part I, we have the present political, 
geographical, linguistic, social, economic and religious background of the 
Survey. The Christian Church does not float in a vacuum. It affects and 
is conditioned by the country and the community it serves. The physical 
environment, the character of the people, their religious and social 
practices, their industry, their educational and economic status 
materially influence the work of evangelism and the rapidity and character 
of the Christian Occupation. Strangely enough, it is sometimes easy to 
overlook these ever changing factors and their tremendous influence on the 
clianging life and message of the Church. 

In Part II an attempt is made to chronicle the more significant changes 
which have taken place in the character and magnitude of the Christian 
Occupation in China since 1900. 

The material presented in Parts III to VII inclusive is based largely 
on statistical and geographical data specially collected by the Survey 
Committee during the winter and spring of 1918-19. This time element 
must not be overlooked, otherwise the reader will unconsciously compare 
the statistics given with present-day figures and unjustly criticize the 
Survey as being based on inaccurate or incomplete data. Naturally, much 
progress and many changes have taken place since the information for this 
Survey was gathered. If, therefore, we seem* to be behind time in present- 
ing facts, the reader will understand that this is inevitably due to the fact 
that we have endeavoured in all our studies to keep the time element 
constant. 

Page 40 is devoted to definitions and general explanatory material, 
including a full introductory statement covering the preparation of pro- 
vincial maps, statistical tables and letterpress. To this we would merely 
add a word of warning against hasty generalizations and the unguarded use 



Although ©ccasic 



of tpm. ftwjneatly, O^aBfyisg statement* have been made in the letter- 
pw. xwmpanvtng statistical tables, whkh will need to be taken into 
CTfffci^t- a figure* are to be oscd correctly. Tbe same term convey* 
mamt ^oaotatkau in different Kctun* of the country. Definitions an 1 
writtrt dirertiflM oo qnertionniire blank* are sometimes overlooked. 
School*, for example, reported under the same terminology, may vary 
greatly in their grade. and make comparative studies unsafe. These few 
ml! MgfHt »mf more possibilities of irregularity in statistical tetania 
and the need of being constantly on the look-out for qualifying factors » 
all cerapsrativ* judgments. 

Tbe use throughout thi* Report of initials for missionary societies 

faHtaad of their full names, has been resorted to in the interests of economy 

«. The key to these initials is given on pages immediately follow- 

I Contents in the front of this Volume, as well as on a 

specially prepared guide card. 

ferences are made to missionary activities of the 
'arts III to VIII deal almost exclusively with 
Occupation of China. The Committee assumes 
understood, and the use therefore of the qualify- 
:ng term "Protestant" has been considered unnecessary. 

Part* IX to XIII inclusive deal with special features of the Christian 

-..■•-. • .{ C Waa not sufficiently considered in Parts III to VIII. Only 

J judged to 1* strictly of a survey character, however, is included. 

In thi of this part of its Report, the Committee received much 

help from both individuals and organisations. . 

Fart MV is devoted to a summary of the missionary activities of the 

i .tholic and Russian Orthodox Churches in China. In addition, 

a special article on Roman Catholic Literature appears in Part XIII and 

specially p r e par e d maps showing residential centers of Roman Catholic 

-.villi accompanying statistical data, are given in Appendix C. 

Part XV t* devoted to Corrigenda. For the editor's statement under 
this heading the reader is referred to page 466. 

Sources 0/ Information : The sources of information have been many 
Tor Part* III to VIII our main sources have been : — 
1) Questionnaire map sheets and statistical blanks, sent out by the 
Survey Committee in the autumn of totS to the chairman or secretary cf 
each organized missionary society in China. In many cases the informa- 
tion supplied on these map sheets and statistical blanks required much 
preliminary correspondence, and days of most painstaking effort. The 
fact th.it complete information was received from all but two or three 
correspondents out of a total exceeding 150 in number is indicative of the 
hearty cooperation and confidence of the missionary body in this Survey. 

Direc to r y of Protestant Missions in China" published annually 
by the China Continuation Committee and until 1920 edited by its 
st.iti-.tica! secr etary , Rev. C. L. Boynton. 

(3) Annual statistical returns of mission secretaries to the China 
Continuation Committee. Wherever gaps occurred in the information 
supplied on Survey questionnaire blanks recourse was had to these latest 
mission statistical returns in the office files of the statistical secretary of 
the China Continuation Committee. 

Home reports of mission boards and mission publications on the 
field. 

I'licial Government publications on such subjects as political 
divisions, Government education, internal customs' revenue, industry and 
commerce, post office activities, etc. 

16) Bocks and periodicals on China by various authorities including 
among many others Richard's "Comprehensive Geography of the Chinese 
Empire," "The Chinese Empire" by Marshall Broomhall, "The National 
Seview Annual toto" on the Provinces of China; "A Century of Missions 
in China" edited by Rev. Donald MacGillivray, D.D. ; "Encyclopaedia 
.Sinica" by Samuel Couliag; "The New Atlas and Commercial Gazetteer 
of China" compiled by the Far Eastern Geographical Establishment ; "The 
Postal Atlas of China, 1919"; "The New Atlas of China, 1917" (Third 
Edition) by the Commercial Press, also another Atlas published 
by the same company entitled "The Political Divisions of China 1917 ' 
(Fourth Edition); "The Educational Directory and Year Book cf 
China"; "The China Mission Handbook" published in 1896, "The China 
Year Book" toai-a; "The Commercial Handbook of China" 1920, edited by 



Julean Arnold; 'The Far Eastern Review' ; "The Cities and Towns of 
China" lv Phyfair; etc., etc. 

For Parts IX-XIV much! of the information has come through special; 
questionnaires sent out either from this office or by individuals who very- 
kindly assisted the Survey Committee in one or more of its special studies.. 
Several of these special questionnaires went out to an unusually large mail- 
ing list, trying the good will and patience of many, sometimes I fear almost 
to the breaking point. There were separate questionnaires on Language- 
Areas, Non-Christian Religious Movements, Work among Aboriginal 
Tribes, Among Moslems, Among Chinese Abroad, Among Government- 
Students, Among the Blind, Among Ricksha Men, Among Foreigners irt 
China, Institutional Churches, the Status of Chinese Pastors, the Christian- 
Occupation of Large Cities, Missionary Activities of the Chinese Church,. 
Commercialized Vice, Alcoholism, Bible Schools, Theological Seminaries,. 
Mission Colleges. Language Schools, Tuberculosis, Bible Translations,. 
Publishing and Distributing Agencies of Christian Literature, City Popula- 
tions, Salaries of Workers, Mission Finance, etc., etc. These questionnaires- 
were by no means limited to missionaries and people in China. Govern- 
ment officials, consular agents, representatives of business houses, both irn 
China and in many countries abroad, have also been circularized. Some- 
studies, such as those entitled Data and Observations concerning Middle- 
Schools in China, Normal Schools and Normal Training, Bible Schools,. 
Scientific Efficiency of Mission Hospitals, Health of Missionary Families,, 
and Christian Literature in China, are the result of careful surveys some of. 
which were made by cooperating organizations under the direction of full- 
time secretaries. 

In preparing its Report the Committee has freely drawn on all informa- 
tion bearing on the subjects in hand. In cases where published sources- 
have been consulted and quoted, the proper acknowledgments have 
generally been made. Where, however, sources have been so varied and the- 
material taken so interspersed with information and phraseology of our 
own as to make acknowledgments a mere matter of form and a hindrance- 
to the onward movement cf thought, they have generally been omitted. 
We trust the authors and editors concerned will appreciate our reasons for 
this withholding of recognition of any indebtedness on our part as weir 
as for the occasional absence cf quotation marks which might appear as- 
plagiarism and ingratitude if not prefaced by this frank admission of o-ur 
very great dependence throughout on many and varied sources. 

Maps and Diagrams : Some 320 maps and over 125 diagrams or graphs. 
(specially planned and prepared in this office) are scattered among these- 
pages. Judged scientifically the outline maps are as accurate as caret uB 
selection cf originals and the help of an expert foreign cartographer- 
enabled us to make them. It is still the exception to find two maps of any- 
province of China, even when prepared on the same projection, which are- 
geographically identical. Only the person who has attempted to select the 
most accurate out of a number of available maps of each province and! 
bring these together in an all-China map, knows anything or the technical 
difficulties or the amount of fine calculations necessary for acceptable work 
At the express request of the Interchurch w*rld Movement all maps- 
shown ir. this Survey have been specially prepared on standard scale* 
of the Bonne projection. This work alone required the time of two- 
foreigners, one an experienced cartographer, and a staff of five Chinese- 
draughtsmen for over two months, and necessitated the redrawing of all 
provincial outlines previously prepared on a simple conic projection The 
provincial maps in Part III are on the scale of 1 : 4,000,000 with the excep' 
toon cf Manchuria, Yunnan, Szechwan, and Kansu, which are on the scale- 
of 1 : 4,143,744 or 65.4 miles per inch, and Kwangtung which is on the- 
scale of 1 : 4,276,800 or 67.5 miles per inch. These slight variations- 
were due either to limitations in the width of our printed 
pages or to irregularities in photographic reduction. The base- 
maps on which the original work for our all-China maps was done are- 
cn the scale of 1 : 4,000,000 and 1 : 1,000,000. A number of the maps 



appearing in this Volume are the first of their kind 



ever to be published,. 



as for example, those on Mission Fields and the Density of Population" 
Part III, the map of Tibet, page 280, the map of Moslem. 
Centers, page 354, and the map showing Protestant Mission 
Fields, page 330. The institution of the special administrative areas cf 
Chingchao (£ £), jehol (£ jgj,, Chahar (g g. ag), Suiyuan, 
(« &)> S itao Mongolia ( jg £ £ £), Kokonor (ft g )f a nd Chwanpien 
CMl *§)> was officialized by a Presidential Mandate promulgated during. 
1914. 



At this stage of the Christian Occupation of China, the Survey has of 
necessity rather than of choice been largely from the missionary point of 
view- The desired information could be gathered on'y from mission cor- 
respondents. The Chinese Church is not yet sufficiently organized or 
sufficiently experienced in reporting and tabulating statistics or sufficient- 
ly acquainted with Christian work in its broader aspects to be in a position 
to supply the information required. As a result the data is largely 
presented in terms of mission societies. The historic background is 
largely missionary in its personnel. Most comparisons reveal the strength 
and weakness in mission administrative policies and the Christian Occupa- 
tion of the field by mission agencies rather than by the Chinese church 
organizations. In a word, the Survey is more mission-centric than church- 
centric even though its title be the "Christian" not the "Missionary" 
Occupation of China. However, at every opportunity the Christian 
Occupation in terms of population and in terms of political units rather than 
of mission fields has been stressed. May we not hope that developments 
in Chinese leadership and church organization may sufficiently advance 
during this decade, so that when the next comprehensive Survey of China 
is planned, it may be carried forward under the direction of a Chinese 
secretary, and the material— regardless of whether it has been collected 
from Chinese or foreign statistical correspondents— be presented from the 
viewpoint of the Chinese Church first and of missions second. Before this 
is possible, however, much careful training of Chinese Christian workers 
in reporting statistics will be necessary. 

To some this Survey may seem too comprehensive. They cannot see 
the woods for the trees. The endless amount of detailed information leaves 
them dazed. Moreover, who can find time for the study of so detailed a 
report ? In answer let it be said that this is primarily a reference work 
for the use of missionaries on the field and for those abroad who wish to 
have a comprehensive and thorough knowledge of the present degree of the 
Christian Occupation of China. It is a book which demands the student's 
approach. It is not to be scanned hurriedly, for then it cannot accomplish its 
purpose, but it is to be considered seriously, with a desire to find out where 
and how the evangelization of China and its Christianization are most back- 
ward or may at once be made more effective. The local missionary will 
naturally first turn to his own province as given in Part HI, making a 
thorough study of that, then perhaps to the comparisons of the work of 
his own society or of his own province with that of other societies or of 
other provinces as given in Parts V and VI, and last perhaps to such other 
sections of the Survey Repcrt as deal with special aspects of Christian 
Occupation in which he or she happens to be most interested. To those 
who approach this Report in this way, the Survey, partly because it is ai 
comprehensive and detailed as it is, will prove, we hope, to be both sug- 
gestive avA constructive; and as a result both those who direct action and 
those who support action will find themselves better able in the future to 
do so with reason, being guided less by the dictates of fortune, expediency, 
or the most influential voice in the mission. 

The possible usefulness of this Survey during years to come, as a base 
line for future measurements of growth and change in the Christian 
Occupation, has also influenced the Committee in its decisions, resulting in 
the inclusion of much which, to the casual critic, might well and would 
otherwise have been left out. The inclusion of the Hsien Tables in 
Appendix A is a case in point. 

The difficulties of an undertaking of this kind in a country like China 
where statistics, such as are kept by most governments, are, as yet, almost 
entirely lacking, will be apparent to every one. Population statistics 
although obtained through officials are not the result of any scientific 
census. They may be over-estimates. No one really knows. Neverthe- 
less they represent a conscientious attempt to present the truth as ac- 
curately as close observation and careful reasoning make possible. For the 
purposes of this Survey it is comparatively unimportant whether they are 
or are not somewhat exaggerated. Even in regard to statistics represent- 
ing Christian work, too much emphasis need not be placed on any in- 
dividual figure, much less need the value of the whole work be questioned 
if a few mistakes are discovered in a work which, represents the most 
accurate and complete returns obtainable. It is after all in the general 
picture given rather than in any particular facts that the chief contribution 
of the Survey must be found. 

For one good reason or- another certain factors in the Christian Occupa- 
tion of China, which many will look for, receive little or no consideration 



ill this Survey Report. There is little data, for example, on the classi- 
fication of foreign missionaries according to the form of Christian service 
to which they devote the major part of their time. Self-support, devolution 
in mission administration, the economic status of church members, 
Christian orphanages, schools for deaf mutes, etc., while indirectly touch- 
ed upon, are not comprehensively treated. Most of these bear an inherent 
relationship to Christian Occupation and if they have not been dealt 
with at length, it is because the study partook more of a qualitative than 
of a quantitative nature and to this extent stood outside of the Committee's 
province, or it is because sufficient reliable data was unobtainable. 
The following is a case in point. At the request of the Survey Committee 
the Associated Mission Treasurers attempted to gather accurate figures 
covering a very limited number of items on Mission Finance from the 
leading twenty-five missionary societies in China. Returns were received 
from fourteen, and in the case of only eight were the figures sufficiently 
complete to justify comparisons. The total budget reported by these 
fourteen exceeded $10,000,000 Mex. annually. The percentages of Chinese 
contributions in different missions varied from 6 to 43 per cent. If we 
take the total amount reported by these fourteen societies for evangelistic, 
educational and medical work, we find that the expenditure for educational 
work is almost double that for evangelistic or medical work. These few 
facts while interesting constituted too little to justify -any pretentions in 
the way of a special study. It is impossible as yet to- gather on the field 
very complete and satisfactory information on this most important factor 
in the Christian Occupation of the country. The records of mission 
treasurers are neither uniform nor standarized. Such figures as are obtain- 
able on Chinese contributions to church work, Christian schools and 
hospitals, are also too incomplete and computed on too varied basts to 
make them of much value. 

Office Staff : The Survey has extended over the greater part of four 
years, 1918-1922. During the first year the services of a full-time secretary 
with two cr three assistants were all that the Survey required. As the 
work grew, however, the staff increased till it reached its maximum 
number during the summer of 1920. At that time in addition to the 
Survey secretary and two foreign assistants, two Chinese statistical men 
and ten Chinese draughtsmen were employed. The responsibility 
of translating the English Report into Chinese rests upon Mr. Peter 
Chuan, Literary Secretary of the China for Christ Movement, assisted 
by Mr. Z. Y. Loh, Mr. M. Gardner Tewksbury, and others. The Chinese 
volume of the Survey will appear shortly after the English, under the 

• Throughout the years we have been conscious of Divine favour. Apart 
from the never failing encouragement and help of colleagues and friends 
both in China and abroad, there has ever been the inward conviction that 
this task was worth doing and that it was truly evangelistic in character 
and outreach. Repeatedly during long periods of most monotonous grind, 
this faith has kept us working patiently together. The end, it is true, 
has been like a mirage, ever receding before us, but we have pursued it 
steadily sustained by the conviction that "this is Has appointment." 

In his Introduction the Chairman of the Committee has given a brief 
historical account of .Survey activities in which he has referred to our 
indebtedness to pioneers like Dr. Thomas Cochrane and the late Rev. 
W. H. Findlay. We, therefore, pass over any references to these and other 
men to whom the Survey owes so much for its inception, except to make 
a personal acknowledgment of the great debt which the Committee and 
especially its secretary owe to the Chairman, Rev. E. C. Lobenstine, for 
his efforts ever since the organization of the China Continuation Com- 
mittee in 1913 in laying the foundations of this Survey, and since 1918 in 
promoting and directing it. The main lines along which the Survey has 
been carried forward were very largely determined by him. His keen 
interest, wise counsel and sympathetic understanding of the inherent 
difficulties and unusual demands of such work, have meant much when 
decisions had to be made, and when it was questionable as to just how 
much might or might not wisely be said, and in what ways. Had other 
duties of an executive character not made it impossible for him to give the 
thought and time to the actual work of the Survey which he originally 
hoped he might give, many parts and features of this Volume would have 
been strengthened greatly, and the completed Survey, would have been 
more worthy of its originatcr and more like the dream of it which he has 
constantly had in mind. 



lag 

fr' ■ 

with 

the 

eda 



Corf W tpmmttf favoured tW» work through the assistance whk 
(taw » of Mr. Tfinfora C. Wong and Mr, M. Gardner I 

«ttm«l fan raqxmsibtlity {or the draughtsmen and ifl 
mumy w»y» assisted in the basic work el the Survey. Together during 
the arm two year* we transcribed the geographical data to large base 
■Ban*, prepared the provincial map "iade original entries for 

SKMt «{ the rtatistka? tables, 

in September, 

•Then be returned to China as the representative of the Interehurch 

tine month- I tec KM given to supply- 

organization with whatever information he could secure either 

1 form or from correspondence 

missionaries. After the spring of IQ30 he gave his full time to 

the accuracy of much of the 

Bg Die entire Survey material through 

j ttie accuracy of innumerable details. 

igenda, Part XV, will show 

:' error which a report of this kind with its great 

and its many references to Chinese place- 

; ige. It 11 not too much to say that except 

Tewktbnry the present number of our errata pages 

e been I tied. His special equipment in the Chinese 

it possible for him to rentier valued assistance in 

-e sources cf information and in critically reading the 

Report into Chinese. 

1 during the last four years that the preparatory 

too, until recently statistical secretary of the 

ltiiiti ti t. Committee, has not proved indispensable. Both the 

. the statistical data annually collected 

ted by htm, h.ve been constantly referred to. 

mder Miller who was associated for man}' years with the 

'. & A. K. Johnston of Edinburgh as expert geographer, much 

uc for the geaend accuracy of our outline maps. His services, 

D with the preparation of maps on standard scales 

, «..re invaluable and will not soon be forgotten. 

!'. Burkwali's willingness to come from Canton to 

..: ■ whole month and personally supervise our work on maps 

lor Kwangtung and Kwangsi, as well as to aid 

in the preparation of the letterpress on these provinces is also 

d weeks last summer Bishop H. J. Molony very kindly 
mittee in an editorial capacity, 
who know the amount and character of the labour which 
enter into the printing of a report like this, will join us in ex- 
• the "Shanghai Mercury" and its manager, 
v> tried our printers* patience seventy times 
the wonder has been that it was not exhausted long ago. 
ositiort and printing of a book like this in China l:y 
wkmen is no small credit to the country and press concerned. 
' within the limits of this preface to mention individually 
n correspondents and others who frequently, at much 
f time and labour, have supplied the Committee with desired 
i or assisted in its work in other ways. The Survey represents 
en! small, of many hundreds of individuals to all 
ie Committee is indebted and for whose help it is most grateful. 
id others were asked to supply information 
covering the large unoccupied arc-is on which Part V is based. 

The following individuals have undertaken responsibility for the pre- 
paration of special studies. Their names are not given with the printed 
. of the Report, because in many cases so many 
: ii changes and or additions have been made in order to make each 
into iine with the general character 
*"" m '* in justice to the persons concerned, 

*•"* ■ : . *ue Committee desired to eliminate the 

personal element as much as possible from all studies, publishing them 
of the Committee. We have indicated with an asterisk 
those studies which have been printed exactly or almost exactly as they 
mrc I spared by the person, persons, or organizations 

concerned, fo etca and all I wish to express the Committee's thanks as 
well m my owe personal obligation. The order is that in which the 
printed article appears. 



the u 



of Wi 

fiver 



• Sheldon Ridge, Esq. 
Rev. H. K. Wright, M.A. 

Rev. Herbert F. Rudd, Ph.D. 

* J. E. Baker, Esq. 

• Julean Arnold,Esq.,Commercial 

Attache, ISA 

• Miss Agatha Harrison 

•Rev. Lewis Hodous, M.A., D.D. 

• Rev. Frank Rawlinson, M.A., 

D.D. 

do. 

do. 
Mark Pctham, Esq. 
J. H. Edgar, Esq. 

* T. Sorensen, Esq. 

* Rev. W. H. Hudspeth, B.A., 

F.R.A.I. 

* Rev. W. Oehler, Phil-D. 
F. Herbert Rhodes, Esq. 



Geographical and Political Divisions of 
China. _ 

Language Areas and Language De- 
velopments in China. 
do. 

Communications (Railroads). 

Recent Changes in the Economic Life 
of the Chinese People. 

The Coming of the Factory System to 
China. 

Non-Christian Religious Movements in 
China. 

Change and Progress in the Christian 
Movement in China during the 
last two Decades. 

Commercialized Vice in China. 

Alcoholism in China. 

The Great Unoccupied Areas of Kansu. 

Chwanpien. 

Tibet. 

Aboriginal Tribes in Southwest China. 



Christian Work among the Hakka. 
Christian W T ork among Moslems in 

China. 
Christian Work among Chinese 

Abroad. 
Chinese Government Students and 

Christianity. 
The Blind of China. 
Christian Work Among Boys in 

China. 
The Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tions of China. 
The Young Women's Christian As- 
sociation in China. 
Religious Work among Foreigners In 

China. 
Institutional Churches. 
Status of Chinese Pastors. 
The Christian Occupation of Large 

Cities. 
Missionary Activities of the Chinese 

Church. 
Religious Education in Church, School, 

and Home. 
Summer Conference Centers. 
Christian Education in China. 
Data and Observations concerning 

Middle Schools in China. 
Normal Schools and Normal Training. 
Bible Schools. 
Theological Education. 
Mission Colleges in China. 
Agricultural Missions. 
Modern Medical Education in China. 
Language Schools for Missionaries. 
Scientific Efficiency of Mission Hos- 
pitals (Societies Compared). 
Health Education in China. 
Seme Phases of Tuberculosis in China. 
Leprosy in China. 
The Illegal Trade in Narcotics. 
Activities of the China Medical Board. 
A Survey of Christian Literature in 

China. 
The Proved Demand for Chinese 

Christian Literature. 
Publishing and Distributing Agencies 

for Christian Literature. 
Translation and Circulation of the 

Scriptures in China. 
Roman Catholic Literature. 
Statistics of Protestant Missions in 

China for 1920. 
The Christian Occupation of Indo- 
China. 
Others, whose help in one form or another the Committee has valued 
and to whom personal acknowledgments are due, are : — Fred R. Brown • 
W. L. Beard; Mrs. Philippe de Vargas; John R. Lyons; Miss Verne 
McNeely, Miss Gerda Ollen; James A. Heal; W. E. Souter; C. G. Fuson; 
Carl Crow, Evan Morgan, A. R. Mackenzie and C. F. A. Krienke. 

I reserve my last word of gratitude for those on the office staff, foreign 
and Chinese, with whom 1 have been nearest during these years, who have 
so faithfully done their part in tasks requiring pvtience and the utmost 
care, sharing with me much monotony and drudgery, and greatly lighten- 
ing the load, especially the Chinese draughtsmen, none of whom under- 
stand English but all of whom have somehow caught the spirit of service 
and have divined in some measure at least, the meaning of their work and 
its possible usefulness in hastening the time when "China for Christ" 
shall be realized. 

"Watch and pray! 

For led the kindling dawn 

That ushers in the dav." 



* H. F. MacXair, Ph.B., M.A. 

* John L. Childs, B.A. 

* Miss S. J. Garland 

* L. K. Hall, B.S. 

* H. A. Wilbur, MA. 

* Miss Helen Thoburn 

* Rev. J. W. Crofoot, M.A. 

* Rev. A. R. Kepler 
Professor J. F. Li, B.D., Ph.D. 
Rev. R. F. Fitch, D.D. 

* Mrs. Frank D. Gamewell 

* Rev. E. G. Tewksbury 

do. 

* Henry B. Graybill, M.A. 

* Rev. H. W. Luce, M.A. 

A. A. Bullock, M.S. 

Rev. D. W. Richardson, M.A. 

* Rev. J. L. Stuart, Litt. D..D.D. 

* Rev. Warren H. Stuart, M.A. 

* J. Lossing Buck, Esq. 

* Edward H. Hume, M.A., M.D. 
Rev. W. F. Wilson, B.A. 
John A. Snell, B.A., M.D. 

* W. W. Peter, M.D., Ph.M. 

* Miss Josephine Lawney, M.D. 

* Henry Fowler, L.R.C.P. & S. 

* Rev. Arthur Sowerby 

* Roger S. Greene, Esq. 

* Rev. George A. Clayton 

* J. W. Dovey, Esq. 

do. 

* H. Ulrich Briner, Esq. 

* Rev. H. K. Wright, M.A. 

* J. E. vSavage, Esq. 

Rev. H. E. Anderson 



Shanghai, March 21, 1922. 



Milton T. Stauffer, 

Secretary of the Committee. 



CONTENTS 



INTRODUCTION 

PREFACE 

LIST OF MISSIONARY SOCIETIES 

PART I :— GENERAL BACKGROUND OF THE SURVEY : 
Geographical and Political Divisions of China.. 
Language Areas and Language Developments in 

China 

The Population of China 

Communications (Railroads, Roads, Post Office). 
Changes in the Economic Life of the Chinese 

People 

The Coming of the Factory System to China... 
Non-Christian Religious Movements in China... 

PART II:— CHANGE & PROGRESS IN THE CHRISTIAN- 
MOVEMENT IN CHINA DURING THE 
LAST TWO DECADES (1900—1920) 

PART III:— THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF THE 

PROVINCES : 

Anhwei 

Chekiang 

Chihli 

FUKIEN 

HONAN 

HUNAN 

HUPEH 

KANSU 

KlANGSI 

KlANGSU 

KWANGSI 

KWANGTUNG 

KWEICHOW 

Shansi 

Shantung 

Shensi 

Szechwan 

Yunnan 

Manchuria 

PART IV:— LARGE UNCLAIMED AREAS AND SPECIAL 

ADMINISTRATIVE DISTRICTS: 

Southwest China 

The Great Unoccupied Areas of Kansu 

Mongolia (Inner and Outer) 

SlNKIANG 

Chwanpien 

KOKONOR 

Tibet 



i-39 



14 



PART V:— THE PROVINCES COMPARED 

PART VI :— COMPARISON OF THE FIELDS AND WORK 
OF LARGER MISSIONARY SOCIETIES 

VII :— COMPARISON OF THE FIELDS AND WORK 
OF LARGER DENOMINATIONAL GROUPS 



PART 
PART 



VIII:— A COMPARISON OF MISSIONARY WORK 
IN TERMS OF THE NATIONALITY OF 
. FOREIGN WORKERS 

PART IX -.—CHRISTIAN WORK AMONG SPECIAL 

CLASSES:... 

Aboriginal Tribes in Southwest China 

Christian Work among the Tai People 

Christian Work among the Hakka 
Christian Work among Moslems in China 

Christian Work among Chinese Abroad 

Chinese Government Students and Christianity 

The Blind of China 

Work among the Boat People op South China... 
Work among Post and Telegraph Officials ... 

Christian Work among Ricksha Men 

Christian Work Among Boys in China 

The Young Men's Christian Associations of China 
The Young Women's Christian Association in 

China 

The Stewart Evangelistic Fund 

Religious Work Among Foreigners in China... 



32-39 

40-260 

40 

49 

57 

69 

77 

90 

ici 

"3 

122 

133 
146 

157 
175 
185 
195 
209 
219 
235 
247 

261-282 
261 
262 
266 
274 
276 
277 
278 

283-311 
312-331 
332-344 



345-347 

348-378 
348 
349 
35i 
353 
358 
362 
365 
367 
368 
368 
369 
371 

375 
377 
378 



PART X :— THE CHINESE CHURCH : 

Institutional Churches 

Independent Chinese Churches 

Status op Chinese Pastors 

The Christian Occupation of Large Cities 
Missionary Activities op the Chinese Church... 
Religious Education in Church, School, and Home 

Summer Conference Centers 

Commercialized Vice in China 

Alcoholism in China 

PART XI :— EDUCATION : 

The Present Status of Government Education... 

Christian Education in China 

Data and Observations concerning Middle 

Schools in China 

Normal Schools and Normal Training 

Bible Schools 

Theological Education 

Mission Colleges in China 

Agricultural Missions 

Industrial Education in Mission Schools 

Modern Medical Education in China 

Language Schools for Missionaries 

Schools for Foreign Children 



PART XII :— MEDICAL WORK : 



Scientific Efficiency of Mission Hospitals 
(Societies Compared) 

Summary of an Enquiry into the Scientific 
Efficiency of Mission Hospitals (Provincial 
Comparison) 

Health Education in China 

Some Phases of Tuberculosis in China 

Leprosy in China 

The Illegal Trade in Narcotics 

Activities op the China Medical Board 

The Health of Missionary Families in China... 

PART XIII :— CHRISTIAN LITERATURE : 

A Survey of Christian Literature in China ... 
The Proved Demand for Chinese Christian 

Literature 

Publishing and Distributing Agencies for 

Christian Literature 

Translation and Circulation of the Scriptures 

in China ... 

colportage activities 

Religious Papers in the Vernacular 

Newspapers and Newspaper Evangelism 

Roman Catholic Literature 



379-398 

379 
380 
382 
385 
386 

39° 
395 
396 
397 
399-428 
399 
403 

406 
411 
414 

417 
419 
421 
423 
423 
425 
426 

429-442 
429 



433 
433 
435 
437 
438 
440 
441 

443-457 
443 

445 

449 

452 
454 
454 
456 
457 



PART XIV :— ROMAN CATHOLIC AND RUSSIAN ORTHO- 
DOX CHURCHES : 458-465 

Missionary Work op the Roman Catholic 

Church in China 458 

The Russian Orthodox Church Mission in China 463 

PART XV :— CORRIGENDA 



APPENDICES :— 



466-468 



l-CXll 



INDEX 



A — Provincial Statistical Tables 

B — Postal Maps 

C— The Roman Catholic Church — Residential 

Centers of Foreign and Chinese Priests... 

D — Government Primary Students per 10,000 

Population 

E— Missionary Residential Centers arranged 

Chronologically 

Centers where Mission Stations may be 

Opened (1919-1924) 

Centers where Mission Middle Schools 

are Located 

Centers where Mission Hospitals are 

Located 

Centers where Mission Hospitals may be 

Erected (1919-1924) 

F— Statement on Comity 

G — Cities of China with Estimated PoPULATioNS.lxxxviii 
H — Statistics of Protestant Missions in China 

for 1920 xc 

I— The Christian Occupation of Indo-China ... cv 

cviit 



xliii 



lvi 



lxviii 



lxxx 



lxxxii 



lxxxiii 



lxxxiv 



Ixxxv 
lxxxv 



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AND 

CHRISTIAN ORGANIZATIONS 



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American Advent Mission Society. (Advent Christian Mission) ; A 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions A 

American Baptist Foreign Mission Society (Northern Baptist) A 

American Bible Societj A 

Allgemeiner Evangelisch-Protestantischer Mission&verein (Weimar Mission) C 
Apostolic Faith Missionaries 

American Friends' Mission (Ohio Yearly Meeting) 
General Council of the Assemblies of God 
Associated Mission Treasurers (Shanghai) 

Evangelische Missionsgesellschaft zu Basel (Basel Mission) 

Bible, Book, and Tract Depot (Hongkong) 

British and Foreign Bible Society 

Berliner Frauen- Mission&verein (Berlin Women's Missionary Society) 

Bible Institute of Los Angeles Book Distribution Work 

Baptist Missionary Society (English Baptist) 

Berliner Missionsgesellschaft (Berlin Mission) 

Broadcast Tract Press (Hunan Faith Mission) 

China Baptist Publication Society 

Christian Catholic Apostolic Church in Zion 

Federal Foreign Mission Committee of Churches of Christ in Australia 

China Continuation Committee 

Canton Christian College 

China Christian Educational Association 

United Society of Christian Endeavor for China 

Church of England Zenana Missionary Society * 

China for Christ Movement 

Christian Faith Mission 

Church of God Mission 

Canadian Holiness Movement Mission 

Chinese Home Missionary Society 

China Mennonite Missionary Society 

Chefoo Industrial Mission 

China Inland Mission 

Christian .Literature Society for China 

Christians' Mission 

Christian and Missionary Alliance 

China Medical Beard 

China Medical Missionary Association 

Christian Missions in Many Lands (Brethren) 

Canton Medical Missionary Union (now CMMU) 

Church Missionary Society 

China New Testament Mission 

"The Chinese Becorder" 

Board of Missions of the Christian Reformed Church 

Chinese Slave Children's Befuge (Shanghai) 

Church of Scotland Foreign Mission Committee 

China Sunday School Union 

Chinese Tract Society 

Cumberland Presbyterian Mission (or CPW) 

Deutscher Frauen Missions-Bund 

"Door of Hope" Mission (Shanghai) 

Danske Missions-Selskab (Danish Missionary Society) 

Missionary Society of the Evangelical Association of North America 

Ebenezer Missions 

Angustana Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of North America 



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Name of Society 
Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Missouri and ether States 
Emmanuel Medical Mission 
English Presbyterian Mission 
Evangel Mission 

Faith Mission 

Foreign Christian Missionary Society (Disciples) (now UCMS) 

Fukien Christian University (Foochow) 

Friedenshort Deaconess Mission 

Fria Missionen i Finland (Finnish Free Church Mission) 

Friends' Foreign Mission Association 

American Free Methodist Mission 

Pinska Missions-Sallskapet (Finnish Missionary Society) 

General Mission Board of the Church of the Brethren 

Ginling College (Nanking) 

German China Alliance Mission in Barmen 

Grace Evangelical Mission 

Grace Mission 

Hangchow Christian College 
Hebron Mission 

Helgelse-Forbundet (Swedish Holiness Union) 
Hildesheimer Verein fur die deutsche Blinden mission in China- 
Institution for the Chinese Blind (Shanghai) 
Independent Lutheran Mission 
Independent Missionaries 

International Postal Telegraph Christian Association 
International Keform Bureau 

Japanese Christian Mission (Shanghai) 

Kieler China Mission 

John G. Kerr Hospital for the Insane (Canton) 

Kuling School 



Nationality 
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B 
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A 

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A 
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C 
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A 

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A 
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G 

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r 

B 
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A 
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Liabenzeller Mission 

American Lutheran Brethren Mission 

Lutheran Board of Missions (Lutheran Free Church of the USA) 

London Missionary Society 

Lutheran United Mission 

Mission Book Company 

Mennonite Brethren Mission 

Missionary Society of the Methodist Church in Canada 

Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church 

Methodist Episcopal Mission, South 

General Conference of the Mennonites of North America 

Methodist Protestant Mission 

Methodist Publishing House (Shanghai) 

Metropolitan Presbyterian Mission (See NTSC) 

Missionary Society of the Church of England in Canada 

National Bible Society of Scotland 

North China American School (Tunghsien, Chi.) 

Tsjiiimissionen (North Chihli Mission) 

North China Union Language School (Peking) 

Ncrges Frie Evangeligke Missionsforbund 

Nanking Foreign School ("Hillcrest") 

National Holiness Mission 

Northwest Kiangsi Mission 

Norske Evangeliske Lutherkke Frikirkes Kinamission 

Norsk Imtherske Kinamissionsforbund (Norwegian Lutheran Mission) 1 

Nanking Language School 

Norske Mission i Kina (Norwegian Mission in China) 

Norske Missicns-Forbund (Norwegian Alliance Mission) 

Norske Missions-Selskab (Norwegian Missionary Society) 



G 
A 
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B 

A 

I 

A 
B 
A 
A 

j\ 
A. 
A 
A 
B 

B 
A 
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I 
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Name of Society Nationality 

National Tract Society for China (Shanghai) A 

Pentecostal Assemblies of the World 
Pittsburgh Bible Institute Mission 

Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in Canada 
Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland 
General Missionary Board of the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene 
Foreign Mission Committee of the Presbyterian Church of New Zealand 
Protestant Episcopal Church, U.S.A. (American Church Mission) " 
Presbyterian Mission Press (Shanghai) 
Pentecostal Missionary Union 
American Presbyterian Mission, North 
American Presbyterian Mission, South 
Yenching (Peking) University 

Board of Pcreign Missions of the Reformed Church in America (Butch) 
Board of Foreign Missions of the Reformed Church in the United States 

(German) 

Rheinische Missionsgesellschaft (Rhenish Mission) 
Reformed Presbyterian Mission (Covenanters) 
Religious Tract Society 

Salvation Army 

Scandinavian China Alliance Mission 

Scandinavian Alliance Mission in Mongolia 

Shanghai American School 

Foreign Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention 

Shanghai College. (Shanghai Baptist College) 

Swedish Baptist Mission 

South China Alliance Press (Wadww, Si.) 

South China Boat Mission 

South China Christian Bock Company 

South China Holiness Mission 

South Chihli Mission 

Shantung Christian University (Tsinan) 

Seventh-Day Adventist Mission Board 

Seventh-Day Baptist Missionary Society 

Swedish Evangelical Free Church, U.S.A. (Swedish American Mission) 

Swedish Evangelical Mission Covenant of America 

Swedish Independent Baptist Mission 

Svenska Kyrkaus Missionsstryrelse (Church of Sweden Mission) 

Svenska Mongolmissionen (Swedish Mongol Mission) 

Svenska Miseionen i Klna (Swedish Mission in China) 

Svenska Mission s-Forbundet (Swedish Missionary Society) 

Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (Church of England Mission) 

Shanghai Ricksha Mission 

Svenska Allians-Missionen (Swedish Alliance Mission) 

Chinese Student Volunteer Movement for the Ministry 

South Yunnan Mission 

Tsehchowfu Mission 

United Brethren in Christ Mission 

United Evangelical Church Mission 

United Free Church of Scotland Mission 

United Methodist Church Mission 

University of Nanking 

Peking Union Medical College and Hospital 

West China Religious Tract Society 

West China Union University (Chengtu) 

Women's Foreign Missionary Society (Methodist Episcopal Church) 

Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society 

Woman's Union Missionary Society of America 

Yale Foreign Missionary Society 

Young Men's Christian Association of China 

Young Women's Christian Association of China 



A 
A 
B 
B 
A 
B 
A 
A 
B 
A 
A 
I 
A 

A 
C 
A 
B 

I 

A 
A 
A 
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I 
I 



13 



GENEEAL BACKGEOUND 



PART I 



GENERAL BACKGROUND OF THE SURVEY 



GEOGRAPHICAL AND POLITICAL DIVISIONS OF CHINA 



Sheldon Ridge 



The Chinese Republic stretches from the ioth degree to the 53rd degree 
of north latitude, and from the 74th degree to the 134th degree of longitude 
east of Greenwich. It is bounded on the north and northwest by Siberia, 
on the west by Russian Turkestan, on the southwest by India, on the 
south and east by Further India, Tongking, and the Pacific Ocean, and 
on the northeast by Korea. Within these boundaries lies an area of some 
4,275,000 square miles of the most varied country in the world, mountain, 
plateau, valley, and plain giving place to each other in rapid succession ; 
and on this area lives and thrives a population that may be estimated at 
roughly 440,000,000 souls. This estimate is based on one made by the 
Chinese Post Office, with the utmost care, in 1920. The detailed figures 
of the estimate are as follows : 



Province 


Area in Sq. Mi. 


Population 


Density per Sq. Mi. 


Yellow River Valley ... 


522,260 


122,478,730 


236 


Kansu 


125,450 


5,927,997 


47 


Shensi 


75,270 


9,465,558 


126 


Shansi ... 


81,830 


11,080,827 


135 


Honan 


67,940 


30,831,909 


453 


Cbihli 


115,800 


34,369,194 


305 


Shantung 


55,970 


30,803,245 


550 


Yangtze River Valley... 


572,830 


205,522,162 


359 


Szeehwan 


218,480 


49,782,810 


229 


Hupeh 


71,410 


27,167,244 


382 


Hunan 


83,380 


28,443,279 


341 


Kiangi 


69,480 


24,466,800 


352 


Anhwei 


54,810 


19,832,665 


381 


Kiangsu 


38,600 


33,786,064 


875 


Chekiang 


36,670 


22,043,300 


601 


West River Valley ... 


437,330 


83,639,407 


191 


Yininan 


146,680 


9,839,180 


67 


Kweichow 


67,160 


11,216,400 


167 


Kwangsi 


77,200 


12,258,335 


158 


Kwangtung 


99,970 


37,167,701 


372 


Fukien 


46,320 


13,157,791 


285 


Outer Provinces and 








Territories 


2,744,840 


29,519,579 


10 


Manchuria 


363,700 


22,400 000 


60 


Mongolia ... 


1,367,600 


2,600,000 


2 


Sinkiang 


550,340 


2,519,579 


4 


Tibet 


463,200 


2,000,000 


5 


CHINA PROPER 


1,532,420 


411,640,299 


262 


OUTER PROVINCES AND 








TERRITORIES 


2,744,840 


29,519,579 


10 


TOTAL (ALL CHINA) ... 


4,277,260 


441,159,878 


100 



Notes on the above Table :— 

(1) The figures for population are, with the exceptions noted below, those of 
the Post Office estimate of 1920. 

(2) The areas given are those of the latest Statesman's Year Book which are 
based on the latest and most authoritative estimates or surveys. 

(3) The density of population is in each ease the rough quotient of area divided 
into population. 

(4) The Post Office estimate does not include figures for Mongolia or Tibet. 
The population figures here given are taken from the Stateman's Year Book, and 
are based on a collation of the latest figures having any claim to authority. 

(5) The Post Office figures omit one hsien in Chihli, and the estimated popu- 
lation given above is made by adding to the figures given in the Post Office estimate 
the average population of one Chihli hsien according to the Post Office estimate. 



A very casual glance at these figures will show that the density cA 
population varies very greatly. Thus, in China Proper, there are roughly 
260 people to the square mile, whilst in Mongolia there are only 2 people 
to the same area, and in Tibet 5 ; whilst the average for the whole Outer 
Territories is only 10. Within China Proper itself there are also great 
differences. The Yangtze Valley is the most thickly populated basin, 
with roughly 360 people to the square mile, whilst the West River Valley 
has only little more than half that density (190), and the Yellow River 
Valley comes between the two. 

OUTER TERRITORIES 

It will be seen from the above table that China is treated in two 
portions, the one consisting of China Proper and the other consisting of 
what, in the days of the Empire, were known as the Dependencies, but 
are now known as the Outer Territories. These Outer Territories consist 
of a perimetral zone of regions whose relation with China has always been 
somewhat loose, but until recent years has never been questioned. They 
were subject territories, and the fact was recognized both by themselves 
and by the outside world, as well as taken for granted by Peking. The 
eggressi' ns of other Powers during the past century and a quarter, leading 
to the severance from the dominions over which the Emperor of China 
held at least some sort of sway of Tongking, Siam, Further India, 
Sikkim, Nepal, Amuria, and Korea, led the Chinese authorities during the 
quarter-century preceding the Chinese Revolution to move in the direction 
of binding the Outer Territories closer to herself. The signs of this inten- 
tion were discernible in the arrangement by which Sinkiang (hitherto 
known as Chinese Turkestan) was, in 1881, transformed from a Dependency 
into a province, with the new name Sinkiang ("New Dominion"), the 
intention becoming still more marked when, after the Russo-Japanese War, 
Manchuria was also organized as the "Three Eastern Provinces," and its 
three parts began to be administered on the same lines as were the pro- 
vinces of China Proper. 

The perimetrical Territories still belonging to China, though the bonds 
which unite them to China are in some cases being distinctly weakened, 
are, from west to east, Tibet, Sinkiang, Mongolia (Inner and Outer), and 
Manchuria. Inner Mongolia consists of the special administrative 
Districts of Suiyiian, Chahar, Tehol and Sitao Mongolia. These Territories, 
each politically independent of any other, have much in common. In the 
first place, there is a strong religious bond amongst them. From the 
Himalayas to the borders of Manchuria, and even for some way into that 
"triple province," the Dalai Lama at Tibet is the supreme religious 
authority. Lamaism in one form or another, more or less corrupt, is the 
nominal religion. In Tibet the Dalai Lama is recognized as at once the 
spiritual and the religious head of the Territory, and is regarded as the 
incarnation of Avalokitesvara. The religion of Tibet is Lamaism, a cor- 
rupt form of Buddhism, and the corruption becomes more advanced the 
further one travels from Lhasa, the capital of Tibet, until by the time the 
Manchurian border is reached it is the rankest of superstitions, and is 
indistinguishable from the local paganism. Another common feature that 
these Territories have is a certain geographical unity, as composing in 
union the great geographical frontier of historic China. A glance at an 
orographical map will show that from Tibet to Manchuria there is a great 
echelon of mountain ranges varying in height from well over an average 
of 10,000 feet in Tibet to something like a couple of thousand feet in 



(6) The Post Office figures omit one hsien in Manchuria, and this has been 
estimated at 300,000 roughly, which is about the average of the Manehurian hsiens 
according to the Post Office figures, and added to the Tost Office estimate for 
Manchuria. 

(7) The areas of river basins given above are only for the portions of the 
basins within China Proper. 

(8) Area and population estimates for most of Jehol, Chahar, and Suiyuan 
are obviously not included in the estimates for Mongolia and must therefore be 
included in the estimates of Shensi, Shansi, and Chihli provinces. 

(9) See special article on Population, pages 11 — 14. 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



Thi* great echeloned series of mountain ranges has lor cen- 

lonaed the buffer region between China and the rest of Asia. This 

and highlands had a few gaps, some to the north 

the south. The Altai, the Tien Shan, the Kun I.un and the 

-.. h of which forms an important unit in the scries, are all cros>- 

,vhi< h the trader has for centuries made his way. The 

el tht-v uj •: plateaus, are the home of man up to 

tioM of fr<«i: et, and traces of the permanent or 

nee of m in arc discernible everywhere along the historic routes 

On the other hand, the outlandishness, and the 

the highland people added something to the physi- 

: ut ain BUM itself. Another common feature 

^e Outer TectitOffiei is that they are all about on the same cultural 

, to be duly noted in the proper place, their 

people, when they have any occupation, find it in some pastoral form. 

Primarily hooter*, ban in and bred up on the saddle, nomads at their 

hearts' cores, in no case have they advanced beyond the pastoral stage. 

Only in M -nu'ljuria, and on the southern borders of Inner Mongolia, has 

i. .Ionization induced a certain amount of advance amongst the 

diminishing indigenous population. A gradual change is being effected, 

• Iv with the pressure from Western civilization will a complete change 

ftttknx !>t t rottght about, and until quite recently it has seemed that 

the- n of Western civilization, as represented by railways and 

would have more effect than was likely to come from the 

spiritual, intellectual, or political side. 

CHINA PROPER 

We deal first with China Proper, which stretches from Hainan Island 
and Canton in the torrid south to the Far Eastern Republic in the north, 
and from the high western borders of Tibet in the west to the delta of the 
Yangtze in the east. This area of over a million and a half square miles 
is most conveniently divided up for us by nature into three parts, each 
the basin of a great river. 

The northern portion consist of all the territory in the basin of the 
Yellow River with an estimated area of over 500,000 square miles and a 

I ition of nearly 125,000,000. In this region is included also the basin 
of the I'eilio, which though actually independent of the Yellow River is ta 
all intents and purposes merely a sub-basin of the greater river, for a very 
slight tilting of the land in the region of the upper waters of the Peiho 
would result in the embouchure of those waters into the Yellow, which is 
itself not too fixed a feature of the geography of eastern China. The 
Yellow River basin is a region of loess and alluvial lands, very fertile 
when there is abundant rain, but liable to famine as the result of long- 
continued drought. The whole region is •dominated by the river, "China's 
Sorrow" as it has been fitly named. 

1 hi second major region is the basin of the Yangtze, the great water- 
way of China. The Yangtze basin is the largest, the richest, the most 
populous of the three great divisions of China Proper, and the great artery 
of communication, the Yangtze, has attached to it a vast network i-f 
l.avigable streams. The loess of tlie northern basin is much less in 
« idence here, the chief formation being alluvium, limestone, and sand- 
stone The great lakes of China are found in this valley, which is also the 
region of the great Treaty Ports. 

The third major region is the basin of the West River. This region 

is highly diversified in character, abounding in mineral wealth and in 

semi-tropical productions, and stocked with a variety of races, including 

that may be regarded as very primitive Chinese and others that have 

ratively little affinity with Chinese. 

1 be table of figures on page 1 shows that the northern basin has an 
average of 236 inhabitants to the square mile, the middle basin 359, and 
the southern basin only 101. These figures are an index of the conditions 
of life and the development of economic resources in the three basins. A 
great port of the northern basin is still only slightly in advance of the 
pastoral stage, and the industrial development of the eastern provinces is 
too recent to have modified the distribution of population to any appreci- 
able extent. There is, however, a dearth of easy communications, natural 
*r artificial. The middle basin is very highly favoured in respect of 
natural means of communication, and has a climate that favours agricul- 
ture much more emphatically than does that of the northern basin Hs 
natural resources, only just beginning to be tapped on a grand scale have 
always however been greatly more abundant than those of the northern 
basin, in the southern basin there is a very large percentage of moun- 
tainous country, the mineral resources of which are believed to be very 
considerable, but their exploitation has been of the most primitive kind so 
that they have not given rise to large populations, and the considerable 
average elevation affects agriculture adversely; and these deficiencies have 
not been counterbalanced by the rich agricultural resources or 'he 
energetic character of the people of the remaining portion of the basin. 

Before dealing with each of the three basins in detail, it may be well to 
note some slight differences in the type of the inhabitants of the three 
banns. The main basis of the stock in all three basins is the Chinese type 
In the northern basin the Chinese type, with its small and delicately formed 



general 



further south, and this infusion of Tartar stock is confirmed bv the 
languages coming from the many races living bevond the pale. In the 
southern bash, the Chinese stock is purest, and the language spoken is 
probably the nearest to the original language, Cantonese retaining the 
terminals and gutturals that mark a primitive language, and which have 



fceeu subject to a process of attrition in the north. In some parts of the 
southern basin occur isolated tribes that still retain something of the dis- 
tinctive characteristics that marked them when the whole country was 
still in the stage of tribal isolation, and similar elements are to be found 
in the less accessible mountain areas in the southern part of the middle 
basin. 

An important physiographic feature should also be noted before pass- 
ing on to a consideration of the three basins, each separately in turn. 
China Proper not only falls naturally into three divisions indicated as 
stretching across the country from west to east, but there is also a strongly- 
marked north to south division. A rough semi-circle beginning at Shan- 
haikwan (the Marathon of China), sweeping through Tniyuanfu and to 
Hankow, and thence passing with a somewhat northeastern eccentricity 
to the sea at Wenchow, would enclose a great stretch of country practically 
all of which is alluvial plain. The plain is broken here and there, it is 
true, by highlands, but the whole area is so single a unit in spite of these 
interruptions, and is so different in character from the region to the west 
of the irregular semi-circle, that a treatment of China as consisting on the 
one part of the Great Plain and on the other of the highland region 16 
the west of it might be defended. As a matter of historical fact, except 
for the Canton trade and all that contributes to it, the main attract!* a 
that China has offered in the past to Western commerce has lain in the 
area of the Great Plain. It has been the products of the soil of the Great 
Plain, rather than the unsuspected mineral and other wealth of the high- 
land region, that have been the great attraction for Western commerce. 
The great cotton areas, the great silk areas, and the great tea areas known 
to generations of Western merchants, have been situated in this Great 
Plain, even though they have in some measure found an outlet through 
ports outside the Plain itself; so much that the older accounts of the 
country, before the days of scientific geography, did adopt precisely such 
a view as we have suggested might be defended. In the light of our 
present day knowledge of the country, however, there is no alternative but 
to regard the river basins as the major divisions, and to these we no>v 
turn. 

THE NORTHERN OR YELLOW RIVER BASIN 

The northern basin, that of the Yellow River, falls most naturally into 
two main sections. The Peking-Hankow Railway, which runs parallel to 
and not far from the eastern borders of Shansi and Shensi, marks roughly 
the line cf the division between a great highland region, stretching with 
a steady increase of elevation right to the western frontier of the country, 
and the great alluvial plain in which Chihli, northeastern Honan, and 
northern Shantung lie. The city of Tungkwan, Sha. (East Gate) may be 
taken as the strategic point of the division between the two regions, for 
through that city passes the main line of communication between thein, 
and so great is the difference between the two regions that at this city 
the merchant caravan or the officer with his suite making a long journey- 
out of the one region into the other finds it necessary to change his vehicles 
for a different type, more suited to the almost startling change in the 
character of the country 

The great characteristic common to both parts of the basin, though 
not completely covering either part, is the loess formation. Whilst there 
are several theories as to the origin of this formation, there can be no two 
opinions as to its effects. Loess, a friable soil, that crumbles to 
impalpable powder between the fingers, covers great tracts of the 
country, and renders them extremely fertile if there is an adequate supply 
01 moisture. By an adequate supply a comparatively small rainfall is 
meant, for the loess absorbs such rain as there is very rapidly, little time 
being allowed for evaporation, and this rain quickly sinks well below the 
surface and forms a deepseated water supply that is drawn upon through 
the tubular structure of the loess. Only in the extreme east and west of 
the basin does the loess become thin. The great central portion is many- 
feet deep in loess, and forms an extremely fertile area. Unfortunately only- 
part of this fertility makes any considerable contribution to the general 
economic development of the basin. The western portion of the loess has 
only a restricted economic development because of the fact that this part 
of the basin has access to the outer world only through difficult routes 
The extent to which this is the case may be judged from the figures of 
population density given above. The westernmost province, Kansu part 
of which at least cannot complain of the absence of loess, has a population 
density of but 47 to the ^ square mile. The difficult passages from 
Shensi to the valley of the Yangtze help this province to go three 
times better than Kansu, and Shansi again is slightly better than 
IK J- ,S . f the t three fences of Honan, Chihli, and Shantung, 
the last m spite of a very large proportion of its surface being highly moun 
famous each of which has, for China, excellent means o^ S£. 
anumcation that rise to a density of population comparable with 
the settled countries of the West. The difference in physical 
character between the two regions of the basin results in a d§Ke 

Ivfl 'r P P ^ UCtS ' The WeStem half <* «* b^in Pome's 
H f/ J rf XP °? at - ny rate) pastoril or ^mi-pastoral proauct? 
± Vf lnS - ^ £ f ' anhnal tallow and tne like > with direct manXturV 
from them in the shape of coarse woollens and cloth of varW v , 
The depletion of the world's stocks of footwear harness L/lTi ^ 
greatly stimulated the export trade in Se^oSSfaT and fS 
change been as favourable as the demand was iterative *L fr , *! 
Tientsin in these exports would have shown enonVo^SaTce ^eAh ° f 
actually registered. The development of modem means If^J, ' °* e 
between the westerly province] find the coast ^mSS^^ST"^ 
markets a great store of these things, which will rivl 1*U r C W ° rld s 
all probability the present trade infhe jJoclVtS ££ Zg?£ 



GENERAL BACKGROUND 
The Provinces, Special Administrative Districts and Odter Territories of China 



/ ALTAI 



« 9 » 
OUTER MONCO LI A 





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TIBET 



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SZECHWAN { 





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KWANCS1 ^'"kwaNCTUNC 




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KWEICHOW : 





"basin, cereals and agricultural products generally. This development will 
"be accelerated by the probable rapid development of an industrial area in 
:Sbansi and Honan, with their rich supplies of coal and iron, the supplies 
of the former commodity to be found in Shansi alone being more than equal 
to the entire demands of the whole world for thousands of years, according 
to Richthofen, who quotes Professor Dana to the effect that Shansi is a 
licher coal area than Pennsylvania. 

Seriously militating against the economic development of this basin 
in addition to the lack of adequate communications, is its liability to floods 
from the overflowing of the Yellow River, or of the Chihli rivers. This 
very grave defect, which it is estimated is responsible for the fact that the 
Yellow River basin contributes to the wealth of the Chinese commonwealth 
only one-fourth of what it ought to do, is remediable, the two chief re- 
medial measures being afforestation and conservancy. At present the 
Chinese Government is attending to neither of these seriously. 

The basin of the Yellow River is not merely cut off from that of the 
Yangtze by the mountains, beginning with the East Kun Lun and 
extending eastwards through a long series of gradually diminishing 
•ranges, but is distinct from it in climate and productions. The northern 
basin has a climate much more extreme, and much more severe, than that 
of the basin immediately to the south. The winter temperature falls very 
low, the thermometer frequently registering-4°F, and the summer tempera- 
ture varying about ioo°F. The dryness of the winters, however, makes them 
tolerable, except during the frequent duststorms, or rather sandstorms, 
-which descend on the valley from the Mongolian tableland. These con- 
ditions prevail generally except in the south of Kansu and of Shensi, 
-which are milder but much more rainy. 

Running roughly along the line of the watershed between the Yellow 
River basin and the Yangtze basin there is a notable change in the 
•character of the products of the soil. The bamboo reaches here its northern 
limit, and rice cultivation ceases, although imported rice is still the 
-favourite diet of those who can afford it. The great mass of the people 
live on millet and wheat, chiefly the former, which is a glutinous millet of 
:a different variety from that known as "kaoliang," which is used for 
-making distilled spirits, and for keeping a very large number of the home 
files of North China burning, the stalks being largely used for fuel. Coin- 
ciding roughly with the northern limits of rice and bamboo is the line 
marking the northern limit of the universal use of water transport. Water 
transport is far from unknown in the Yellow River basin, the river itself 
feeing largely used for shallow-draft navigation, but it is by no means the 



all but universal thing that it is in the Yangtze Valley. Instead of water 
transport there is the cumbrous cart of North China, drawn by bullocks, 
mules, wiry Mongolian ponies, or mixed teams. And the camel is charac- 
teristic, coming into the landscape from Mongolia and the deserts of 
Central Asia. 

THE MTDDEE OR YANGTZE RIVER BASIN 
Whilst the Yellow River basin is the basin of greatest historical 
interest to China, as being in China the first home of the race now called 
the Chinese, and has been generally, but not without exception, that basin 
in which the capital has found itself, the second great division of the 
country, the Yangtze basin, is in modern times and economically the great 
core of the country. Within China Proper the basin of the Yangtze River 
covers an area of nearly 600,000 square miles and supports a population of 
over 200,000,000, giving a density of 360 to the square mile. The basin 
stretches from the 26th to the 32nd parallel of north latitude, and from the 
98th to the 118th meridian east of Greenwich. The economic importance 
of this basin to China is incalculable. It is the seat of an endless roll <f 
produce derived from a fertile, richly-watered sub-tropical region, rendered 
accessible to outside commerce by the finest of the world's great water- 
ways. The valley of the Yangtze, with its tributaries, is to China what 
the valley of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers is to the United States, 
or the Amazon to South America, or even the Nile to Egypt, Geographers 
may dispute as to the exact limits of the basin of the Yangtze viewed from 
the strictly geological side, and that is why the northern part of Kiangsu, 
comprising the valley of the Hwai, and the province of Chekiang, are 
sometimes excluded in strict geography from the Yangtze area; but any 
interpretation of geography that gives consideration to economic factors is 
bound to include both the northern Kiangsu region and Chekiang in the 
Yangtze basin. In the latter case, indeed, there is considerable evidence 
that at one time the Yangtze debouched into the sea through what is now 
the Tsientang River, the mouth of which is perhaps better known as 
Hangchow Bay, a condition of affairs that may be artificially reproduced, 
in part at least, if certain projects for the maintenance of Shanghai's sea 
communications by means of a deep water channel are carried through ; and 
in the former case the general economic trend is to the Yangtze, and will 
be but slightly diverted even with the development of Haichow as a port 
of outlet and entry. These two regions (the Hwai region and the province 
of Chekiang), whatever may be their technical geographical relation to the 
Yangtze basin, form economically and politically a part of the great unified 
territory of which the Yangtze itself is the dominant unifying factor, the 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



great central artery of communication, so dominant, so overmastering, that 
even the coming of the railway will only serve to intensify, to magnify 
the river'* dominance. 

The basin as n whole has several marked characteristics. First then: 
is the great binding, unifying feature of the Yangtze itself, to which 
reference has just been made. The Yangtze is not merely the great artery 
of communications, it is the great highroad to which countless other by- 
some of them magnificent enough to be the highways of an empire, 
all lead, the whole forming an unequalled network of cheap and on the 
whole commodious transport facilities. All kinds of commodities— tea and 
«il and iron, lamp-black and vegetable wax, rice and rhubarb, cotton 
and gTasscloth, beans and tobacco, antimony and petroleum, salt and 
sesamnm, and every one of the great staples of Chinese economic 
tried over this vast network, from Suifu to .Shanghai, from 
rfengenow. Secondly, it has a climate subject neither to the 
ijreat of the region immediately to the north nor to the over- 

j.ii si heat of the valley to the south. Hot enough at times to be 
unpleasant in summer, it hat not the excessive cold of the northern winter, 
tnmunication is open the year round. The occurrence of 
the r d the summer and just when the superabandant vegetable 

life of the region most requires moisture, produces a regularity in the crops 
that is absent in the north, and this regularity brings about the develop- 
ment f.f the gTeat staples which constitute a third feature of the region. 
k, and cotton abound, and form the predominant factors in the 
mic life of the region, making it the great granary of the whole 
:v am! attracting thither a density of population far greater than that 
of either <;f the other two basins. Fourthly, the region is far from deficient 
in mineral wealth. Coal, iron, antimony, tungsten, copper, silver, and 
< v< n (in a \' iv small quantity) gold are found, and though none of these 
i* extracted on anything like the scale that it ought to be, the riches of 
the basin in minerals is such as would make many much more highly 
developed manufacturing regions in other parts of the world envious. The 
provinces of Hunan and Szechwan are the principal mineral regions, but 
Kiangsi and Anhwei have resources in this kind that are not negligible. 
/ ifthly, the Yangtze Valley is the great manufacturing region of China. 
Silk and yarn are worked in Kiangsu; Anhwei produces the vast stores of 
"Indian" ink that Chinese literature used to demand; Kiangsi has its 
celebrated porcelain manufacture ; Hupeh has its cotton cloth and steel 
manufacture, Szechwan produces manufactured silk, refined salt and 
bids fair to be a manufacturing region also of the coal-and-iron type; and 
in even- province the home industries that have made the region famous 
are giving rise or are giving place to modern industrial conditions that 
must in course of time enormously intensify the activities of the 
inhabitants. Sixthly (and here we revert to physical charac- 
teristics), the Yangtze basin is the region of great lakes, the Tung- 
ting Lake, the Poyang Lake, the Tai Hu, the Hungtze Hu, and the Chao 
Hn, all being of areas which on the map of Europe would be noticeable, 
especially at the time when they are serving as the great reservoirs for 
the melted snows that, coming down from the highland regions, pour 
through the countless arteries and capillaries that branch out from the 
aortic Vangtze. In the seventh place, self-contained as it is, and self- 
Mlfficient, the Yangtze region is not selfish; it has many channels of com- 
munication with the region to the north and south, through natural passes 
and by roads that in their time were triumphs of engineering, by natural 
streams and canals that are amongst the wonders of the world, all of which 
today are being supplemented by the railway ; and by all these routes this 
rich region exchanges its commodities with its poorer neighbours. Of the 
passes the most famous are the Meiling and the Chiling, both giving 
access to the valley of the West River, with which an important water 
connection is formed by the Hsing Yi Canal, an artificial waterway built 
in H.C. 214 and linking the Cassia River (a tributary of the West River) 
with the Siang River, the great river that has its outlet in the Tungting 
Lake. Of the canals the greatest is the famous Grand Canal, partly an 
artificial waterway and partly a remarkable adaptation 01 natural water- 
ways to the general purpose of forming a continuous water route from 
Hangchow (an old capital of China) to Peking. Through the great ranges 
that form the northern boundary of the Yangtze catchment basin there are 
several important roads. Finally, in the characteristics of this basin, and a 
continued product of the preceding factcrs, we have the presence within the 
Yangtze basin of the great majority of the ports open to foreign trade, 
including two of the most important, Shanghai and Hankow. The part 
played by the Yangtze basin in the economic life of the country may be 
judged, though not estimated, by the fact that the Yangtze open ports do 
more than 60 per cent of the foreign trade of the country. 

Physiographically the Yangtze basin (so far as it lies within China 
Proper) may be said to consist of a series of minor basins. The first of 
these is what may be called the Szechwan basin, comprising that portion 
of the river's course with its tributaries, some of them mighty ones, 
which lies within the mountainous province of Szechwan and of the 
physiographically continuous areas of Yunnan, Kweichow, and Hupeh. 
The second basin is that of which the lakes in Hupeh, to the north and 
northwest of Hankow, form the bottom. Then comes a third basin of 
which the plain north of Kiukiang, the valley west of Anking, and the 
Poyang Lake region form the salient features, the river bursting through' 
this basin by the narrow, winding rock-infested channel known as Hen 
Point. Below this again we have the wide plain and ancient lake basin 
of which Wnhu forms the center, and that is followed by a basin, with 
very little lip or edge on the eastern side, which is practically the Yangtze 
Delta. Each of these basins except the Szechwan basin is a lake region, 
and geologically it is probable tliat in comparatively recent times the 
Yangtze, npon leaving the Tibetan mountains discharged its waters into 
the ocean through a series of lakes, the remains of which still occupy a 



considerable portion, of the valley in winter and in summer are enlarged? 
by floods to almost their original surface area. 

For purposes of practical navigation, the Yangtze may be divided into- 
three parts : (1) First comes the torrential part, from the source of the river 
to the city of Pingshan, a little above Suifu. This is a stretch of i,2 S > 
miles of stream, seldom navigable, not often fordable, and usually only- 
to be crossed where it has been dammed for mill-streams. (2) From Ping- 
shan to Ichang, a distance of 960 miles, the river is semi-navigable, the- 
ehief obstruction being the numerous rapids, which have been for unto d 
centuries the greatest hindrances to the economic development of the Me- 
of the river and its adjacent areas, but which modern shipbuilding and the- 
use of steam are overcoming, though gradually. (3) Below the port at 
Vhan» the river is navigable for steamers of ordinary build all the year- 
round ° In the semi-navigable portion of the river the breadth varies from- 
200 to 610 yards. From Ichang downwards it frequently reaches a mile- 
wide, and' when the high floods occur it is not unusual for vessels sailing- 
in midstream to be five miles from land on either side. Marco Polo, over six 
centuries ago, in his chapter on "The Great River Kian" says : "It is in 
some places 10 miles wide, in others 8, in others 6, and it is more than 
100 days' journey in length from one end to the other; indeed it is more 
like a sea than a river." If, as seems probable, Marco visited the river 
during the summer floods, there is no exaggeration in these statements. 
Much more important for commercial purposes than the width of the river 
is its fall. In the first 1,200 odd miles of its journey the river falls fronr 
16,000 feet to 1,000 feet or 125 feet per mile. Even with no rocky beds and" 
rapids such a fall would make navigation impossible. From Pingshan at 
1,000 feet of elevation the river drops 100 feet to Suifu, then 300 to Chung- 
king and 450 to Ichang, or roughly 850 feet in 960 miles, still a pretty serious 
fall from the point of view even of steam navigation, especially when the uu- 
evenness of the fall, the rocky nature of the riverbed, and the frequent 
narrowing of the bed into precipitous gorges are taken into consideration. 
From Ichang to the sea is a matter of 960 miles, and a fall of somewhat 
less than 150 feet in that stretch works out at less than 2 inches per mile, 
an eminently desirable fall from the point of view of river navigation. 
The effect of fall and of various impediments to navigation may be 
estimated roughly from the following table, which shows the distances of 
the principal Yangtze ports from Shanghai, and the time taken under 
ordinary conditions on the trips between each pair of ports : 
Shanghai to Hankow 600 miles 3 clays by steamboat. 
Hankow to Ichang 370 miles 4 days by steamboat. 
Ichang to Chungking 400 miles Under conditions existing up to 
three r.t four years ago, the journey took from 20 to 40 days, being only 
possible in junks hauled by trackers, the hire of such junks costing from 
150 to 300 taels. At flood season the voyage became still more difficult and" 
accordingly much more time was required. Under present day condition* 
with specially built steamers the journey takes about 6 days. 

It will be noticed that the density of population in the Yangtze Valley- 
increases progressively from 229 per square mile in Szechwan to 875 per 
square mile in Kiangsu. This increase represents initially an increase irr 
the productivity of the soil of the basin as one passes from west to east. 
Szechwan has a soil as fruitful as that of any hill country in the world, 
but much of it is uncultivable owing to elevation, and there is also a great 
deal that is too perpendicular even for the Chinese peasant to terrace and" 
cultivate. The vast alluvial deposits of which the whole country is formed" 
east of Hankow, grow increasingly fertile as they near the Yangtze Delta, 
where two crops every year is the rule that accounts for a density or 
population that entirely throws into the shade the most thickly populated 
manufacturing countries of the West. It may be noted that in many of 
the mountain recesses of the southern watershed the population consists 
very largely of aboriginal tribes, who have not even yet, after thousands 
of years of close neighbourhood, coalesced with the Chinese who have 
otherwise submerged the whole of the eighteen provinces as a flood. 

Like the rest of China, the Yangtze Valley is still in the agricultural 
and home industry stage, but it is fast emerging. At most of the great- 
cities, notably at the trio of cities known as the Wuhan cities (Wuchang- 
Hankow-Hanyang) and at the capitals of the provinces, modern mills and 
factories are springing up, as also at every one of the ports ; and these 
modern developments, with the coming of the railways, which are center- 
ing on the Wuhan cities, threaten to accelerate the already rapid increase 
of population.* 

There seems to be little doubt of the rapid increase of the population 
of China. The subject is too complicated to be examined at full length 
here, but by way of a hint it may be mentioned that in 1912 Mr. Rockhill, 
formerly American Minister to China and a recognized authority on AsiatV 
questions, after very careful enquiry came to the conclusion that th* 
population of the Chinese Empire (China Proper and Dependencies) was 
about 325,000,000. Allowing for slight underestimation we have a figure 
of 350.000,000 or even 37.5,000.000. A rise of 50,000,000 in ten years means- 
an increase of 14 per cent. Continued progress at anything like this rate- 
threatens something more than a regional dislocation of economic 
equilibrium, but that is a subject that cannot be pursued here 

It should be noted, in concluding the consideration of the YangUe 
Valley, that this region is not more immune from natural calamities than 
are any other parts of China. Except Szechwan, every province is liable to. 



There seems to be little doubt of the rapid increase of the population of ffcfcu. 
The subject .s too complicated to be examined at full lengthhere.Dut by war of ». W*Z 
may be mentioned that in 1912 Mr. Bockhill, formerly American MiniLT L nu- "' ',* 
a recognized authority on Asiatic questions, after very c^efTenau rv ea^t tn *r a " d 
clus.on that the population of the Chinese Empire (China Proper Tdnf^a * h ^ COn ' 
about 325,000,000. Allowing for slight underestimation wt w t « De P eud ,encies) was 
or even 375,000,000. A rise of 50.000,000 " fn ten "ear Z^ZtJZZ 1 fSO.OOO.OOO 
Continued progress at anything like this rate thread ^ZZnuloZt^ m ^H 
d 18 locatK>n of economic equilibrium, but that is a subject Zt ^3^ pursued he?e 



Hypsometricai, Map op China 




flood or famine or both, usually the former preparing the way for the latter. 
Within the last ten years there have been extensive floods or severe famines 
in Kiangsu, Anhwei, Hupeh, southern Hunan, and Kiangsi. Very 
largely both floods and famine are preventible, or would be with a treasury 
that was net empty. 

THE SOUTHERN OR WEST RIVER BASIN 

The West River basin is the only one of the three great Chinese river 
basins that lies wholly in China Proper. The region does not lend itself 
as readily as either of the other two regions does to general characteriza- 
tion. With the exception of the lowlying plain of Canton the region is 
mountainous, and it is for the greater part semi-tropical, it is different 
from either of the other two basins in that the mineral wealth of the basin 
holds as important a place as the agricultural, in spite of the fact rhat the 
methods of mining are extremely primitive. The inhabitants, less than 
200 to the square mile, are less purely Chinese than those of either of the 
other basins, and there are enclaves of aboriginal peoples whose constant 
quarrels with their neighbours have always made the West River basin 
difficult to govern, and this difficulty has not been decreased by the fact 
that the region has always been farthest removed from the governing 
center of the country. An examination of the distribution of population 
- may suggest the enquiry why the province of Yunnan, which has abundant 
mineral wealth, should only have 67 people to the square mile, whilst the 
province of Kwangtung has 372, and the answer will be found in the fact 
that communications are difficult. The West River itself, it is true, runs 
right into the heart of Hunan, but navigation of the upper third of the 
river is difficult. And this is no less true of the several considerable rivers 
that flow from the Yunnan massif more directly southwards, reaching 
the sea through French Indo-China and other non-Chinese territories. 

The area with which we are dealing is somewhat larger than the actual 
tasin of the West River. Kwangsi and Kwangtung are drained entirely by 
the West River and its tributaries, but the provinces of Yuninn and Kwei- 
chow thrust themselves beyond the actual basin of the West River and 
their northern portions drain into the Yangtze River, and geographically 
form part of the basin of that river. It is convenient, however, to follow 
the administrative divisions of the country and reckon even these Yangtze- 
draining regions as part of the West River basin. With this exception the 
area now under consideration forms a unit that has its own characteristics. 
These characteristics are partly due to the fact that the basin is cut cf£ 
to a large extent from the rest of China. There is a continuous line of 
mountains separating the West River basin from its northern neighbour, 



and this line of mountains is as effectual a barrier as the Pyrenees. There 
are but two passes of any importance for communication purposes through 
it, the Chiling and the Meiling. The chain is known generally as the Nan 
Shan, and is really an extension of the great Yunnan mountain system, 
which continues unbroken right from Yunnan to the sea near Amoy, 
though the height varies considerably at different points in the 900 miles 
stretch from the eastern flank of the Yunnan plateau to the sea. Of the 
whole basin, that portion which has any coast is entirely in Kwangtung. 
None of the other provinces touch the sea, but they all have access to the 
sea by means of the West River which dominates the whole geographic unit, 
or by tributaries of the Yangtze to the north, or by a series of rivers 
flowing though non-Chinese territory to the south. The West River is 
not to be compared either in size or in usefulness with the Yangtze, but 't 
is nevertheless a great river, comparing it with the rivers of Europe. Thus 
it is only about 500 miles shorter than the Danube, which is reckoned at 
1,750 miles, and is half as long again as the Rhine which is 800 miles in 
length. It is navigable for nearly 1,000 miles. By means of its tributaries 
it reaches into the whole of the four provinces, and a particularly import- 
ant tributary links it with the province of Fukien, which though 
practically a self-contained province, belonging neither to the Yangtze 
basin nor to the West River basin, is most conveniently treated as part 
of the latter basin. 

The basin has considerable geological interest. In its more easterly 
stretches porphyry, granite, and schist are in evidence, but in other parts 
wide zones of limestone overlie the primaries and the outcrops of granite 
and porphyry are only occasional. The curious contortions and folding 
of the secondary limestone produce, throughout most of the basin, a 
characteristic scenery. A series of plateaus descends from west to east. 
In the north the Nan Shan constitutes a barrier between this basin and 
that of the Yangtze, and from these mountains and others flow many rivers, 
by which the basin is abundantly watered. 

The West River has its sources in the northeastern part of Yunnan 
province near the town of Kiitsingfu. First it flows to the south, receiving 
tributaries from several of the plateau lakes, and when nearing the Tropic 
of Cancer it turns in a northeasterly direction to the point of meeting vi 
the three provinces of Yunnan, Kweichow, and Kwangsi. So far it is known 
by the name Pahlah Ho, but from the point at which it makes its bend it is 
known as the Hung Shui, and for a distance of about 230 miles it flows 
along the frontier between Kweichow and Kwangsi. The name by which 
it is known in this part of its course, Hung Shui, means Red Water, and 



THE CHBISTIAN OCCUPATION OP CHINA 



is given to it on account of the colour ol the river during the flood season. 

On leaving the Kweiehcw frontier the stream takes a direction which is 

in the main southeasterly, and in this direction the river flows through 

the whole of Kwangsi province. On the border of the province it reaches 

the town of Wuchow, about 900 miles from the head waters of the river. 

From this point, where it both enters the province of Kwangtung and 

fores slightly southeasterly, the river is known as the Si Kiang, or West 

River. At Samshni the river takes a marked change in direction to the 

south and, throwing off an aim known as the Canton River, on which 

I the historic port of Canton, the river enters the sea through a delta 

hpnncls of which lie east and west of Macao. The river has 

i,j jS miles. Of these, 303 miles are in Yunnan, 231 

•long the border of Kwcichow and Kwangsi, 387 in the province of 

Kwangsi, and the remainder, 196 miles, in Kwangtung. 

Below the confluence of the Si Kiang and the "River of the North" the 
n is again divided almost at right angles. The main channel 
flows southwards to the coast, while a second branch trends eastwards 
to the network of countless branches and backwaters everywhere inter- 
secting the alluvial pliins of Canton. This labyrinth of waters is joined 
tTom the east by another great stream, the Tung Kiang, or "River of the 
' whose farthest sources rise in the northeast on the frontiers <>f 
Kiangsi and Fukien. This is also an important highway, especially for 
the transport of sugar, rice, and other agricultural produce. 

Thanks to the tides, nearly all the channels of the delta are nav-gable, 
and so numerous are these watercourses that in a region over 3,000 square 
nilcs ii! extent land routes are scarcely anywhere required. Thus the whole 
population has almost become amphibious, living indifferently on land 
and afloat. Large water fairs have even been held in the delta, when 
reaches, at other limes almost deserted, have been temporarily converted 
into extensive floating- rities. Other industries besides fishing are pursued 
by the inhabitants, and many even of the agricultural classes reside per- 
manently in boats moored to the shore. This region has thus naturally 

DC the great center of commerce. But here also during times of dis- 

piracy has found a convenient home amid the intricate maze <A 

channell ramifying the delta. Even European war vessels have found it 

difficult to rid this region from the daring corsairs by whom it has long 

been infested. 

The city of Canton stands about midway between the two heads of the 
delta which is formed on the west by the united Si Kiang and Pen, Kiang, 
on the cast by the branches of the Tung Kiang. Thus from this point 
junks reach the two estuaries by the shortest channels. Of these the 
broadest and deepest, ramifying eastwards, is known as the "River of 
Canton," or the "Pearl River" (Chu Kiang), a name supposed to be derived 
from that of Fort Hai-chu, or "Pearl of the Sea," better known as the 
"Dutch Folly."* 

But even by this channel large vessels are unable to reach Canton, 
junks of deep draught and ordinary steamers stopping 8 miles lower down 
at Hwangpu (Whampoa), while large men-of-war are arrested much farther 
down by a bar which has only 13 feet at ebb tide. The limit of the Pearl 
River nr.d of the estuary is clearly marked by the rocky cliffs confining 
the channel on both sides, and the fortified headlands of which have been 
compared by the Chinese to the "jaws of a tiger." Hence the expression 
Ilu-men, translated by the Europeans into "Bocca Tigris," or the "Bogue." 
The shoals and even the banks of the stream are subject to constant shift- 
ings, the land generally encroaching on the channel, owing to a line of 
hills which run southwest and northeast across the alluvial soil, and which 
serve to retain the sedimentary matter brought down by the stream and 
washed back by the tides. The northernmost of these ridges consists of 
1 arge islands, above some of which rise elevated crests, such as the 
(wo peaks of the island of Wangkum at the entry of the Canton estuary, 
better known by its Portuguese name of Montanha. 

In the West River basin the torrid and temperate zones are 
intermingled. With the alternation of the monsoons, Canton oscillates 
between the two, so that its climate is far less equable than that of Cal- 
cutta, Honolulu, Havana, and other places situated under the same 
parallel. 

COMPARATIVE TEMPERATURE OV VARIOUS TROPICAL CITIES 

Canton 

Calcutta 

Honolulu 

Havana 

During the moist summer monsoon the southern provinces are as hot 
as Indian cities equally distant from the equator. But the temperature 
rapidly falls in winter, when the dry northeast polar winds sweep down 
1 etweeo the parallel mountain ranges, running mainly northeast and south- 
west. Rain seldom falls in January, when the nights are clear and even 
frosty. At the same time, the regular alternation of moist summer and 
dry winter winds is occasionally disturbed by atmospheric currents, de- 
flected in various directions by the relief and contour of the seaboard. Thus 
the southwest monsoon becomes at Canton a southeasterly gale, and the 
lofty Mount Lantao is daily exposed to fierce storms for months' together. 

These climatic disturbances are also reflected in the flora of the 
southern provinces. Here the plains are bare in winter, when nature 
presents the same bleak aspect as in more northern regions. But all is 
changed with the return of the hot moist monsoons, under whose influence 



August 


February 


Mean 


81°F. 


58°F. 


70°F. 


83 


74 


79 


77 


70 


75 


80 


72 


77 



word rofP** '*' *" " D ° tCh *"*'" tl<m Foli ' «>»PH»n-E»«jiali pronunciation of the 



the tropical vegetation is revealed in all its splendour. Now the palm; 
and camellia flourish by the side of the oak, chestnut, and somber pine, 
while the banana, mango, litchi, orange, and citrons of divers species are 
intermingled with the fruit trees of the temperate zone. Many leafy- 
shrubs, confined in Europe to the conservatory, here thrive in the operr 
air, deckin? the landscape with their brilliant, blossom, charging the_ at- 
mosphere with a balmy perfume. The small island of Hongkong contains,, 
so to say, an epitomeof this varied and beautiful southern flora. 

In this favoured region the unreclaimed tracts are far too limited tee 
afford shelter for many wild animals of large size. Few mammals are met 
besides the wild goat and fox on the coast and islands, and in the interior 
the rhinoceros and tiger. Smaller animals, as well as birds, insects, and* 
butterflies; are numerous, and mostly of species allied to those of India. 

No consideration of the West River basin would be complete without 
reference to the character of its inhabitants. It has already been noted that 
owing to the diversities of race the people are difficult to govern, and this- 
difficulty is increased by the distance of the region from the seat of govern- 
ment, but to these factors a third of very great importance has to be added.. 
It was to the city of Canton, or at least to the towns of the Canton 'delta,, 
where the fiist traders from the West, Arabs, Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch,. 
^British, and the rest, directed their course when they sought to open- 
trade with China. Canton became in time the great, and practically the 
sole entrepot for foreign trade. Several centuries of intercourse with the 
outside world have not made the dwellers in the great southern basin any- 
more amenable than they would otherwise have been to government from- 
without, and government from without is what government from any one 
of China's numerous capitals has been, for never has the capital of China 
been within the West River basin. This spirit of independence, artificially- 
stimulated by the clash of races and by intercourse with the outer world, 
and naturally encouraged, as Schlegel has pointed out for other races, by 
Ihe proximity of the sea, has made the West River basin the natural fons- 
et origo of the greatest of the Chinese insurrectionary movements. In- 
rccent times the Taiping Rebellion and the Panthay Rebellion both took 
their rise in the West River basin, and the movement that led to the 
Hundred Days' Reform in 1898 and finally to the Chinese Revolution- 
(though the actual revolt in the latter case actually, though accidentally,, 
broke out in the Wuhan cities) sprang directly from Canton. T. T. 
Meadows, one of the keenest and most philosophical observers of the 
Chinese, has described the Cantonese as "the Anglo-Saxons of China."" 
So far as he may mean that the Cantonese have a remarkably single eye 
to what they believe to be their own interests, he is right. They do not 
allow sentiment to stand in the way; or anything else either. 

SOVEREIGNTY OF CHINA 
As already noted, China was at one time surrounded by an almost 
complete circle of dependent states. Beginning with Japan, it was possible 
to pass through Manchuria, Mongolia, Turkestan, Tibet, Northern Siam„ 
Annam, and Tongking, and all the time be on Chinese territory. Gradually 
inroads have been made on this complete environing of China Proper by 
Chinese Dependencies. In the thirteenth century, Kublai Khan tried to 
make Japan recognize his overlordship, but did not succeed ; and for nearly 
two centuries Chinese authority was practically non-existent in Japan. 
In the middle of the sixteenth century the Emperor of China allowed the 
rulers of Japan to assume the name of King on condition of their paying 
to the Chinese court an annual tribute of a thousand taels of gold. In the 
course of time, Japan achieved her independence and the payment fell into- 
desuetude. For many centuries Korea (Chosen as it is now officially called)' 
recognized the overlordship of China, and this overlordship culminated in 
the era of the Mings. At this time the native rulers of Chosen felt 
honoured by being invested with their authority at the hand or through 
the patent of the Son of Heaven, and after the Manchus had ousted the 
Mings from China, the Chosenese, loyal to their Ming patrons, had to be 
invaded and visited with all the horrors attending the uncurbed rule of 
the conqueror's sword before they would accept or recognize the Manchu 
overlordship and pay them, under treaty stipulation, a yearly tribute of 
100 ounces of gold and 1,000 ounces of silver, together with stipulated 
quantities of ginseng, furs, textiles, and other natural and industrial pro- 
ducts For some time, however, China exercized no practical jurisdiction 
over the peninsula. It was only when Russian and Japanese interests- 
began to clash in Korea that the question of Chosenese independence 
assumed a vitally important character. As the result of the China-Japan 
War, the real cause of which was as much an unconscious Japanese pre- 
vision cf Tsarist dominance in the peninsula as Japanese jealousy of 
Chinese influence, the independence of Korea was declared in the Treatv 
of Shimonosek,, less than ten years after which Korea had recognized the 
suzerainty of Japan, and in August, i 9 io, Japan swallowed up K«« .and 
made the peninsula part of the Japanese Empire 

of rStl t^t In 3 - S ? edal rdatiQa to China/The ex-Imperial House 
U S n 1 I u ndl ? ot ^ m ' and if the <l uestion *«e raised-which it 
is not likely to be-what is the exact status of the ex-Imperial HoW in 

the Si! '^ ^T 1 t0 thC """^ WOrld - ManehtiaTnd to 
the Chinese as the Three Eastern Provinces, it would be very difficult Z 
answer Manchuria has been the battleground of four peJles.TlSe or 
which have been engaged for decades in fierce diplomatifsTruggS anl 
on two occasions diplomacy has broken down. It would not be fuSisW 
therefore if it broke down again, and before very long. ^ iKSTrf 
Manchuria, agricultural and mineral, is so enormous that CMn£ f a ?ft 1 
to retain undisputed possession of the country AlSov o W J ? * T 
have created there vested interests of a very substfS ct ,!, f ^ 
again a clash may come between those natIS, the uriho ofwhS"* *** 
£ maynot be a transference of sovereignty ^Tpart It S?c?£ 



GENERAL BACKGROUND 



Mongolia, with its million and a third of square miles of territory, 
qccnpied on an average by only two persons to the square mile, is 
rapidly becoming also a region the sovereignty of which is indeterminate. 
Nominally still a part of China, in spite of declarations of independence 
that have been wholly or partially revoked, Mongolia is' in a state of 
flux. The sinister influence from the east that has been for years under- 
mining the status of China in Manchuria has more recently, but very 
effectively, sought to alienate Mongolian sympathies from China. A halt 
has been called to this process of alienation, however, but it may easily 
be that the halt is but a halt between two opinions, an opportunity for 
decision between acknowledging any suzerainty and acknowledging none. 
The course of conduct in relation to Mongolia that China has long been 
pursuing has not been such as to grapple Mongolian affections to Peking. 
Chinese colonization is pushing its way farther and farther into the country 
and Chinese commercial acumen is proving a serious factor in the elimina- 
tion of the Mongol as a trader. By nature and circumstances the Mongol 
is more inclined to pastoral than to commercial occupations. The Chinese, 
on the other hand, have the trading instinct very fully developed. The 
result is a rivalry between the two that can only serve the interests of 
third parties, if they care to take advantage of the dissensions. 

Sinkiang, or the New Dominion, is really an attempt, dating from the 
seventies of last century, to stay the forward movement of Tsarist Russia. 
Known to Europeans as Chinese Turkestan, it is officially called Sinkiang 
or the New Dominion, and was reorganized in 1877 as the result of several 
local disturbances and the constant unrest due to risings brought about by 
the intrigues of Yakub Beg. These constant risings have given abundant 
opportunity for predatory advances by Tsarist Russia, always disguised 
under the friendliest appearances. The Peking authorities held that it would 
be better to re-organize Chinese Turkestan as a province of the Empire and 
so afford no excuse for a further creeping southwest on the part of Russia. 
The result of this emphatic step may be seen in the Treaty of 1881 between 
Russia and China regarding the outer territory of Hi and Kuldja, which 
indicates that Russia realized that the day for petty pilfering had gone. 
The province is known locally only by local names, such as Hi, Kuldja, 
Khotan, Yarkand and Kashgar. Before the conversion of this territory 
into a province, the name Kashgaria was frequently applied to the district 
by Europeans, but there seems to be no reason for the maintenance of this 
name since the collapse of Yakub Beg's independent state with its capital 
at Kashgar. In the same way, the "Kingdom of Khotan" has ceased to 
be applicable in any sense. Chinese Turkestan comprises ten major 
divisions, which, proceeding from the southwest, are : Khotan, Yarkand, 
■Vangihissar, Kashgar, Wushih-Turfan, Aksu, Paicheng, Kuche, Koria, and 
Karashar- Three military commandants reside at Karashar, Khotan, and 
Yarkand, the seat of the last being also the seat of the general administra- 
tion, of the province. Of the so-called cities, seven are supposed tc enjoy 
special dignity, apart altogther from their size and administrative rank. 



Khotan, Yarkand. Yangihissar, Kashgar, Wushih-Turfan, Kuche, and 
Karashar are the privileged members cf this Jiti-Shahr, or '-heptopolis. 

In Chinese maps of the Republic there are shown two territories 
adjacent to Sinkiang, one to the north and the other to the southeast, 
which deserve some attention. To the north there is a comparatively 
small area designated Altai. This area is largely occupied by the moun- 
tains of the same name, and is administered practically independently of 
Sinkiang, though for certain purposes regarded as a part of it, and for 
some other purposes dependent on Mongolia. The region to the southeast, 
twice the size of Altai and half the size of Sinkiang, is Tsmghai or 
Kokonor. It is an administrative division independent of Sinkiang, Tibet, 
Kansu, Chwanpien, or Szechwan, made up of portions of each of these. 
The object of the creation of Tsinghai as an administrative unit is to 
provide an excuse for pressing back into Tibet the frontier of China 
Proper This action is not taken out of any animosity towards Tibet, 
but the Chinese authorities fear that recent British relations with and 
attitude towards Tibet foreshadow the establishment of something in the 
nature of a protectorate, and they desire to protect the original China 
Proper by including within its borders as large an area as possible from 
the peripheral territories. The same motives have led to the establish- 
ment as a separate administrative entity of the region shown in the Chinese 
maps as Chwanpien, or the Szechwan Marches which, by absorbing ths 
western frontier region of Szechwan and a considerable strip on the eastern 
frontier of Tibet, has pushed back the nominal frontier of China Proper 
well into Tibet. 

The relations between China and Tibet have not in recent years been 
such as to tend towards a closer union between the two. The actions of 
the British Government have not tended in that direction either. In 1904 
a British Mission, originally of a pacific character, made its way to Lhasa 
after fighting part of its way, and negotiated a treaty, which was later 
ratified, by which the Chinese Government undertook not to press its 
authority on Tibet. In December 1909 the Dalai Lama, who had fled the 
country at the approach of the British Mission, returned to Lhasa, and 
his return coincided with a determined attempt on the part of China to 
strengthen her position in Tibet. A Chinese force was then on its way 
to Lhasa and entered the town on the 12th of February 1910, whereupon the 
Dalai Lama fled to India and was deposed by the Indian Government. 
He has since returned, and his return has not been made the subject of 
protest by the Chinese authorities. When, during the Revolution, the 
Tibetans practically threw off their allegiance to China, and the Chinese 
authorities sought to compel the acknowledgment of allegiance by armed 
force, the British-Indian authorities objected, and the armed troops sent 
to enforce allegiance were withdrawn. From that time, the British-Indian 
and Chinese Governments have had frequent exchanges of views about 
Tibet, but no definite understanding has been reached, and nominally Tibet 
is still as much a part of China as ever. 



LANGUAGE AREAS AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENTS IN CHINA 



I— SUMMARY BY PROVINCES 

An h-wci— Northern Mandarin, with slight variation frcm Pekingese, 
but nearer to it than to Nankingese is heard throughout the province, 
except in the extreme south, in and around Hweichow, where a local dialect 
is spoken allied to the Wu dialects of Chekiang. 

Chekiang— Chekiang is situated in the Wu dialect region. Around 
Hangchow a variation of Mandarin is used. In the city of Ningpo and 
the surrounding country the Ningpo dialect is spoken by approximately 
6,000,000 people. Slight variations of it are in use in the Shaohingfu 
district. Kinhwafu, Wenchow, Taichowfu, and Chuchow have local 
dialects of their own. These dialects differ much from each other. Some 
of them resemble the dialects of Fukien. In the western sections of the 
province aboriginal tribes may still be found speaking the Miao language. 

Chihli— Northern Mandarin is universally spoken throughout Chihli. 
But here as in other provinces in which Mandarin is spoken, local varia- 
tions are sometimes considerable, and the common people of Peking may 
have trouble in understanding the speech of the people who are but a 
hundred miles distant, especially toward the north. 

Fukien — Because of its isolation, Fukien has had little difficulty in 
retaining local dialects which differ greatly from Mandarin and the local 
dialects of neighbouring provinces. 

One need not travel a great distance before hearing a new dialect 
spoken, which may or may not be intelligible 30 miles away. All this has 
historical significance .and takes one back to the times when a number 
of petty and isolated states existed throughout southeastern and southern 
China. The Amoy dialect is spoken by approximately 5,000,000 people; 
the FooMsow dialect by 8,000,000 ; and the Hinghwa dialect by approximate- 
ly 2,000,000. Kienyang, Kienning, Tingchow, and Shaowu districts possess 
colloquial variations of theii own. 

Honan— Mandarin is spoken throughout the province. 

Hunan — The prevailing language is Western Mandarin, with local 
variations. 

Hupeh— The Mandarin dialect is spoken throughout the province. 

Kansu— The unusual variety of languages within the boundaries 
of Kansu province presents a difficult problem to the promoters of 
educational and evangelistic work, particularly in western and north- 
western Kansu. The Chinese who constitute about one-half of the total 
population speak Mandarin. It is estimated that at least one-third of these 
Chinese live in the south and southeast. Besides the Chinese, there are 
Salar Moslems, south of Payenjungko, who use a dialect resembling Turki ; 
Tungsiang Moslems, east of Hochow, who speak a language differing little 
from. Mongolian ; and a small proportion of Arabic-speaking Moslems. T n 



addition to these, immigrants from Tibet, Turkestan, and other provinces 
of China are scattered everywhere. About 50,000 aborigines are still 
inhabiting the mountain fastnesses northeast of Siningfu. 

Kiangsi— Southern Mandarin is universally spoken throughout the 
province, except in the extreme southern and eastern sections where the 
country borders on Fukien and Kwangtung. Here Mandarin is understood 
with difficulty, and local variations of Fukien and Kwangtung dialects 
are heard. 

Kiangsu— The Mandarin dialect is heard throughout northern and 
western Kiangsu. In the southeast, local dialects, chiefly those of Soochow 
and .Shanghai, prevail. In the city of Shanghai, Ningpoese and Cantonese 
are also frequently heard. 

Kwangsi— In the northern section of Kwangsi, Mandarin is spoken 
by the great majority of the people. Here and there, where- 
ever aboriginal tribes exist, peculiar dialects are heard. Groups of Hakka- 
speaking people are scattered over the central part of the province, and on 
to the west. Throughout the southern section of Kwangsi, Cantonese is 
the prevailing language. Just north of Pingnamyiin there is a large area 
known as the Yao Mountain district still uncharted where a local dialect 
prevails of which little is known. In the extreme southeast, while Can- 
tonese is used in the cities and market towns, the prevailing language is 
a local dialect not heard in any other section of the province. Throughout 
the entire western section, intermingled with Mandarin in the north 
and Cantonese in the South, are many tribal dialects chief among them 
being the T'o or Chung dialect. All of these more or less resemble the 
language of the Tai and Laos of Siam. 

In the southwest one hears a pure T'o dialect, except among the 
educated Chinese, where Mandarin or Cantonese is spoken. 

Kwangtung— Cantonese is the chief language in the province. Man- 
darin is spoken among the official classes. Every large race as well as 
the various aboriginal tribes ha/ve their own dialects or languages. The 
Hakka dialect is spoken by approximately 4,000,000. In the Swatow 
district the dialect spoken by approximately 3,000,000 resembles the 
language commonly heard in southern Fukien. 

The island of Hainan presents a most complicated language situation. 
A list of the spoken languages follows :— Hainanese, an offshoot of the 
Amoy dialect, Hakka, Mandarin, of a special variety not well known, 
Kochow speech, a branch of Cantonese, Tai, spoken by the Loi, closely 
related to the speech of the Laos people : a. .So-called "tame," three or 
fcur varieties; b. So-called "wild," several varieties, and Miao. 

Kweichoie— One-third to one-half of the inhabitants of Kweichow are 
Chinese, many of whom are immigrants from Hunan and Szechwan. They 



IHB CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



»pokrn in 



northern sections of the province, constitute the 
d speak .1 Mandarin not unlike that 
^c, Kwetchow 1ms a large number of 








s 


set kwn— 


-The 


BOi 


'. « 


mtern M. 


mdai 


Tri 








At; 




la t!urif< 


ire t 


■p 




n with a 


notfc 



no. Mr 



-ifk.< the many different tril>es under four main 

hlao a VBao, and Chungkia, or Tai. The 

' communities is monosyllabic, and 

ecn borrowed from the Chinese. 

iage of the people. Even the 

I the province, with few excep- 

peak and under-tand Mandarin. 

r;ii is the prevailing language, again with 
■; of the province, whore the brogue 
mmon speech is not understood elsewhere. 
Spoken throughout the entire province, except 
ctions in the north, where Mongolian is used. 

• majority of the people of S/.echwan are Chinese 

rin is the prevailing language. Many of these Chinese 

other provinces. The physical features of the 

contact of the people with surrounding 

Mongol type, others are of the Burmese. 

Sif m inhabit the extreme northwest and are governed 

;. Tibetans with their lamas and monasteries are ex- 

throughout the extreme west. In the southwest there 

I tribes which claim to belong to an independent 

id M uit/.e or Lolo. The language in the Szechwanese 

non-Chinese. Everywhere else Western Mandarin is 

blc clearness of enunciatim. 

Idition to the Chinese, many of whom are immigrants 

wekhow, Honan, Hupeh, and Kwangtung, Yunnan has 

ntx r of aboriginal tribes, commonly numbered between 50 and 

.{ these have distinct dialects if not distinct languages. In a 

report to the British Government, F.S.A. Bourne, Esq., advances the idea 

that nianv of iIk-sc tribes are only different branches of the same 

ily, and therefore that their dialectic differences are only 

; the same original tongue. "There is no family of the human 

itainly no family with such claims to consideration, of whom so 

little is accurately known as of the non-Chinese races of southern China. 

This is due in a great measure to the perfect maze of senseless names 

taken from the Chinese in which the subject is involved; there is one 

.'.ue, for example, giving 141 classes of aborigines, each with a 

separate name, and no attempt is made to arrive at a broader classification. 

Exclusive of the Tibetan-Barman tribes, there are three great non-Chinese 

races in southern China : the I.clo, the Shans, and the Miaotze" Most of 

the tribespeople are very ignorant and many have no written language 

of their own. 

Manchuria — Manchuria is occupied by a mixed people, Manchus, 
Mongols, and Chinese, all of relatively pure blood, mingling with hybrids 
of all three races. The Chinese element predominates, and their superior- 
ity in numbers is fast increasing, partly due to natural fecundity and 
partly to continued immigration. Northern Mandarin is the prevailing 
language. Other tongues, like Manchu and various Mongol dialects, are 
obsolete or quickly going into disuse. Unsubdued tribes and nomads are 
scattered over the steppes and wooded regions of the north, while the 
Chinese occupy the towns. 

II— LANGUAGES AND DIALECTS OF CHINA 
I — Chinese 
(1) Mandarin. 

A. Mandann Proper, divided into Northern, Southern, and Western 
varieties. These are enough alike so that the speaker of one understands 
and is understood, after a little experience, in the districts of the others. 
About 300,000,000, or three-fourths of the whole population, in all the 
provinces of the Republic, speak Mandarin. The coast dialects differing 
from Mandarin widely in their pronouns and particles, are otherwise suffi- 
ciently like it so that almost every written character shows affinities, in 
its pronunciation, with Mandarin. One may confirm this by observing 
the lists of Romanized pronunciations furnished, for some nine Chinese 
dialects, for each character in Giles' Dictionary. 

B. Hakka Dialect— This consists partly of old Mandarin, and partly of 
Cantonese, Mandarin being the chief element. The Hakka ( %g 5J ), i.e. 
"Strangers" or "Guests," live mainly in the province of Kwangtung. 
They came probably from Kiangnan, at different times during the four- 
teenth century. Traces of them are still found in Tingchowfu, Fukien, 
where the language is pure Hakka. The number of speakers of the Hakk a 
vernacular is over 7,000,000. The Wukingfu variety of Hakka is spoken 
by at least 3,000,000. Hakka is also spoken by some Hainanese. 

C. Hangchoic Colloquial— -This is the vernacular of the capital of 
Chekiang province. It is a reminiscence of the Tartar Dynasty which 
made Hangchow its capital, but while distinctly Mandarin (as shown by 
the pronominal and other tests), it tends to approach the Wu dialects with 
which k is surrounded. It is almost entirely confined to the city, and can 
be spoken by hardly more than 1,000,000 people. 

D. Hainan Mandarin, a variety whose special characteristics are not 
well known. 

E. Other Varieties, spoken by small groups, should be included in a 
strictly complete philological survey, but they total so small a number of 
speakers that for the purposes of this Survey they need not be noted here 
(z) Coast Dialects. 

A. I('» Dialects, named from their locality, which is roughly included 
in the ancient kingdem of Wu, now Kiangsu province south of the 
Yangtze, and the eastern two-thirds of Chekiang. 



a Soochow colloquial, spoken by not more than 10,000,000 peop e. 
b' Shanghai colloquial, spoken by not more than 10,000,000 people. 
c." Ningpo colloquial, the principal dialect of Chekiang province, 
spoken by about 6,000,000 people. 

d. Taichow colloquial, a variety of Ningpo, spoken by about 
500,000 people. . 

e. Kinhwa colloquial, the vernacular of the city of Kinhwa in 
Chekiang, a citv of about 30,000 people. 

f. Wenchow colloquial, spoken by about 1,000,000 people. 

g. etc. 

B. Fukien Dialects: 

a Kieuyang colloquial, spoken by 500,000 people. 

b. Kienning colloquial, spoken by the same number of people. 

c. Shaowu dialect, spoken by 100,000 people. 

d. Foochow dialect, spoken by 8,000,000 people. 

e. Tingchow colloquial, spoken by 1,000,000 people. 

f. Hinghvva dialect, spoken by 2,000,000 people. 

g. Amoy dialect, spoken by 10,000,000 people, 
h. Hainanese, an offshoot of Amoy. 

i. etc. 

C. Kwangtung Dialects: 

a. Swatow dialect, spoken ty 3,000,000 people. 

b. Hakka dialect (see (1) Mandarin, Section B above). 

c. Samkong colloquial, spoken by 300,000 people. 

d. Canton dialect, spoken by 15-20,000,000 people. 

e. etc. 

II_ Non-Chinese Languages and Dialects 

( Miao-Yao Group 

a. Mon-Khmer Family \ Minkia Group 

I Wa-Palaung Group 

b. Shan or Tai Family 

t Tibetan Group (spoken by 6,000,000 people) 
Sifan Group 

c. Tibeto-Burman Family-! Lolo Group (Lisu, Nosu) 

j Burmese Group 
\ Kaehin Group 

d. Mongolian, spoken by ,3,000,000 people. 

e. Kalmuck, spoken by 300,000 people. 

f. Nogai-Turki, spoken by 4,000,000 people. 

g. Manchu, used principally by colonies of Manchus settled in 
Turkestan. 

h. Qazaq-Turki, spoken by 500,000 people. 

Ill— SUMMARY OF AREAS AND LANGUAGES 

In interpreting the meaning of these dialectic and tribal differences, 
there are two extreme attitudes. To say that the differences are insigni- 
ficant is, of course, to overlook stern facts; but to treat the dialects of 
China as if they were separate languages is equally erroneous. The 
Chinese dialects are undoubtedly all branches of one parent stem, 
monosyllabic, with similar grammatical tendencies and thought forms. 
Though a local brogue or different pronunciation may make many words 
mutually unintelligible to speakers from different areas, yet a little more 
thorough acquaintance will show that even in the most diverse dialects 
the majority of words have some similarity of sound and evidently come 
from a common source. This makes the understanding of speakers of 
strange dialects far more easy than the learning of a new language. 

The aboriginal tribes are also related to the Chinese peoples. Their 
languages are also polytonic and monosyllabic. These people all share 
to a large degree, if not entirely, the same ancient ancestral stock. It is 
quite possible that some of them differ from the Chinese only in years of 
separation from the larger and more civilized branch of the family. The 
written language cf the Lolo, for instance, is quite clearly related to the 
ancient Chinese form of writing. For further evidence as to the relation- 
ship between all of these peoples, the reader should consult Major Davies' 
book, "Yunnan, the Link between India and the Yangtze," -Appendix 
VIII, which treats of the tribes of Yunnan. There is little reason to doubt 
that in the future all of these peoples will be absorbed into the larger 
branch of the family and share in the Chinese civilization as well as its 
language and literature. 

It is to be noted that wherever any dialect of Chinese is spoken. 
Christian literature is available for all literates; for these can read the 
classical written language which differs, widely from any spoken Chinese, 
and is genuinely monosyllabic and very sententious ; and even when the 
degree of learning is not high, the written form of Mandarin can be read *>y 
those who do not speak it. The invention of the Pollard script for 
aboriginal tribes of the southwest solves a serious problem for the grow- 
ing Christian constituency of that region. Practically speaking the 
number of those people of China and her outer territories which have none 
of the Bible in a written language that corresponds to their ordinary 
speech is so small as to be almost negligible, and there is not a doubt that 
this tiny minority, will disappear within the next few years. This means 
that there will presently be a body of Christian literature available for 
everybody mentioned in the lists of peoples given above. As for the 
illiterates, who form so large a portion of the population, the former effort 
to provide Christian literature in the Romanized form, and the present 
effort to provide it by the use of the National Phonetic Script, are con- 
sidered m the following sections. F 

The origin and persistence of (he numerous coast dialects have never 
been satisfactorily explained. The common theory among students of the 
languages of China is that early Tartar conquerors push! d the abound 
rnbes to the Eastern coast and up into the mountain fastnesses of the Wes 
and South. In the mountains the separation was so complete that the 
ancient aboriginal anguages have been preserved almost without chUS 
(just as happened in the Appalachians in America). On the coast how- 



GENEEAL BACKGKOUND 
Language Map op China 




•ever, where the people have mixed and intermarried, the tendency is con- 
sistently to approximate the conquering language, old missionaries have 
noted speech changes during their life-time. As a national consciousness 
"has arisen among the Chinese and especially since the establishment of the 
Republic, the conscious efforts to make one language for the whole of Chim 
proper have increased. On the one hand the Government sees its problems 
-made much easier by the adoption if a National Language; on the other, 
Ihe missionaries see that evangelism will be much more rapid if there is 
a single medium through which to deal. We now proceed to consider the 
present results of this double effort. 

IV— ROMANIZATION 
In many regions for more than two generations numerous missionaries 
"have given labourious efforts to the translation of the Scriptures into a 
Romanized form for their particular dialect. In a summarized report of 
this labour we note that one of the Bible Societies states its total issues 
ior over 30 years from 1890 to 1920 as follows : 

Bibles and Old Testaments 18,055 

New Testaments 57,693 

Portions 96,872 



If now we compare the total sales for the 30 years with the sales' 
report for the 5 years from 1916 to 1920, we find some interesting facts. In 
the Amoy area alone does the later period indicate an increased rate of 
sale. The Amoy total for 30 years is reported as 62,323, while the sales 
for the last 5 years are 29,179. In contrast to this the Cantonese total for 
30 years is 15,350, with a total for the last 5 years of only 524. The Foochow 
total for 30 years is 16,895, while that for the last 5 years is 1,429. The 
Hainan total for 30 years is 4,900, while that for the last 5 years is 439- 
The Ningpo total for 30 years is 16,310, for 5 years 1,406. The Swatow 
total for 30 years is 13,424, for 5 years 1,675 '> Taichow for 30 years, 8,914, 
while for the last 5 years it is only 84 copies. The Wenchow total for 30 
years is 2,400, while for 5 years the report is 196. 

Thus we see that in all these regions except the first, Amoy, the rate 
of sale for the last 5 years compared with the total 30 years has very 
gradually decreased, whereas with the normal development of the Church 
one would expect an increase. We find that in larger centers like Ningpo, 
Swatcw, Foochow, and Canton the actual rate of sales for the last 5 years 
is approximately one-half of the average for the 30 years, while for certain 
smaller centers such as Taichow and Wenchow, the rate of sales is from 
one-third to one-twelfth of the original sales and we are told that in many 



10 



THE CHBISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 






of tbe smaller diakct region* there is no longer any demand for the 
Romaniml. Th« statement given above as to the use of Romanized Scrip- 
ture* is typical of the whole state of the case for the use of Romanized, 
bat wt have entirely omitted to describe the very considerable amount et 
literature other than the Bible published in Romanized which has been 
used particularfv at Xingpo, Foocbow and Amoy the publication of whicn 
dug rapidly. In some places the National Phonetic is 
frytny nscl irith the thought that it may replace the Romanized, to whose 
ut of illiteracy was always attached as well as the stigma ei 
n; but Jhciigh diligent efforts have been made with the 
rrpt to particular dialects, it does not yet appear that 
v welcome (for the stigma of illiteracy was only 
rred. not removed as was the foreign stigma, though a few 
.ire wjrking hard to persuade the Chinese Church to adopt 
e present trend is decidedly away from Romaniza- 
veroment encouragement of the use of the National 
nrl their requirement that it and the National Language 
in all national schools cf whatever region in China, indicate a 
ing the coast dialects out of existence, at least of making 
Bfll language so well known that it will be spoken and 
■ rywberc For that reason the Government decidedly frowns 
of the National Fhonetic Script to the dialects. In the 
the aoth century there was a frank effort to introduce a 
■In Romanization into the Mandarin-speaking churches, 
. from Shantung who visited Ningpo and observed with 
delight that :>1! the illiterate church members were reading from Romanized 
and ringing from Romanized hymnbooks. But the effort to produce 
result among the speakers of Mandarin, though consistently made 
through a period of several years, died away from lack of support from the 
Chinese. The failure of this experience undoubtedly sounded the death 
knell of Romanization. There can be little doubt but that some form of 
phonetic script based upon the Chinese character will take its place. We 
sire just now in the midst of various experiments in this field and we 
d in the next section to describe the principal one of these 
intents. 

V— NATIONAL PHONETIC SCRIPT 
In the early days of the Republic a conference of Chinese scholars, 
appointed by the Government, agreed upon a standard pronunciation for 
some seven or eight thousand characters, and adopted 39 symbols as u 
phonetic alphabet with which to indicate these pronunciations. The use 
of Roman letters for this alphabet was voted down, and simple stroke 
characters taken from the Chinese dictionary, suitable for writing in 
parallel columns with the Chinese characters, were selected. The Govern- 
ment had in view four objects : First, the standardization of the spoken 
language for all China by the adoption of an official pronunciation. 
Secondly, the promotion of a phonetic writing, that the standard spoken 
language might be recoided with ease. Thirdly, the unification of the 
spoken and written languages, for one of the educational and official 
problems in China for hundreds of years has been the great differences 
b e t w een the spoken and written language. Of course it was necessary that 
in addition to the promulgation of symbols for writing the spoken 
language, means should be adopted by which the spoken language could 
win to itself honour in the minds of learned men such as it had never had, 
and we devote a later section to the consideration of this special effort. 
fourthly, the Government desired a change from monosyllabic to poly- 
syllabic writing, for while the spoken language is composed of nominally 
monosyllabic words, nevertheless since the Mandarin syllabary contains 
c nly four cr five hundred syllables in actual speech, it is necessary to 
combine these in actual speech in a fashion which is practically poly- 
syllabic, in order to be understood, and it was believed that the written 
language ought to conform to actual spoken practice. Among officials, Gov. 
Yen of Shansi is most noted for his efforts to spread the knowledge 
and use of the National Phonetic Script. The missionaries have not been 
backward in trying it out and in 1918 the China Continuation Committee 
unanimously recommended its use by the Missions, Churches, Bible and 
Literature Societies, and appointed a sub-committee to secure the publica- 
tion of Christian literature in Phonetic Script and in every way to promote 
the wide-spread use of the system. This committee was able to secure 
the services of a secretary, Miss S. J. Garland, who has been devoting her 
whole time to the committee's work. Its efforts have included the publica- 
tion of teaching material, the study of teaching methods, close 
investigation of the standard of spelling and tone marking, phrasing and 
hyphenating, with the object of securing the greatest good to tbe greatest 
numher over wide fields, the preparation of type, typographical arrange- 
ments for typewriters, etc., propaganda to introduce the general use of 
the Script, and the preparation of the Scriptures in the Phonetic. A 
large measure of success has attended efforts hitherto. The New 
Testament is published in Script. A long list of publications through the 
"Phonetic I*romotion Committee," the British and Foreign Bible Society, 
the China Sunday School Union, the Literature Department of the 
Stewart Evangelistic Fund, the Central China Religious Tract Society, the 
Christian Literature Society, the Council on Public Health, the Mission 
Book Company, and the Chinese Tract Society is given in the advertising 
columns of their publications, and in addition the Commercial Press, the 
Chung Hwa Book Company, and the Phonetic Bureau in Peking publish 
dictionaries and text-books for the use of the Phonetic. The Committee 
also publishes glewing accounts of the success that missionaries have had 
in introducing this Phonetic Script into schools for all grades of illiterates. 
It is noticeable, however, that almost every one of the letters describing 
these successes come from Mandarin-speaking regions, and the farther 
south one gees along the coast, the fainter grows the chorus ; that it is not 
possible at the present time to report that the first object of the Govern- 



ment in introducing the Script, namely, the standardization of the spokera 
language throughout the land, has yet been attained m any noticeable- 
raasure It is not impossible that a system of alphabetical phonetic- 
writing which frankly adapts itself to the dialects without attempting to- 
abolish them, will ultimately have a wider acceptance. We can only be- 
sure that the present wide-spread effort is a healthy sign and we are sure- 
that the problems involved will, in the course of time, be solved in 3 
manner satisfactory to the Chinese people and, ipso facto, to the mission- 
aries. 
VI-THE NEW TIDE OF THOUGHT AND THE REVOLUTION IN 
LITERARY USAGE 

The fixing of a date for the beginning of the "New Tide of Thought"' 
(m & i8tt in China, (sometimes also called "The Renaissance" or 'The 
] Tterar'v Revolution") is extremely difficult. The same reasons wind* 
would place it at the coming of the Republic would push it back to the- 
Imperial edicts of 1898, and it is questionable if consistency could stop at 
that point. Whatever the date, the early indications of the cemmg of 
this new tide were chips and straws in the shape of new phrases appearing 
in Chinese newspapers and magazines. Many of these, probably most of 
them were imported from Japan where thousands of Chinese students hacT 
gone to imbibe Western learning. The Japanese had already solved to- 
their own satisfaction the problem of expressing the ideas of Western? 
science and culture by Chinese characters, chiefly by a study of the ancient; 
Chinese literature which they found to be a rich mine of phrases, which- 
were suitable to express new ideas because they had so largely fallen into- 
disuse, and so could be put to new uses ; partly by the deliberate manu- 
facture of new phrases, and even new characters, to meet the need. The 
old style scholar, accustomed to the involutions of the Chinese high- 
classical style, gasped at the sight of these new phrases used with non- 
chalance in Chinese newspaper articles, but he soon came to see their 
fitness and to be aware of the immense help which they afforded in intro- 
ducing to the Chinese mind the ideas of the modern world. The com- 
mercial barriers had long been broken down and now began the breaking: 
in earnest of the barriers of thought, so that East should no longer be- 
East, and Kipling's twain might meet. 

It is outside the province of a brief article such as the present one to- 
describe the process of this linguistic change in detail. Suffice it to say 
that books like Mrs. Mateer's "New Terms for New Ideas," Evan Morgau's- 
"New Terms and Expressions," and Hemeling's English-Chinese 
Dictionary contain practically all of the new terms now in current use, 
although, of course, the process of discovering and manufacturing is stilt 
going on. But this was not enough to accomplish the end which en- 
lightened Chinese educators had in view. It itself it was nothing but the 
piling of one heavy labour upon a labour already heavy enough. It 
demanded that the Chinese student, already much overburdened with his- 
task, should add to it a new task ; and, still further, these new ideas and 
the expression of them awakened in many people a desire to learn the 
foreign language of which they were supposed to be the expression or adap- 
tation. But to acquire a real knowledge of Chinese literature, and an ability 
to write the classical language, as well as a mastery of a foreign language 
and some foreign science and culture was impossible except to students 
of extraordinary mental caliber. The break was sure to come and come 
it did in the inspiration and guidance of a number of returned students,, 
the chief of whom were professors in the Government University at 
Peking ; men whose learning could not be questioned and who yet resolved 
boldly to thrust the old-style Chinese learning, which included mastery of 
one of the most recondite literary forms that any human race has ever 
produced, into the limbo of a respected and uncultivated discipline; and* 
to persuade Chinese students to devote themselves to the new learning 
using only the National Language and a European language as instru- 
ments. Thus began the movement for cultivation of the National Language 
which was linked very closely with the cultivation of the National Phonetie 
Script. The use of the Script, however, was intended chiefly for illiterates, 
and the educators saw that the object of standardizing the Chinese 
language could not be attained unless students and scholars could be per- 
suaded to write their productions in the National Language and to feel that 
it was honourable to do so. One of the first publications to adopt the 
National Language exclusively was that published by some of the Govern- 
ment University Professors in Peking called "La Jeunesse," ./£» 4fJ jfe\ 
at the same time, Professor Hu Shih published a very able "History of 
Chinese Philosophy" in the National Language. 

The idea spread like wild-fire. So skilfully written were the contents., 
of these and other publications that it was quickly seen that the new' 
literary style was equal in flexibility and force to that of the best modern 
classical authors — an instrument which, in the hands of a real literaty- 
master, might bid fare to challenge the supremacy of the famous com- 
mentator Chu Hsi to say nothing of moderns like Liang Chi-chao and Yen 
Fuh. As is often the case with a new movement, it was somewhat to> 
successful at first ; and many provincial newspapers, especially those in 
the South, which had at first adopted the exclusive use of the National 
Language with enthusiasm, presently grew tired of the new plaything,, 
threw it aside and returned to the joys of a high classical style even in' 
their news columns. This would appear to be nothing but the receding 
of the first wave and the second is already running in strongly. Not onlv 
newspapers and magazines but text books and readers of every grade are 
uow published in the National Language and used in the Government 
schools as well as in many of the mission schools, especially in the North 
Incidently it is a curious fact that the South, so forward politically is less- 
liberal in the matter of language culture than is the North • but' this is 
doubtless due to the fact that they do not speak the -National Language 
themselves but cling valiantly to their own dialects and regard the 



GENEEAL BACKGKOUND 



11 



National Language propaganda as a subtle means of taking tlie 
national balance of power from the place where they think it should be. 
It goes without saying that missionaries everywhere gratefully second the 
movement for simplifying the written and printed language of the nation. 
We say "everywhere," yet it must be confessed that in the South the 
voice of approbation is possibly fainter than elsewhere, less eager to join 
in this particular effort to provide for the Christian Church an instrument 
that shall make evangelism a more effective instrument of bringing m the 
Kingdom than it could be before the common speech was also the language 
of learning. Of course the missionaries in the South are as eager to get 
better instruments of evangelism as are their Northern brethren, but many 
of them do not believe the Southern dialects will ever die out and so will 
not commit themselves to any crepe-hanging measures. 

There is a single objection to the general use of the National Language, 
as opposed not to the dialects, but to the classical language and that is 
that it is more bulky than the classical. This makes it probable that iu 
works of reference, and in many other sections of the literature of know- 



ledge, for some time to come, the old classical style in its plainer form 
will continue to be used, for as a matter of fact it is really easier to read 
than are many productions in the National Language and it occupies from 
one-fcurth to one-third less space in a book. With this sole exception the 
movement for the use of the National Language bids fair to be successful on 
every hand in spite of Southern hesitation. Tlie Literature and Tract Socie- 
ties have for many years published books in Mandarin that were somewhat 
despised by the learned and there was a constant demand that works be 
produced in the Chinese high style to prove that Christianity was not 
backward in the matter of culture. All that is now past and it is the high 
style book whose value and influence are discredited. The output of 
Christian literature in the National Language has increased by leaps and 
bounds within the last three years and a number of Christian periodicals 
(noticeably a monthly called "Life" published by the Peking Apologetic 
Group) are using the National Language exclusively. There is no sign 
that this will cease to be the case ; on the contrary the indications are the 
other way, and for this we may thank God and take courage. 



THE POPULATION OF CHINA 



History— From earliest times, according to the histories of China now 
in circulation, elaborate statistics of the population have been taken. The 
periods were at first yearly, then triennial, and more lately quinquennial, 
although since 1812 no periodical census has been made. In her old tithing 
system China had an excellent paper machinery for registration. Each 
district had its appropriate officer, each street its constable, and every tea 
houses its tithing man. As long as the area of the Kingdom remained 
small, it may well be believed that excellent results were obtained, but us 
the size of the Empire extended and districts were only more or less sub- 
dued, and as fiscal questions became intermingled with those of censis 
taking, errors of calculation must be expected to have crept in. If ap. 
official has to surrender up taxes according to the population of his district, 
he and all dependent upon him are likely to see that numbers are kept down. 
Again, wher the amount of the pecuniary assistance granted by Peking 
depends upon the number of the population it is only natural that these 
numbers should be augmented. That such errors did occur is known from 
the Decree of the Emperor Yung Cheng (A.D. 1723-36) of the late Tsing 
Dynasty abolishing the capitation tax and amalgamating it with the land 
tax. 

According to Norman Shaw, the history of the Census in China may 
be divided into two parts. During the first, extending from the first 
recorded count in the 23rd century B.C. (when the figures were 3>5°°>«» - 
Wang Tao) down to 1741 A.D., with a few exceptions, the number of lax- 
paying households alone was recorded. In 1741, after repeated orders by 
the Emperor, the total number of individuals was counted and found to be 
143,412,000. 

Any detailed statement regarding population estimates in early times 
and down to within the last 30 or 40 years would be of little value to 
students of the present-day Christian occupation of China. Moreover, the 
extent of the Empire was constantly changing, thus making comparison cf 
figures impossible, and the returns, even after the country assumed more 
or less fixed limits, vary with such extraordinary rapidity, that they inspire 
little confidence. 

China has never had a census of the Western sort. The latest 
official estimate, that for 1885, fixed the population of the 18 provinces and 
Manchuria at 438,425,000. The census taken by the Ministry of the 
Interior (Minchengpu) in 1910 furnished figures which totalled 331,188,000; 
a difference of over 100,000,000. However, this more conservative figure, 
chiefly because it is more conservative, has always been regarded as the 
more reliable. With few exceptions, families were counted and not in- 
dividuals in the Minchengpu Census, and an average per family was 
carefully worked out for the sake of arriving at the approximate tot3l 
number of persons. The multiple was 5.5 individuals, except for the 
province of Fengtien, Manchuria, where it was set at 8.38 individuals per 
family. 

One of the weak points in this Minchengpu Census was Szechwan. 
The figure given was 16,400,000, which represented returns from five- 
sevenths of the province. Worked out on this basis, the population for 
the whole of Szechwan came to 23,000,000, and it is so set down in the 
statistics. This was obviously too low and some authorities in quoting 
figures since have arbitrarily changed the 23,000,000 for Szechwan to any- 
where from 40 to 60 millions, thus bringing the total China figure -for 1910 
up somewhere between 360,000,000 and 380,000,000. 

In 1919, the Customs estimate was 439,405,000, exclusive of Sinkiang 
and Tibet, thus approaching very nearly the official census of 1885, and 
leading one to believe that the commonly quoted "400,000,000" in China 
might not after all be so greatt an exaggeration. 

In the autumn of 1918, the Survey Committee through influential 
missionaries in the various provincial capitals, endeavoured to secure the 
latest official figures of population by hsiens. Previously, population 
estimates for hsiens were seldom heard of, and the Committee had no great 
hope of being able to secure them now, even if they existed. The census of 
population by hsiens as made by the Post Office in 1919-20 was then only 
being planned. No one knew when it would be inaugurated, much less 
completed. By the summer of 1919, population figures by hsiens for all 
but a few of the provinces had been received by the Survey Committee. 
Most of these came from Police Commissioners through officials higher 
up. Incidentally these lists of hsien populations made it possible for the 
Committee to adopt the hsien as its smallest geographical unit of study. 



In order to discover just how much confidence could safely be placed 
upon these official hsien estimates, copies were sent to at least one 
representative of each mission in each province, with the request that 
estimates obviously too high or too low be correspondingly so marked, and 
whenever possible a more correct and acceptable estimate be suggested. 
The result of this request was most satisfactory — even though the number 
of hsien estimates on which our correspondents felt qualified to express 
judgment was limited. 

For four or five provinces the Survey Committee received several 
different estimates the result no doubt of several counts made at intervals 
several years apart. Thus advantages of comparison were secured. 

No claims regarding the scientific accuracy of these official estimates 
as gathered and modified by the Survey Committee can be made. They 
represent, however, the best efforts in the interests of accuracy that the 
Committee and its 150 correspondents have been capable of. Again and 
again where several estimates for the same hsien were received, these 
either proved to be identical or were so nearly alike as to strengthen belief 
in the approximate accuracy of the one chosen. In a few cases, the most 
extreme differences were discovered and the Committee's only recourse was 
to accept the estimate which was most authoritative and recent. 

About this time the Chinese Post Office, aware of what the Survey 
Committee was doing in the matter of hsien populations, undertook to 
gather estimates of its own, with the assistance of provincial official-?. 
Advance copies of these estimates were very kindly supplied to the Com- 
mittee from Peking headquarters with the result that from the time these 
were received, whenever CCC official estimates differed greatly cr were 
lacking, the Post Office figures were invariably substituted. It was 
gratifying to note how nearly CCC and Post Office estimates for the same 
hsien agreed in the majority, of cases. Had the latter been available 
earlier, they would no doubt have been accepted by the Committee without 
attempting to collect official estimates itself. However, after close com- 
parisons and study we venture to believe that as much may be said for the 
accuracy of estimates originally supplied to the CCC as of those gathered 
later by the Post Office department. Some Committee correspondents, 
after consulting the hsien population estimates used in this Survey, hav-3 
declared them to be like all other population estimates in China, "mere 
guesses." And so they are, when compared with figures from any scientific 
census. On the other hand, careful counts have been made by police 
officials and soldiers in not a few hsiens and cities of China. The testimony 
of over half of our correspondents to the effect that the hsien estimates 
given are "undoubtedly as nearly correct as can be secured" would 
indicate a certain amount of careful gathering of figures. Several years 
ago in a survey of two mission fields in eastern China, very great care was 
taken by several missionaries assisted by Chinese assistants in making a 
census of all individuals living in their hsiens. The official estimates of 
these hsiens received by the Survey Committee in 1919 were in every case 
within several tens of thousands of the actual counts previously made under 
foreign missionary supervision. 

A comparison of estimates in the following table will show how 
unreliable, scientifically speaking, any census in China really is. Officials 
freely admit that the numbering of inhabitants, particularly in outlyin? 
districts is a matter of difficulty and rarely done with accuracy. For reasons 
personal and official the exact truth about population is often not told, 
although well known. For the present, one can only accept such estimates 
as have been made by officials or others most competent to make them. 
Undoubtedly the exact population of China is considerably lower than 
most estimates now lead one to believe. When a Western census is 
finally made, "we shall see what we shall see." Until then uncertain 
light in the form of "estimates" is better than utter darkness. Perlmps 
the present population of the Chinese Republic lies somewhere between 
350 and 400 millions. 

It is interesting to compare the different estimates given for the same 
provinces in the following table. The CCC figures for Szechwan and Fukien 
for example are comparatively high, although most Fukien missionaries 
contend that 13,000,000 is still unquestionably too low. Kansu missionaries 
think their province, at 6,000,000, which is the highest figure of the four 
estimates given, is certainly underestimated. It is safe to predict that 
when compared and studied province by province, there is no census 
which will not be pronounced too exaggerated by some and too conservative 
by others. 



1-2 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



Table I.— Population of Provinces 



Manchuria: 

Fengtien ... 

Kirin 

Heilangkiang 

Chihli 

Shantung 

Shansi 

Shensi 

Kiangsu 

Chekiang 

Anhwei 

Kiangsi 

Honan 

Hupeh 

Hunan 

Fukien 

Kwangtung 
Kwangsi 

Kansu 

Szechwan 
Kweichow 
Yunnan 



Total 



Inner Mongolia (g) 

Outer Mongolia 

Sinkiang 

Tibet (including Kokonor and 

Chwanpien). 



Area in Sq. Mi. 



63,700 
110,000 
190,000 

60,000 (b) 

55,984 

60,000 (b) 

75,290 

38,610 
36,680 
54,826 



67,954 
71,428 
83,398 

46,330 
100,000 
77,220 

125,483 
160,000 (b) 

67,182 
146,700 



1,760,283 (b) 



1,445,000 
550,340 

521,853 



Population Estimates of Provinces 



Bd. of Bevenue 
Census, 1885 



17,900,000 (c) 
36,500,000 
10,800,000 (c) 
3,300,000 

21,300,000 
11,700,000 
20,600,000 
24,500,000 

22,100,000 
33,600,000 
21,000,000 

23,500,000 
29,700,000 
5,100,000 

5,400,000 
71,000,000 (c) 

7,700,000 
11.700,000 



577,656,000 (e)(f) 



Bd. of Interior 
(Minchengpu) 
Census, 1910 



14,917,000 - 

32,571,000 (c) 
29,600,000 
10,000,000 (c) 
8,800,000 

17,300,000 
17,000,000 
17,300,000 
14,500,000 

25,600,000 
24,900,000 
23,600,000 

13,100,000 

27,700,000 

6,500,000 

5,000,000 
23,000,000 (c) 
11,300,000 

8,500,000 



351,188,000 (c) 



2,460,000 
2,491,000 



CCC Official 
Beturns, 1918-19 



12,487,583 
5,511,406 
2,000,000 
27,312,673 
30,955,307 
10,891,878 
9,087,288 

33,678,611 
22,909,822 
20,002,166 
24,490,687 

32,547,366 
28,574,322 
29,519,272 

17,067,277 
35,195,036 
10,872,300 

6,083,565 
61,444,699 (e) 
11,470,099 

8,824,479 



440,925,856 



6,743,000'! 
1,037,000 
1,750,000 Mh) 

2,200,OOOJ 



Post Office 
Estimates, 1920 (a) 



13,701,819 

34,186,711 (c) 
30,803,245 
11,080,827 (c) 
9,465,553 

33,786,064 
22,043,300 
19,832,665 
24,466,800 

30,831,909 
27,167,244 
28,443,279 

13,157,791 
37,167,701 
12,258,335 

5,927,997 
49,782,810 (c) 
11,216,400 

9,839,180 



427,679,214 (c) 



2,519,579 (i) 



Density per Sq. Mi. 



according to 

Minchengpu 

Census 



41 

281 (d) 
528 
122 (d) 
116 

448 
463 
315 

208 

376 

348 
282 

282 

277 

84 

40 
105 (d) 
168 

58 



174 (d) 



according to 
CCC Beturns 



196) 

50r54 

11 J 
456 
553 
182 
121 

872 
624 
365 
353 

479 
401 
355 

368 
352 
141 

48 
384 
171 

60 



250 



to 

Post Office 
Estimates 



37 

294 (d) 
550 
134 (A) 
125 

875 
600 
337 
353 

454 
380 
341 

284 
372 
158 

47 
228(d) 
167 

67 



182(d) 



(a) No data were available for one hsien in Peking district, and 3 hsiens in Manchuria, Mongolia, and Tibet. 

(b) Area of provinces since the inclusion of a portion of northern Chihli in Jehol, northern Shansi in Chahar, and western Szechwan in Chwanpien. Formerly the area of 
Chihli was estimated at 115,830 sq. mi., of Shansi at 81,853, and of Szechwan at 218,533. Note that all population estimates except those of the CCC are for the larger areas. 
In computing the density figures this fact has been taken into account. 

(c) Based on old provincial areas. 

(d) Computed on basis of old provincial areas. 

(e) Undoubtedly too high, although the Customs' estimate of 1919 credited Szechwan with 78,711,000. 

(f) Without Manchuria. 

(g) Includes Jehol, Chahar, Suiyuan, and Sitao Mongolia. 

(h) Total for Inner Mongolia based largely on official hsien population estimates received by the Committee (Jehol 3,818,000; Chahar 1,900,000; Suiyiian 825,000; Sitao 
Mongolia 400,000). Estimates for Outer Mongolia and Sinkiang are those generally accepted by missionaries and travellers. The Statesman's Year Book is the authority for the 
population estimate for Tibet. 

(i) Included in totai above. 

Density of Population — Until recently our knowledge of relative 
density or numbei of inhabitants per square mile of territory was largely 
based on the Minchengpu Census, 1910. According to this Census the 
provinces ranked as follows in respect to density of population : Shantung, 
Chckiang, Kiangsu, Honan, and Hupeh. Recently, however, the officMl 
estimates secured by the Survey Committee in 1918-19, and later the care- 
ful census made by the Post Office have changed the above order. 
According to the CCC Estimates the provinces of greatest density are, hi 
order: Kiangsu, Chekiang, Shantung, Honan, Chihli, and Hupeh; and 
those of greatest density according to the Post Office Census are ;' 
Kiangsu, Chekiang, Shantung, Honan, Hupeh, and Kwangtung. It is 
interesting to find that both the CCC and the Post Office estimates agree 
not only on the four densest provinces but also rank them in the same 
order. Kiangsu in both estimates then takes first place in density, whik 
Shantung is lowered to third place. In both the CCC and Post Office 
estimates, as in the Minchengpu, Chekiang ranks second. The number of 
people to a sq.mi. in Kiangsu is 875, in Chekiang 600, and in Shantung 
550. Hereafter when we wish to emphasize the idea of great density or to 
point out the densest large geographical unit in the world, we should refer 
to Kiangsu, instead of Belgium. 

From a study of estimates as well as of the density maps in Part III oi 
this volume, it appears that even though in favoured districts the density 
of population approximates and even exceeds that of the densest European 
countries, China as a whole is far from being overpopulated. There are 
gieat fertile stretches of country in Manchuria and Mongolia, whither the 
Chinese from Shantung, Chihli, Honan and other provinces have been 
migrating in large numbers during recent years/ which resemble the 
Middle States of America in productive possibilities but where as yet one 
may travel for hours without meeting one human being. The sections of 
China wh'ch appear most densely populated are the maritime pioviocss 
(if we except Fukien), parts of the Yangtze and Yellow River basins, an! 
the Chengtu Plain. 

Population of Cities— Estimates of city population were first brought 
together from every available source, including Customs' Reports, Guide 
Books/ Geographies, mission publications, and special questionnaires sent 
out to carefully selected missionaries in every missionary residential center 
in China, asking them for the generally accepted population estimate of 
their city. Naturally the estimates thus obtained vary considerably, the 
Committee accepting finally whichever estimate seemed to be the most 
conservative and most generally approved. In a few cf the larger cities, 
Police Commissioners have recently made careful enquiries regarding 
population, and while the estimates supplied by them are too few to have 
called forth much comment as yet, they nevertheless are striking in that 
they invariably are much lower than the hitherto generally accepted 
figures. , 



Table II 


.—Population of Cities* 






No. of Cities of 


Estimated 
Percentage 








of Total 


Province 






Population 




Over 100,000 


50,000-99,000 20,000-49,000 
Inhabitants j Inhabitants 


in Towns of 




Inhabitants 


and in Bural 








Communities 


North China 










Manchuria — Fengtien 


1 


6 


4 


1 


Kirin 


1 


2 


2 


' 93%' 


Heilungkiang 




2 


2 




Chihli 

Shantung 

Shansi 

Shensi 


3 
5 

"a 


3 
11 
3 
4 


7 

21 

6 

8 


86% 
90% 
94% 
88% 


East China 










Kiangsu 


12 


11 


11 


83% 
87% 
93% 
90% 


Chekiang 


6 


5 


8 


Anhwei 

Kiangsi 


2 

4 


5 

5 


9 
9 


Central China 










Honan 

Hupeh 

Hunan 


3 
4 
4 


4 

5 
4 


18 

6 

10 


91% 
92% 
93% 


South China 










Fukien 

Kwangtung 

Kwangsi 


3 

10 


3 
8 
6 


8 

20 

1 


83% 
70% 
94% 


West China 










Kansu 

Szechwan ... 


1 


4 
8 
2 


3 


98% 






8 


89% 




1 


6 


96% 






4 


96% 


Outer Territories 










Mongolia (Inner and Outer) 


1 


2 


6 




Sinkiang 




3 


95% 


Tibet 






71% 










98% 


Totals... 


69 


107 


182 


89% 


* See Appendix G. 











The following comparison given bv Norman <51ia™ ;« 

Population in the Encyclopaedif sinica wi™icateThe Sl*^ °1 

estimates for a single city and how in™*™ 1 ♦ I de ***& cf 

"Thus, 'The Chinese Empire' states ^tw^ stat , e " ents ^ «*de. 
c empire states (p.81) that the populafon of Soochow 



GENEEAL BACKGROUND 



13 



Density of PormATioN 



is 700,000 (in 1906) ; Richard's 'Comprehensive 
Geography' (p. 159) gives it at 500,000 (in 1908), and 
the Customs' Decennial Report for 191 1 states that 
it was 256,524 in 1909, by official census." The CCC 
estimate is 600,000. "Canton is generally credited 
with 'one and a half to two millions oi people, with 
125,000 boat people in addition, and the Customs' 
Decennial Report of 1901 goes so far cs to say, 'The 
estimate of 2,400,000 is probably not over the mark 
for the numbers afloat and ashore' ; but long-resident 
missionaries at the same time estimated the land 
population at not more than 600,000 to 700,000 and 
the boat people at 50,000." 

Loss and Gain in Population — "The loss of life 
from abnormal causes in China must be far greater 
than in any other portion of the world, with the 
possible exception of India in former times. Apart 
from congestion of population in great centers, 
where with characteristic indifference to sanitation 
and hygiene a favourable field is offered to and 
taken advantage of by numerous epidemics (plague, 
cholera, small-pcx, etc.) China is particularly 
susceptible to recurring visitations in the form of 
floods and famine. Chinese chronicles are filled 
with the recital of national or lccal disasters. A 
famine in 1S77-8 is said to have caused the death of 
8,000,000 of the inhabitants of Honan, Shansi, Shan- 
tung, and Chihli. In recent times one district or 
another has been forced to record famine with 
attendant loss of life each year. More notable dis- 
asters have been as frequent as 1901, 1906, 1910, 
1920 (famines), and 1911 and 1917 (floods). Action 
on the part of the Government could do much to 
prevent or minimize these visitations, but compara- 
tively little has thus far been done. Again, the 
frequent occurrence (almost chronic) of rioting and 
revolt has exercised its baneful effect on the numbers 
of the people of China. The loss of life caused by 
the Taiping Rebellion (1850-64) is variously esti- 
mated from 10,000,000 to 20,000,000. The Moham- 
medan Rebellions between 1861 and 1872 must have 
contributed largely to the depopulation of 

Cities of 100,000 Inhabitants and over 





Kansu and Yunnan." (China Year Book, 
192 1-2). Recent unrest and wide-spread 
brigandage have also resulted in unneces- 
sary loss of life. 

In the Far Eastern Review for July 
1921, the editor, George Bronson Rea, 
writes as follows : — "With slight variations 
the average European nation (Russia ex- 
cluded) is doubling its numbers in about 
eighty years. In his 'Elements of Vit.il 
Statistics,' Dr.Kewsholme sets out at length 
the annual increase of a large number of 
countries. The period under his review 
(1891 to 1895) showed a doubling of the 
population of Prussia in 49 years, 111 
England in 50 years, Italy in 67 years, 
Austria in 74, and of France with her 
exceptional birthrate, in 591 years. Russian 
statistics indicate a doubling of the popula- 
tion in 50 years." 

"Dealing with this same problem in 
western Europe, and excluding Russia and 
the Balkans, Mr. Longstaff in his 'Studies 
in Statistics,' reaches the conclusion that 
in the period under review (1861-1891) the 
increase was at the rate of 21 per cent, or 
6.6 per cent in each decade. This study 
reveals that the population of western 
Europe is doubling in 66 years. If Russia, 
with its 175,000,000 people doubling in 50 
years be included in the study, the general 
European average would be 58 years, with- 
out taking into account the drains from 
emigration." 

"The great difficulty facing Western 
investigators in arriving at a reliable esti- 
mate of the increase of the human family, 
has been the notorious lack of statistics 
concerning the Mongolian and Asiatic 
races. The peoples of Asia belong to a 
different civilization, holding diametrically 
opposite views to the West on the question 
of marriage and the birthrate. Therefore 
we cannot apply the same rules in esti- 
mating their increase as we do in Europe 
or America." 



11 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



"In China we have a civilization based upon ancestor worship, obligat- 
ing perpetuation of the male line to perform the sacrifices at the shrines of ■ 
departed ancestors. What effect has this on the birthrate and increase? 
Here is where the Western investigator is baffled through the absence of 
t-tatistics. Japanese statistics of the native Chinese population in Formosa 
show that the latter are doubling their numbers in 33 years ; in the Kwan- 
tung Leased Territory, in 31 years. The full effect of Oriental civilization 
on the rate cf increase is seen in Korea, where statistics of the native 
population indicates a doubling of the numbers in 27 years." 

In attempting to study the rate of increase in population in China 
Mr. W. W. Rockhill, American Minister to China and a shrewd and 
scholarly observer of things Chinese, examined the progress in population 
between 1743 and 1783, a period during which the enumerations were all 
presumbly made in the same manner. He found that from 1743 to 1749 tha 
annual rate of increase was 2.90 per cent; from 1749 to 1757 it fell to 0.91 
per cent, to rise between 1757 and 1761 to 1.37 per cent, falling again to 
0.73 per cent between 1761 and 1767, and to 0.57 per cent from that date to 
I77r. The next change is phenomenal. Between 1771 and 1776 it was 5 
per cent, but between 1776 and 1780 it fell, without any known reason, to 
0.S6 per cent, to rise again between that date and 7783 tn 2.34 per cent. 
The average rate of increase during the whole period was 1.83 per cent. 
Compare this with Japan, where, though much more favourable conditions 
exist than in China, the average yearly increase of the population from 
1872 to 1899 was only T.04 per cent. Compare also with India, where the 
census of 191 1 revealed that the population (315,132,000) had increased in 
ten years by 7.00 per cent, or 0.70 per cent annually. The Chinese rate of 
increase can hardly be higher than these." 

"It is estimated that 4,000,000 or over one per cent of the people die 
annually in China from starvation and purely preventable causes, such as 
floods, famine, cholera, plague, etc., without including deaths from 
internal disorders, rebellions, and bandit forays. This is almost ths 
average increase of Western peoples. Yet the Chinese increase. With the 
construction of railways, conservation of rivers, installation of modern 
sanitary and water systems, hygiene, a stable government and other re 



forms, the greater part of this waste will be eliminated, and then the full 

effect of the Chinese birthrate will be felt. It is farr to assume that tin* 

increase is about the same as it is among Chinese inhabitants in Formosa 

and Kwantung according to Japanese count. It is also believable that In 

seme sections of China the increase reaches the same alarming figure as sn 

Korea It may be permissible in the light of all that has been said, to 

take forty years as the time required for doubling the numbers of China." 

TABLE III— FOREIGNERS IN CHINA 

(Maritime Customs' Report for 1920) 

Persons 



American 

Austrian 

Belgian 

British 

Danish 

Dutch 

French 

German 

Hungarian 



7,269 
24 
S92 
... 11,082 
- 545 
... 40 t 
... 2,753 
... 1,013 
8 





Persons 


Italian ... 


504 


Japanese 


- iS3,V8 


Mexican 


1 


Norwegian 


373 


Portuguese 


2,282 


Russian 


... I44.4I3 


Spanish 


... 285 


Swedish. 


464 


Non- Treaty Powers ... 


132 



The cosmopolitan character of treaty ports in the Orient is strikingly 
illustrated by Shanghai. The last official census (1921) reports 1,685,000 
inhabitants. Altogether there are 24 nationalities in Shanghai In the 
International and French Settlements there are (1921) 26,869 foreigners. Of 
these 10,521 are Japanese, 6,385 are British, and 2,813 are Americans. 
COMPARISONS IN AREA AND POPULATION 
(China Year Book, 1921-2) 

Area in Sq.Mi. 



China 

British Empire 

Russian Empire 

Canada , 

United States (with Alaska) 

Australia 

India 



4.278.352 
11,454,862 
8,647,657 
3,729,665 
3,571,492 
3,065,121 
1,802,657' 



Population 
427,679,214* 
417,218,000 
160,095,200 

7.206,643 
105,683,108 

.1,724,138 
315.156,396 



• Post Office Estimate, 1920, for 18 Provinces, Manchuria, and Sinkiang. 



COMMUNICATIONS 



A.—RA.ILROAD COMMUNICATIONS 
J. E. Baker 

China has approximately 11,000 kilometers or less than 7,000 miles* of 
railway in operation. The area of China, excluding outer territories such as 
Mongolia, Turkestan, Sinkiang, and Tibet, aggregates nearly 1,900,000 
square miles. For each kilometer of railway line in operation, therefore, 
there are about 170 square miles of territory to support it. Expressed in 
miles, China, as limited above, has about 280 square miles of territory to 
every mile of railway. Compared with this figure, Korea has 71 square 
miles of territory per mile of line, India has 40, and Japan has 16 ; while 
the United States has T2 square miles, and the more densely populated 
European countries have averages even smaller per mile of railway. 

If the comparison be made between mileage and population, there is 
an equally wide separation between the averages for China and those for 
other countries. Taking the population of China as 440,000,000, there are 
approximately 40,000 people for every kilometer of line, or over 60,000 !or 
each mile of railway. Korea has a population of about 13,000 per mile of 
railway, India has about 8,600, Japan about 8,000, and the United States 
about 3,800. These general averages will probably always be higher for 
China than for those other countries, for in addition to extensive systems 
of natural waterways, the Chinese during centuries of persistent industry 
have added a marvelous network of canals. The Grand Canal, while 
greatest of all these works and one of the wonders of the world, when com- 
pared with the total of its lesser like, is of modest proportions. 

The general averages for China as a whole are also very misleading 
if applied to any particular province. The railway system now in operation 
in China is located principally north of the Yangtze River, and to a large 
extent radiates from Peking. Only about 600 kms. of line radiate from 
Canton. A little over 600 kms. run southeast from Nanking through 
Shanghai to Hangchow with a break of about 100 kms. to Ningpo. Over 
550 kms. of railroad extend southward from Wuchang through Changsha 
to Chuchow, and thence eastward to the Pingsiang collieries. A short 
provincial line runs southward from Kiukiang to Nanchang, 136 kms., and 
there are probably 100 kms. of other private and Government railways 
which are sections of four or five unfinished lines. Then there is the 
important railway running from Yunnanfu in a southeasterly direction 
across 465 kms. of Chinese territory and across the border into the French 
possessions of Indo-China. This cursory summary shows only about 
2,500 kms. of railways south of the Yangtze and about 8,500 kms. of line 
in the greater area north of this river. However, plans for future con- 
struction deal more largely with southern routes than with routes in the 
north, and when the program which China has kept in mind ever since 
the first years of the Republic is finally accomplished, South China will 
have railway facilities not much inferior to those of North China. 

The railway service rendered to various sections of China may be more 
accurately shown by the following Table, which, gives the approximate 
length of line, area and population of each province, together with averages 
of area and population per kilometer of railway. 

The two most important economic effects of railways in China so far, 
have been a large increase in the supply of coal to the people of China 
and a similar increase in the purchasing power of the rural districts. 
Secondary to these are the growth of certain specific large industries and 
the increase in the daily wage of the ordinary workman. Except in the 
■vicinity of important terminals, or points where water and rail transporta- 
tion meet, there has not been any pronounced increase in land values. This 



Province 


Kms. of 
Bailwav 

(b) " 


(a) 

Area of 

Province in 

sq. mi. 


(a) 
Population 

of 
Province 


Aver. No. 
sq. mi. 
per Km. 
of B. B. 


Aver. No. 

Inhabitants 

per Km. 

ofB. B. 


North of the Yangtze : 

/Heitungkiang 

J Kirin 

(Fengtien 

Chihli 

Shantung 

Shansi 

Shensi 

Kansu 

Honan 

Kiangsu (North)* 

Anhwei (North)* 

Hupeh (North)* 

Szechwan. 


990 
853 
1,'iB8 
l,G80 
997 
348 

1,200 
170 
260 
171 


100,700 

100,000 
88,900 

115,800 
56,000 
81,800 
75,300 

125,500 
67.900 
24,000 
35,000 
42,000 

218,500 


1,456,000 

4,222,000 

10,156,000 

20,000,000 

29,000,000 

12,200,000 

8,000,000 

5,000,000 

25,000,000 

10,000,000 

12,000,000 

20,000,000 

57,800,000 


168 
117 
5C 
65 
56 
235 

56 
136 
125 
246 


1,471 

4,950 

5,744 

11,905 

20,087 

35,057 

20,833 
56,818 
35,715 
116,559 


Total... 


8,403 


1,197,400 


214,834.000 j 141 J 95,266 


South of the Yangtze: 

Kiangsu (South)* 

Anhwei (South)* 

Hupeh (South)* 

Chekiang 

Kiangsi 

Hunan 

Kweichow .. 

Yunnan 

Fukien 

Kwangtung 

Kwangsi 


410 

221 
209 
170 
320 

405 

28 

665 


14,000 
19,600 
29,400 
36,700 
69,000 
83,400 
67.200 

146,700 
46,300 

100,000 
77,200 


11,000,000 
8,000,000 
13,000,000 
11,000,000 
15,000,000 
22,000,000 
7,650,000 
12,000,000 
20,000,000 
80,000,000 
6,000,000 


34 

133 
176 
406 
256' 

315 

1,653 

150 


26,442 

58,823 
52,632 
88,235 
67,485 

25,806 
714,286 
45,113 


Total... 


2,500 


089,700 


155,630,000 


27C 


62,260 


All China 


10,963 


1,887,100 


369,484,000 1 172 


33,702 



Divisions arbitrary. 

( ,l\ ?f mate ! ° f " re ? a ? d P°r ulati <> n » the above Table supplied by the author 
(b) A k.lometer equals about g mile, or one mile equals 1.6 km 

is due, doubtless, to two conditions : First, land in China is held under 

something corresponding to feudal tenure, and hence does not chan^ 

owners frequently or rapidly enough to encourage demand and stimulate 

pnee competition. Second, the amount of agricultural products sold ,s 

compared with the amount consumed by the cultivators themselves' ' s 

relatively small, and therefore the increased value of the portion Jma~1 

not greatly affect the value of the land. About hSf ol SfStW^ 

Government railways of China measured in ton kilometers consist of 

mineral products, mostly coal. This traffic has increased by more than 

one-third m the four years for which statistics are available 

An increase in the shipments of agricultural nrrwlimt* i,„. * 1 , 

2E n °f in j°f-- ™ e - resuit hS b -"- S 1 t £ srj a s 

prices of food products m cities, for contact with the outside world Market 
has produced an actual increase in prices. What tho nr,v» J^ j™ ,5 
coast cities of China would have bee^r, however if ncc£ to J? 'I ^ 
supplies had not been given by railways, is ZtoZ^Ji^J™ 
other hand, m country districts the increase in prices ha? bS^JJtoJ 



GENEKAIi BACKGKOUND 



15 



Missionaries in rural out-stations are more aware of this than any other 

<lass of foreigners. In some quarters far removed from the means of 
transportation like Szechwan, wheat must still be sold for 25 or 30 coppers 
a picul. In Shanghai that same wheat could be sold for four or five 

-dollars. The railroad would serve to bridge a gap like this. The mer- 

•cbant, the consumer, and the farmer all share in the saving which the 

rrailroad makes, and a better scale of life is the result. 

Large enterprises like the Hanyang Steel Works, the Kailan Mining 
Administration, the Lincheng Mines, the Ching Hsin Mines, and a dozen 
others would be impossible without railways. These mark the beginning 

• of the industrial development of China. Smaller institutions of a manu- 
facturing nature are also springing up along railway lines. All of these 
things are creating a greater demand for labour. Before the advent of rail- 
ways the average day's wage for an ordinary workman was about five cents. 
Today in the large centers it averages fifty cents, with craftsmen demanding 
aud getting as much as a dollar a day. Not all of this represents increased 

•standards of living. The cost of Jiving has gone up for these men, just 
as it has gone up in other parts of the world. 

Prophecy is always dangerous to the reputation of the prophet, especial- 
ly so in a country passing through a period of flux, as China is today. 
However, there are certain conditions inhering in the Chinese railway situa- 
tion which make the course of future railway construction predictable to i 
•certain extent. In 1864 Sir Macdonald Stephenson suggested a program <f 

-railway construction which was pigeonholed absolutely, but which never- 
theless has been followed out to a surprising extent. This program was 

•dictated by a consideration of topography and of population centers — two 

-compelling considerations in railway construction, the one for reasons tf 

-cost, the other for reasons of revenue. Politics also enter into the situation, 
sometimes injecting certainty and sometimes uncertainty. The most 

•decisive factor, of course, is the presence of projects which are already 
partly finished. Among the latter, perhaps the most important is the ex- 
tension of the Lung-Hai line now under way from Honanfu to Sianfu. This 
work was compelled to halt during the last two years for lack of funds, 
but a new loan has been floated in Holland, and completion as far as 

•Sianfu is expected within the next three or four years. This is most pre- 
dictable, perhaps, because of the well known strength of Belgian policy 
backed as it is by French assistance. 

A second line of construction upon which action may be expected is 
•the extension of the Peking-Sniyiian line. The line beyond Fengchen to 
Suiyuan is already opened to traffic. It 'is the policy to push out slowly in 
the direction of Paolowchen as surplus earnings of the Peking-Suiytian 
line permit. At Paotowchen the line will probably stop for some time, 
since this is the center of a very productive region, and any further exten- 

\ sion will have to decide the question of a line to Urga or toward Sinkiang. 
"Large questions of political strategy are involved in such a decision, hence 
it is probable that a breathing spell will ensue within which to gather force 
as well as to make decisions. 

But in national importance, two other lines far surpass the two which 
have just been named. These are the Canton-Hankow line and the line into 
"Szechwan. The Canton-Hankow line has been under consideration- for 25 
years. It has been under construction at some point or other for over 20 
years. It has been the cause of more worry, more unpleasant foreign 
relations, and more disappointment to China than any other two lines 

-combined. This line is now under construction by the Four Nation Group, 
which also has the contract for a line from Hankow into Szechwan. The 
•Great War cut off all sources of funds, and work had to cease after Chang- 
sha was reached in 1917. The Kwangtung authorities who are charged 
-with building the portion of the line in that province have also exhausted 
their funds before reaching the borders of Hunan. The remaining gap of 
300 kms. or more is scarred and furrowed with mountain ridges and deep 
valleys, so that the cost of construction will require a large outlay of money. 
The impoverished condition of all the parties to the Four Nation Group 
and the unfavourable rate of exchange offers little encouragement to the 
hope that this work will be pushed during the next three or four years. 
Another impediment is the continued breach between the North and South, 
iln fact the portion of the line already completed has been used for little 
•else than military purposes during the course of its existence. Yet if the 
line were completed and period of truce were to ensue, there could be 
no greater instrument of understanding and cooperating between the two 
sections than this completed Canton-Hankow line. The Ministry of Com- 
munications recently has ordered a survey to be made of the remaining 
portion and proposes to devote $400,000 per month out of current railway 
levenues for construction purposes. 

There are strong political and commercial reasons for the building of 
the .Szechwan line in the near future. Its possibilities have been estimated 
in nothing but superlative terms. Two routes are under consideration. 
One is the Hukuang route, following the river from Hankow to Ichang 
and Chungking. The other is the Siems-Carey route from Sinyangchow, 
Honan, to the Han Kiver, and following that river to the Chengtu Plateau. 
The latter is said to have the advantages of grade and economical construc- 
tion. It is handicapped, however, by a British claim to the same route. 
"The Hukuang route has the advantage of 150 miles of completed earthwork, 
and French support from Chungking to Chengtu. 
Other lines which wait for decision are : 

(1) Wuyi (just north of Pukow) to Sinyangchow, Honan. 

(2) Tatungfu, Shansi, to Chengtu, passing through or near 
Taiytianfu and Sianfu enroute. 

(3) Nanking to Pingsiang, via Nanchang. 

(4) Shasi (west of Wuchang on the Yangtze River) to Hingi, 
Kweichow, with a branch to Cnangsha or Chuchow. 

(5) Yunnanfu to the bay of Yamchow, Southwest Kwangtung. 

(6) Chuchow. Honan, to Yamchow on the bay of Yamchow. 



(2) 



(4) 
(5) 



Contracts for all of these lines have been let to financial interests of 
various nations, European mostly. But the financial condition of these 
nations is such that unless the Consortium becomes effective it is unlikely 
that anything will be done 011 any of these proposed lines for four or five 
years at least. If the Consortium be definitely rejected, it is not beyond the 
tealm of probability that the British interests which have made a small 
start on the Pukow-Sinyangchow route (1) might begin operations by 
selling British guaranteed bonds to Chinese capitalists. Under such con- 
siderations, it is possible that an Anglo-American corporation might be 
formed to extend this line over the Siems-Carey route into Szechwan. This 
would be a logical arrangement from a railway point of view. If left to 
themselves, too, the British might begin in a similar way the construction 
of the Nanking-Pingsiaug line (3) within three or four years, because of 
the need of bringing the Pingsiang coal district into closer touch with the 
Shanghai district, and because of the value of such a line as a feeder to 
the Shanghai-Nanking line. 

Other lines look very indefinite. Because of its value to the develop- 
ment of the necessary mineral resources of Shansi, the Tatungfu-Chengtu 
line (2) is the most likely. Under a Consortium, the order of routes to b's 
taken up would likely be as follows : — 
(1) Canton-Hankow. 

Pukow-Sinyangchow-Szechwan. 

A line from Yunnanfu to Chuchow, thence over the Chuchow- 
Pingsiang line through Nanchang to either Nanking or Hang- 
chow, is more than a possibility. 

The extension of the Kiukiang-Nanchang line to either Amoy 
or Foochow has its claim. 

A north and south line through Shansi, finally extending to 

Tatungfu on the north and at least Sianfu on the south will be 

urged persistently. 

A very short line, but of considerable importance, will probably i,e 

completed within a short time, whether the Consortium is accepted or not. 

This is the line from a point on the Peking-Hankow line at Shihkiachwiu,(, 

where the Cheng-Tai, or Shansi "Railway terminates, to Tsangchow on the 

Tientsin-Pukow line. The Japanese have some sort of agreement for such 

a line from Tsinan to Shuntehfu, although it will be years before any 

government in China would* dare permit this route to be built by Japanese 

capital. Moreover, this route would involve bridging the Yellow River, a 

very expensive operation for so short a line. 

The opening of the port Hulutao in Manchuria will probably lead i > 
the construction of a line extending into the interior, probably to Jehol 
and thence to Peking. Japanese interests are building the promised ex- 
tension of the Sze-Cheng line to Taonanfu, and have recently changed the 
name of this line to Sze-Tao. 

Under the program sketched above, the railway system of China would 
lock something like that laid out on the map. The present important 
lailway termini and centers will retain their importance. These are Shang- 
hai, Tientsin, Peking, Pukow, and Hankow. To these would be added 
Canton, and a list of secondary centers, some of which are of importance 
new. In North China, Harbin, Changchun, Moukden, Tsinan, Siichowfu, 
Shihkiachwang, Chengchow, and- Sinsiang are already of importance. 
Hulutao, Wuyi, Sinyangchow, and Taiyuanfu would be added. In South 
China, Nanking would have its importance increased, and possibly, so 
would Hangchcw. Canton would be a port only second — if second — to 
Shanghai. Kiukiang, Nanchang, and Chuchow or Changsha would become 
interior distributing points similar to Minneapolis, Omaha, and Kans is 
City in the United States. 

It is doubtful if anything can take the place of railways in the trans- 
portation development of China. In the North, where roads are possiblj 
at reasonable expense, the railway system is well along. In the South, 
land is too precious to make any considerable highway system probable. 
At best, highway transportation, exclusive of the upkeep of the road, costs 
four or five times as much as railway transportation. Besides, so long us 
the Chinese hold to the two wheel narrow-tired cart as their vehicle, no road 
can be constructed which will stand up under the load. Macadamized 
roads become too rough in four or five years for further use and have to 
be re-surfaced. The Chinese mind can be converted to railway building 
faster than it can be persuaded to scrap the millions of carts now in uni- 
versal use. Motor roads are being built in several places — around Peking 
for pleasure, in Shansi for freight because railways have been despaired 
of, and between Paotingfu and Tientsin for military reasons. These reasons 
will continue to cause new roads to be built from year to year, but alwavs 
as feeders to the present rail line, never in competition. 

This development of canals is not be looked for. Present day canals 
may be improved somewhat. But this means of transportation is also too 
slow and uncertain. China has become fond of railway speed. She will 
not give it up. Possibly some river channels may be canalized for short 
distances as a mode of improving navigation, but the day of new construc- 
tion of canals for purely transportation purposes for considerable distances 
is past, and only some revolutionary development or loss in present day 
mechanics can ever bring back that day. 

Railway lines in China may be grouped under three heads : — Govern- 
ment, Private, and Concessioned. The first group consists of about 6,500 
kms. of line and is the property of and is administered by the Chinese 
Government, although in most cases there is a mortgage upon the line to 
some foreign financial institution and a few foreign employees occupy im- 
portant positions upon the line. The second group consists of about 700 
kms. only, and is formed of lines owned and operated by private companies, 
composed of local gentry, provincial officials, and several mining com- 
panies. The third group consists of lines owned and operated by foreign 
financial institutions, whose privileges in China have been acquired by 
what amounts to treaty stipulations. 



ir, 



U 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



Government Railways: — 

■ Peking-Hankow 

Peking- Moukden 

Tient*in-Pukow 

Shanghai-Nanking 

Sbangbai-Hangchow-Ningpo 

Peking-Suiyuan 

Cbeng-Tai 

Taokow-Tsinghwachen 

Kaifeng-Honanfu 

Kirin-Changcbun 

Chuehow-Pingsiang 

Canton-Kowloon (Chinese Section) 

Canton-Samshui 

Changchowfu-Amoy 

Hupeh-Hanan 

Sze-Cheng 

In operation 

T.ung-Hai 

Hupeh-Hunan 

Under construction 



1,306 kms. 

987 
1,107 
327 
286 
491 
243 
152 
185 
123 

91 
143 

49 

28 
422 

87 

368 
15 



6,027 kms. 



383 kms. 



(2) Private and Provincial Railways :— 

Kwangtung Section of Canton-Hankow 

Kiukiang-Nanchang 

Sunning 

Swatow-Chaochowfa 

Nanking City ••-, ••• 

Ching Hsing Mine Bailway (fai-Tsao) 
Lincheng Mine Bailway (Chihli) 
Tayeh Mines Bailway (Hupeh) 
Chung Hsing Mine Bailway ... ... 

Kailan Mining Administration Bailway 
Tayaokow Mines Bailway (Fengtien) 

Tsitsihar City Bailway 

Makiapu Narrow Guage 

(3) Concessioned Railways: — 

Chinese Eastern 

South Manchurian 

Shantung •• 

Yunnan ••• 

Canton-Kowloon (British Section) 



Total 773 kms- 



225 

136 

171 

42 

11 

52 

12 

30 

15 

16 

29 

29 

5 



Total 3,780 kms. 



. 1,722 

. 1,107 

451 

465 

35 

Grand Total . 



. 10,963 kms. 




The Peking-Suiyuan line should be shown as completed to Suiyiian. The Tsangchow-Shihkiachwang and Chefoo-Weiheion lir,»« f„„ i„, - » .- * , 
A line southward from Sianfu (contracted for) should be added. Lines from Tientsin to Paotingfu, Tsinan to IhunteMt T^^^BUOML^^^t^^' 



GENEEAL BACKGROUND 



17 



B—FOST OFFICE COMMUNICATIONS* 
Development— "The Imperial Decree of 1896 gave sanction to a 
National Post G*ce. This, however, was not sufficient to bring the idea 
•anto favour with provincial authorities, without whose assistance progress 
-and development were impossible. From the day of its birth the new 
•organization had to contend also with keen competition from the two older - 
postal systems, and long and persevering effort, combined with the iutro- 

• duction of better services and the use of steam communication, were 
necessary before it could in any measure establish itself in the estimation 

• of the commercial classes and thus overcome the natural and deep-seated 
prejudice against it. Indeed the full confidence of the publ : c and officials 
was not gained till the service came directly under the Ministry of Com- 

imunications. A few months thereafter followed the Revolution and only 
■•then were the I Chan ( f| #£ ) services finally abolished in favour of the 
National Post Office. A number of native postal agencies still linger on, 
most of them undertaking in addition some mercantile business and 
-making their profits mainly by transmitting bank drafts, sycee, and trade 
-parcels. These establishments have all along been allowed to function 
-practically without restriction alongside the Post Office, and it is expected 
'•that a Postal Law or some other Government enactment will ultimately be 
-necessary to deal with them. These are only a few of the special difficulties 
•with which the Service has had to contend in the course of its development. 
"Many others could be cited : e.g. annual floods, perpetual brigandage 
.and piracy, famine, plague, riot, rebellion, civil war and, from beginning 
-to end, a debased currency. All these have made development a continual 
•struggle and, in view of this, the record ot achievements must be con- 
•fridered extraordinary." 

"The manner in which communication is maintained between all points 
is especially praiseworthy. Every available means of tiansport is used : 
-contract steamers on the coast and large riveis; railways where they are 
■opened; steam and motor launches, junks, hong-boats and post-boats on 
-inland waterways ; and, on the numerous overland routes, mounted or foot 
-couriers, mules, carts, and wheel barrows. As roads in inland China are mere 
paths in dry weather and tracts of deep mud in rain, the great proportion of 
-overland transportation is dene by couriers. Overland lines are established 
-even in most out-of-the-way places ; on many, couriers with light mail 
■(letters and postcards and newspapers paying letter rates) run day and 
-might and, whatever difficulties may have to be surmounted, these services 
;are seldom or never interrupted. The daily stages for couriers vary but 
«often rise to 100 li (33 miles) ; the speed maintained averages 10 li per hour. 
"In all, 7,042 couriers were employed at the end of 1919. These men run 
-from point to point in all weathers according to fixed schedules, incidentally 
"braving dangers from wild beasts, robbers, floods and often local disturb- 
ances. While they are now less interfered with by highwaymen than 
•formerly, still every year adds to the toll of murdered and wounded." 

"A network of courier lines exists all over Manchuria and is gradually 
-spreading over Inner Mongolia. A mounted courier service across the 
«Gobi Desert connects Kalgan with Urga and Kiachta, the total distance of 
.3,620 li (1,206 miles') being done in eleven days. Sinkiang (Chinese 
"Turkestan) has over 60 postal establishments and 18,000 li (6,000 miles) "f 
courier lines. From the present terminus of the Lung-Hai Railway in 
Honan a continuous chain of day-and-night couriers, for the most part 
-mounted, runs through Tungkwan, Sianfu, Lanchowfu, Ansichow, and 
-thence via Tihwafu (Urumtsi) to Kashgar on to the borders of Russian 
"Turkestan. The total length of this line is 10,843 H (3.614 miles), which 
-snakes it the longest postal courier line in the world. The time taken when 
"there are no delays is 40 days. Heavy mail matter (parcels, books, -etc.') 
■for Sianfu and other points on the line is transported on mules, and 
-amounts to an average of over one ton daily. The service of heavy mails 
through the Yangtze Gorges to Chengtu, the capital of Szechwan, and on 
-to Tibet shows no less enterprise. Before merchant steamers ventured up 
-the river to Chungking a fleet of fast post boats was specially built to ply 
"between Chungking and Ichang through the dangerous rapids. Even 
"though full advantage is taken of whatever steam service there now is, 32 
-post-boats are kept busy, carrying over 20,000 bags of mail matter annually. 
Wrecks are noi uncommon but mails are nearly always recovered. 
"For the sake of speed, light mails for Chengtu and the West are carried 
rverland all the way from Hankow by day-and-night couriers. Hankow 
letters are delivered in Chengtu (1,023 miles) in 13 days and in Tatsienlu 
11,313 miles) in 18 days. From Tatsienlu a line continues 375 miles further 
to Batang, the chief town of the Tibetan Marches. In normal times this is 
linked up with the Tibetan system by a line across the border to Chamdo 
•so that there is direct overland communication from Peking to Lhasa." 

"These facts illustrate in a general way the efficiency and extent of the 
"Service. In the more populous and industrial districts the network of lines 
-is very highly developed. Every town of any size or importance is postally 
■connected, the fastest means of transport being always availed of. In 
further development, attention is being concentrated on linking up country 
•villages round all important centers by a system of rural box-offices at 
which special couriers call every two or three days. There are already 
•several thousand of such established and these will be given the status cf 
-agencies as rapidly 'as the increase of their mailmatter warrants it." 

The relation of postal establishments and postal routes to missionary 
-residential centers is well shown in the postal maps (pages xliv— lv) 
in Appendix B. Reference should also be made to the statistical table, 
Vpage xliii) which gives the latest available information ott the working 
<rf the Chinese Post Office. The Report for 1926 will not be ready for dis- 
tribution before the middle of 1922. 



Railway, Steamer and Boat, and Ovorland Courier Lines (in li) 
5,000 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 



Man. 

Chi." 

Sung. 

Sha. 

She. 

Ku. 
Che. 
An. 
Ki. 

Ho. 

Hup. 

Hun. 

Fu. 

Tung. 

Si. 

Sinkiang 

Kan. 

Sze. 

Kwei. 

Tun. 




Black=Bailway. Dotted=River. Euled=Courier lines. 

The following table shows the record of progress in quinquennial 
periods since 1901 ; — 





1901 


1906 


1911 


1916 


1919* 


Offices and Agencies 
Articles of mail 


176 

3,500,000 
42,000 


2,096 

37,000,000 
400,000 
153,000 li 

17,000 li 
$2,308,000 


6,201 

125,000,000 
954,000 
319,000 li 

45,000 li 
$5,900,000 


8,797 

250,432,273 
2,232,100 
421,000 li 

64,700 li 
915,965,000 


9,981 

339,922,992 
3,551,105 
467,000H 

72,0001i 
943,816,000 


Steamer and boat 




Money Orders issued 



* Latest available figures (Feb. 1922). 

Postal establishments apart from Head Offices are classified according 
to their importance and functions as follows : First Class Offices, Second 
Class Offices, Third Class Offices, Sub-Offices, Agencies, and Box- Office 
Agencies, the last two being merely shops where stamps are sold and 
letters are posted to be collected by a passing courier or postman. 

The various lanks of the executive staff are : Commissioners, Deputy 
Commissioners, Assistants, Postal Officers, Clerks, Yu-wu-sheng and 
Sorters. The rotal Chinese staff as on December 31st, 1919, was as 
follows : 

Deputy Commissioners 

Assistants 

Clerks 

Yu-wu-sheng ... 

Sorters a 



Agents 

Postmen 

Couriers 
Miscellaneous 



6 

52 

1,112 

2,599 

2,002 



7,830 

5,379 
7,042 

.2,276 



Total 



28,298 



"While the foreign staff, which includes less than 100 men of 14 different 
nationalities holds most of the highly responsible posts, the more intel- 
ligent Chinese are rapidly advancing to the highest ranks. A number are 
already in posts requiring considerable administrative ability, two being 
in charge of provinces as Acting Commissioners and six others acting as 
'Deputy Commissioners. Entrance to all ranks of the Chinese executive 
staff is by competitive examination; promotion thereafter- follows by 
selection on a basis of seniority, combined with considerations of merit." 

C— ROADS!* 

The initiative for modern roads in China began in 1914 when Peking 
authorities were influenced to enter into a contract with an American 
syndicate to build a highway leading out from the capital. Although 
nothing came of this original venture, the necessity for good roads was 
brought home to the Chinese officials and little by little the streets of the 
capital and the main roads leading out to the immediate suburbs were 
macadamized. Since then, many miles of excellent highways have been 
constructed around Peking, bringing the Western Hills, Nanyuan, and 
Tungchow within easy reach. 

The original advocate of a nation-wide system of highways was Mr. Lo 
Kou-shui, one of China's foremost foreign-trained engineers, of the old 
group of students who went to America in the early eighties and graduated 
from the Troy Polytechnic Institute. While acting as technical 



• Compiled from Annual Reports and-Official Circulars. 



Compiled from "The Far Eastern Review," Jan. 1922, pages 3-17. 



IS 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OP CHINA 



secretary *nd adviser to the Ministry of Communications in 1913, Mr. 
Lc strenuously urged the adoption of a highway program as a complement 
to Uie construction of a national system of railways then being drawn up. 
He pointed out that any large investment in new railways would fad to 
! ring adequate return.? unless feeders in the form of modem rords were 
constructed to permit the pioduce of the tributary districts being cheaply 
transposted to tae railwav. Mr. Lo's recommendations, however, received 
little favour, because of tne fact that the cost of highway construction 
would have to be borne hy the central and provincial governments, while 
railways could be financed by foreign loans, with considerable profit to The 
officials concerned. Road building in China buttered no official bread. 

The seeds sown by Lo Kou-shui found root, however, and various other 

officials c.f the Government have since urged the adoption of a fixed 

program for a national highway system. The constant hammering upon the 

Peking authorities to place such a scheme into practice finally resulted in 

tlential mandate being promulgated on November 15th, 1919, laying 

regnktion« for the construction of new roads. These regulations, 

d by road experts, consisted of 15 articles, one essential point in 

which is as Jollows : 

"Highways are to be classified under four heads : — 

The national highways are to be those between the capital (Peking) 
and the provinces or special administrative areas ; between the capital cities 
>'. two different provinces, and between strategical points, harbours, and 
other places of military importance. The width of a national highway is 
to be 50 feet (Chinese), cr more. 

Provincial highways embrace those between the capital city of the 
province and the different hsien cities under its jurisdiction; between 
different hsien cities; and between railway, mining, commercial, and 
industrial centers and places of military importance within a province. 
The width is to be at least 30 feet. 

The hsien or district highways axe to be those between the hsien cities 
r.nd the rural districts under their jurisdiction; those connecting the 
different rural districts of a hsien ; and those connecting a hsien city with 
river or sea ports, or railway, mining or industrial centers in the neigh- 
bourhood. The width of hsien roads is to be 24 feet or more. 

Village highways are to be those between different villages, those con- 
necting the villages with schools, factories and other public works in the 
neighbourhood. The width of these roads is to be decided by the public 
bodies of the centers concerned. 

Incentives to Road Building — Experience seemed to place these re- 
gulators on a par with all others that have flowed out from Peking in a 
constant stream since the establishment of the Republic, but the increasing 
love ot motor car riding on the part of the officials, high and low, has 
assured for them a reception that holds out high hopes. Official activities 
were spurred on in the North by various automobile associations, sales 
agents, and others, each with a different motive. The Red Cross Society 
became active in road work *o provide employment for famine and flood 
sufferers, automobile agents and clubs had their eye on business, the 
military leadets wanted reads in order to move troops rapidly, and others 
simply desired smooth roads leading anywhere for the sake of pleasure. 
The same influences are now assuring the construction of roads in all 
other parts of China, but to the above motives is added the more important 
one of seeking adequate means of cheap transportation in districts outside 
the railway zones. We are now witnessing, under the stimulus of the 
<",ood Roads Movement and others, the picture of the Chinese authorities 
being moved horn below, the initiative coming from the merchants rather 
thin {rem the Government. On all sides we hear of new road building 
companies whose ultimate object is to provide automobile transportation 
♦o districts u< w isolated and stagnating because of inadequate means of 
conununkaticn. L'nder the stimulus of profits for the promoters, squeeze 
for officials and revenue for the central and provincial treasuries, the 
Chinese have found the key to the rapid development of highways and 
its resultant increase in business. Companies are being organized in all 
parts of the country to build roads and operate autobus services. 

Aside altogether from the good work of the Good Roads Movement, 
the greatest impetus given to road building and transportation 
iu North China arose from the famine relief activities of the American and 
other national Red Cross Societies during 1921, when over 856 miles of new 
reacts were built and turned over to the Chinese authorities by the 
American Red Cross alone. This was supplemented by the activities of 
the Ministry cf Communications, notably in the building of the Chefoo- 
Weihsien road in Shantung, now nearing completion. Branches from 
this main highway are to be constructed that will open up the entire north- 
eastern part of Shantung. 

NORTH CHINA ROADS 
Most progress has been made to date in road construction in North 
China where we find the road between Tungchow and Tientsin well under 
way. Another road between Tientsin and Paotingfu, the two capitals A 
Chihli province, has been built by the military governor, but will have to 
be reconstructed before it is fit for use by motors. 

Peking Tientsin Highway— This road has received more publicity 
perhaps than any other similar enterprise in China. It was first proposed 
in 1917 by the American Flood Relief Committee under the leadership of 
Minister Reinsch and Roger S. Graene of the Rockefeller Foundation. The 
American Red Cross offered to contribute $100,000 if the Chinese would give 



an equal amount. The Red Cross money was to be used for the payment 
of flcod-sufferers as labourers on the construction of the road. The Chineser 
share was to come in materials and the Chinese Government was to arrange- 
the right of way. Due to political conditions in China only the first: 
section of the road from Peking to Tungchow was completed. The con- • 
struction of this road from this point has proceeded spasmodically, until it. 
has reached Yangtsun, within a few miles of Tientsin. And here it stops for-, 
the present because the police commissioner of Tientsin has prohibited' 
further work, under the pretext that the money for the right of way in his- 
territeiy has net been advanced, and when this was made good, he held that 
the graves had been unduly interfered, with. With this exception the-, 
whole road is now in fairly gcod condition, enabling through traffic of a. 
kind to be carried on. 

Pckivg-Kalgan—Tiie road from Peking to Kalgan has generally been/ 
considered impassable except to carts. The distance is probably 125 miles. 

Shansi Roads— -The governor of Shansi, General Yen Hsi-shan, has- 
shown considerable interest recently in road tuilding, and under his 
initiative a road has already been completed connecting Taiyiianfu, the- 
provincial tapital, with Taikuhsien an important educational center over 30 - 
miles to 'he south. Under the new provincial system this road will be ■ 
continued further south to Pingyangfu, 140 miles from Taiyiianfu. This- 
will pass through Siikow, Kihsien, Pingyaohsien (connecting at this point 
with the Fenchow- Yellow River road), Kiehsiu, L : ugshih, Hwochow, 
Chaocheng, and Hungtung. At Pingyangfu it will undoubtedly he- 
extended along the time honoured route through Kiangchow, Wensi, 
Anyihsien, and Chiehchow to Puchowfu in the extreme southwest corner of ' 
'Oie province where it will connect with the Shensi road system. On the- 
r.orth a road is to be built from Taiyiianfu via Sinchow to Kwohsien, a 
distance of 70 miles. This road will ultimately lead north to Tatungfu and' 
thence eastwards over the old road to Peking and Wutaishan. 

The Pingyao-Jungtu Road — The most important Shansi road com-- 
,mercially, which was built under the Red Cross supervision, is the one- 
which leaves the provincial highway at Pingyaohsien and passing through . 
the large city of Fenchow terminates at Jungtu on the Yellow River, thus, 
providing a water outlet to an immensely wealthy district. This road i»- 
its passage westward over the plain crosses the entire drainage area of the- 
province, has few grades, measures 22 feet wide at the top and has at*-; 
average height of at least three and a half feet. There are only a few- 
small curves and the road could be used at any time for a railroad bed.. 

Pingting-Liaochow Road — Second in importance to the Pingyao-Tungtur. 
road in western Shansi is the one in the eastern part of th-.t- 
province built by the Red Cross engineers which runs south from* 
Pingtingchow to Liaochow through the heart of the richest coal, iron, and'.' 
pottery district in China. This road has brought new life to a section: 
formerly stagnating for lack of communications. 

Shantung Roads— 'Excepting the roads in the vicinity of Tsingtau,. 
commenced by the Germans and finished by the Japanese, the construc- 
tion of gcod highways in this province is confined almost exclusively to> 
those recently completed by the Red Cross engineers, and the Chefoo- 
Weihsien highway constructed by the Ministry of Communications. It: 
may be said that Tsingtau and the Leased Territory of Xiaochow is bet- 
ter supplied with modern roads than any other part of China. These- 
fine motor roads wind in and around the wooded hills, along the shore and:' 
batteries, by old German forts and out thirty miles intc the country to>- 
Lao Shan or to the waterworks, a constant reminder of what other parts- 
of China could be under efficient government. The total length of street* 
and roads in the Leased Territory has been doubled since the Japanese- 
took over control in 1914. 

The American Red Cross is responsible for 485 miles of roads in vari- 
ous sections of the province, which have come as a great boon.' These roads- 
are merely graded dirt, rolled or tamped firm. Macadam-zing was out oF 
the question because of the excessive cost of furnishing crushed stone. 

Following the completion of the Chefoo-Weihsien road constructed fcjr 
the Ministry of Communications, a special bureau has been established at 
Chefoo for the construction of roads from Chefoo to Weihaiwei, Laiyaa^,. 
and Haiyanghsien respectively, a total of about 130 miles. These Three- 
roads will complete the opening up of the rich hinterland behind Chefoo. * 

In the southern part of Shantung a motor service has recently been 
established between Tsaochwang and Ichowfu, a distance of about 50 miles.. 

Manchuria— In winter the frozen plains and roads of northern Man- 
churia permit of rapid traveling between Harbin, Tsitsihar, and towns en- 
tire Amur River. The construction of the road between Dairen and V>ort 
Arthur is being pushed vigorously and automobile companies are "bein°" 
organized for Antung and the Yalu valley. 

The Antung District— In Antung a Dutch engineer has been engaged' 
to carry out the surveys for new city roads extending into the nearbv 
country. 3 

CENTRAL AND SOUTH CHINA ROADS 
Shanghai Region— Great activity is seen in the Shanghai region under 
the stimulus of the Good Roads Movement. A comprehensive system of" 
provincial and local roads is projected or in course of construction In 
addition, there are many secondary roads, such as one from Pootune to- 
Nanhwei near the Yangtze cape. 

t ?u V u^ n *?*■*?***« has consented to the employment of troops., 
for the building of roads in Chekiang province and in those districts of 
Kiangsu province which are under the control of his military officers 



GENERAL BACKGROUND 



19 



Under the direction of Mr. Sidney J. Powell, a plan lias been worked 
out for the building of a road from Shanghai to Hangchcw and another 
from Shanghai to Nanking. The Good Roads Movement cf China does not 
propose to build these roads. Its aim is to stimulate an interest in them ; 
to educate the Chinese along the route to favour the road, and to get the 
officials concerned to approve of it. The governors of both Chekiang and 
Kiangsu provinces have written to the Movement in support of the roads 
planned and offering to give their assistance. There can be little doubt 
that the road from Shanghai to Hangchow is a matter of the near future. 

Kiangsu Roads— For the practical execution of the Kiangsu road pro- 
gram, the Shanghai-Taitsang Automobile Transportation Company has 
teen organized to operate between Shanghai and Taitsang, an approxi- 
mate distance of 25 miles. This company started operating a service 
over the first ten miles of completed road between Shanghai and Lotien 
en January 1st, 1922 with fh'e new American buses and several autos. 
In cennection with the Shanghai-Taitsang road there has been organized 
another enterprise called the Changshu-Taitsang-Shanghai Automobile 
Transportation Company with a capital of $500,000 which will take tip 
the work from Taitsang and carry it on 25 miles further to Changshu. An- 
other large company known as the Soochow-Kashing-Huchow Automobile 
Transportation Company is in process of promotion and will take up the 
work at Taitsang, carrying it on through Kunshan to the provincial capi- 
tal at Scochow, an approximate distance of 30 miles. This section will 
be the first to be built so as to connect with the first-mentioned company 
and provide through traffic between Socchow and Shanghai. The second 
section of this ambitious enterprise will connect Scochow with Kashing 
and thence proceed westward to Huchowfu, another 85 wiles, and thence 
on another 35 miles to Kwangtehchow in order to connect with the 
Anhwei provincial road system. Another section will strike north from 
Soochow. passing through Changshu to the Yangtze River, while still 
another route will strike southeast from Kashing and pass through Ping- 
hu, terminating at Chapu on Hangchow Bay. This is the most ambi- 
tious program in this section of China and if carried out will place Shang- 
hai in connection with other provincial systems and permit of through 
traffic into districts that will not be opened up by the railway for another 30 
years at least. 

The importance of the central Kiangsu scheme will be better appre- 
ciated when considered in relation with others in contiguous territory. 
For instance, on the north, f nee the new roads reach the Yangtze at 
Chinkiang, they will connect across the river at Kwachow with the North 
Kiangsu scheme. A company was organized in May, 19^1, with $180,000 
capital to build roads in that vicinity, the chief one to connect the river 
port with Yangchow. This road is expected to be completed this year. 
The main highway will then proceed north towards Tsingkiangpu and 
branch to Siichcwfu and Haichow. The first section will connect with a 
local system of roads projected and already completed in part, by the 
energetic Chang Chien and his associates in Nantungchow, connecting 
Nantungchow with Yangchow. 

Nanking Roads — The construction cf four roads is planned for in the 
Nanking district :— Tantu and Tanyang to Nanking ; Kiiyung and 
Kintan to Nanking; Lishui, Liyanghsien and Kotsun to Nanking; 
and Kiangpu and Luho to Nanking. New roads are also being built in 
Nanking city and its immediate vicinity. The improvement of the high- 
way frcin the Chaoyang Gate to Tangshui, a popular resort where hot 
springs are located, about 20 or more miles from the city, is now going 
on. This will be 25 feet wide. 

North Kiangsu and Anhwei Roads— The merchants of North Kiangsu 
operating on their own initiative have organized the North Kiangsu Long 
Distance Automobile Service Company, which is now partly in operation 
carrying passengers between Siichowfu and points eastward towards 
Sutsien on the Grand Canal. Recently another company has been organiz- 
ed to build a road in northern Anhwei, to connect Pengpu on the Tien- 
tsin-Pukow Railway with the town of Hwaiyuan. 

Chekiang Roads— To the south of .Shanghai, the Kiangsu system con- 
nects with the roads building or projected by the Chekiang Provincial 
Road Bureau. No complete data as to the entire road program of this 
province is obtainable, but there are several important roads now under 
consideration, notably one running west from the provincial capital at 
Hangchow towards Yiihang, the first section of the inter-provincial roid 
to Hweichow in Anhwei mentioned above. Another important road in 
Chekiang to be constructed by provincial authorities will start in the 
Sinchangkwan Mountains and follow down the Yenki Valley through 
Chenghsien to Shangyu, a distance of 170 miles. A short road is to be 
constructed from Ningpo south to Fenghwa for operating a motor bus ser- 
vice. This road will be only 12 miles long, but will prove a highly profi- 
table investment, while still another automobile road will connect Ningpo 
with Chinhai and Tzeki. 

Kiangsi Roadi — It will be some time perhaps before the Kiangsu 
highway system radiating from Shanghai, is carried through into Chekiang 
and Anhwei to the Kiangsi border, but once this connection is established, 
the link is made with another comprehensive provincial system which 
extends on towards Hunan and south to the Kwangtung border. The 
province of Kiangsi with its capital at Nanchang is the strategical key to the 
rest of South China commanding all the lines and routes to the east and 
south. The Kiangsi provincial road scheme embraces a total of 1,200 
miles, estimated to cost an average of $3,000 per mile and to require five 
years to construct. The first and most important of these roads is naturally 
the one which passes through the richest agricultural and mining districts 
in the Kan River Valley. This road will link Nanchang with Kanchow 
passing through the important towns of Fengchenghsien, Linkiang, Sinkan, 
Siakiang, Kianfu, Taiho, and Wananhsien. The second line will branch 



off the Kan River road at Linkiang to connect with Pingsiang. Tin? ihiri 
will run east from Nanchang to Kwangsinfu near the Chekiang border awl 
here link up eventually with the Chekiang hig hway . The fourth will 
start at Nanchang and run up the Fu River Valley to I-'uchow, tin 
Kienchangfu and thence to Ningtu in southeastern Kiangsi. At Ksen- 
thangfu, another branch will ultimately connect with the Fukicn j>r> 
load system and carry on down the Min River to Foochow on ttu 
The fifth road will start at Nanchang and end at the great p 
at Kingtehchen, passing through Yiikan and Jaocbow, a highway that will 
ultimately form one of the principal sections on the main mid wi 
Shanghai. The sixth highway will proceed from Nanchang up the Ki-i 
River Valley through the important city of Juichowfu ami terminate at 
Shangkao. Here we have a comprehensive system, which taken with the 
Anhwei, Chekiang, and Kiangsu systems will bring through road trans- 
portation into the province of Hunan. 

Fukien Roads— Turning ence more to the south of Che ki an g , we find 
the Fukien provincial authorities also preparing elabor-it 
comprehensive system of provincial highways which embrai 
roads. The first of these, called the. Fukien eastern ( I is an 

important engineering project, necessitating many long an 
bridges across the lower reaches of the rivers which abound in this pro- 
vince. Starting in the northeast corner of the province at Fating this 
road will pass through Fuan, Ningteh, Loyucnhsien, I.ienkong, thence to 
the provincial capital at Foochow and then southwards along t: 
through Futsing, Hinghwafu, Hweianhsien, Tungan, Chang; \ 
Changchowfu, terminating in the southeast corner at Yunsiao, at 
tance of about 350 miles. The Fukien western road will comm 
shih and pass through Shanghang, Tingchowfu, Ninghwa, Kiennil 
Taining, Shaowu, and end at Kwangtseh on the Kiangsi border. Here it will 
u'timately connect with the Fu Valley road of the Kiangsi system. The 
length of this road is about 180 miles. The Fukien central road will start 
at Nananhsien on the coast road and pass through Tehwa, Yungan, Tsing- 
liu, and end at Hokow, a distance of about 140 miles. The Fukien southern 
road will start at Haiteng passing through Nantsinghsien, Lungycnchow, 
and Shanghang, terminating at Wuping, a distance of 140 miles. The 
Fukien northern road will start at Fuan on the coast road and proceed 
west through Chengho to Kienningfu, thence to Kienyang and terminate 
at Shaowu, a distance of about 180 miles. Here we have a provincial 
system aggregating 1,000 miles of main highways estimated to cost about 
$10,800 (Mexican) per mile, or a total of $10,800,000, a task well within 
the financial limits of the provincial capitalists. The Fukienese have 
already started to build macadam roads leading out from the important 
port of Chuanchowfu to Yungchun, and between Huyang and Tehwa for 
a motor bus and freight traffic, while a company was organized in June, 
1921 with a capital of $1,000,000 to construct the highway between Amoy 
and Foochow and operate a motor service. This road would be about 140 
miles long. 

In the vicinity of Foochow over 30 miles of macadam roads have 
already been built by the Foochow Road Bureau. A motor passenger an 1 
freight service is maintained by the Yen-Foo-Chiian Company, in which the 
provincal government holds a large block of stock. Tin's company is 
operating six motor cars and seven buses on three regular routes. It 
holds the monopoly right to build roads and operate motor bus services 
from the capital to Yenpingfu and from the capital to Chuanchowfu. 

Hinghwafu is also to be made the center of a system of country roads 
radiating in all directions and making connections with the seaport an! 
the principal cities of this region. Already certain taxes are specified for 
the carrying out of the project. 

From the southern terminus of the Fukien coast road at Yunsiao 
another highway is now under construction that will carry it down into 
Kwangtung through Chaochowfu to Waichow, where it will link up with 
the road to Canton. Part of this road has been completed and opened to 
traffic. 

Szechwan — Surveys have begun on a road from Chungking to Chcngtti 
to be built by provincial funds. 

Canton's New Malccs — No other city in China Proper can show such 
results of clean government in good roads and streets as the capital of the 
Southern Republic. In 1912, after the big fire in Canton, many 
modern streets were introduced, among which are an important 
portion of the Wirg On Avenue, the West Bund, and the 
Cooper Island. Recently the demolition of Canton's city wall 
gave employment to over 6,000 labourers. The total length of 
the old city wall was nearly six miles, with an average height of 24ft., a 
width 01 43ft. at the bottom and 35ft. at the top. The wall around the new 
city was 13ft. high, 17ft. wide at the bottom and 13ft. at the top. The 
work of demolition involved the removal of some 800,000 cubic yards of 
masonry and dirt, and was commenced in December, 19 iS. With this as 
a start, the work of road building has gone on apace, and under the rule 
of the Kwangsi military government in 1919, the old wall disappeared and 
37,000 ft. of broad highway were constructed. This good start was con- 
tinued under the new administration which has to its credit ■ further 
30,000 ft. of avenues, with another 50,000 ft. under construction. The plan* 
call for the extension of the Bund around the Shameen Island and the 
gradual extension of the wide street system over the entire city and into 
the surrounding country. In connection with the street system 
goes the creation of parks, playgrounds for the children, and tree 
planting. One public garden has been completed and three more 
are awaiting necessary funds for development. The plans also call for the 
sale of all old official yamen sites, and with the funds so obtained a new 
civic center will be erected, in which all of the municipal und provincial 
government offices will be housed. 



20 



HIE CEKISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



CHANGES IN THE ECONOMIC LIFE OF THE CHINESE PEOPLE 



JcutAN Arnold, American Commercial Attacht 



FOREWORD 

That the following article should appear in a Missionary Survey of 
China may seem strange to some readers. Yet no one can live in China 
today without realizing the profound problems that are raised by her rapid 
economic development. Opinions will differ as to the relation of the 
Christian Church to the problems. None can doubt that an intelligent 
understanding of them will be a help to the missionary in his task, if only 
to the extent of providing a point of contact with many of his hearers and 
showing them that he is interested in things that concern their daily life. 

Much more than this, however, will be felt by most to be needed. If 
Christianity has no message iu regard to social and economic problems, 
many will not be interested in it. It may even be questioned whether a 
religion without a social message has any right to command the respect and 
allegiance of mankind. The social message of Christ is unmistakable, and 
it must be applied to the solution of the very problems indicated rather 
than discussed in the following pages. These pages are a necessary 
setting for the intelligent discussion of problems such as the following : — 

i. It is clear that China is reing opened up economically, and that a 
far more rapid economic development may be expected in the .next fifty 
years than what has been witnessed in the last century. How can this 
extraordinary emphasis on the material side fail to add to the present ten- 
dency towards a materialistic outlook on life among the people generally? 

2. It is possible that China can be developed economically without 
the mass of her people being exploited by foreign capitalists and by her 



Old China— In some respects the Old China is passing so rapidly that 
our contact with it will soon be merely historical. Superficially the Old 
China still remains. One may travel through the country and find the 
villages and cultivated fields looking about the same as they have been for 
centuries past. While in cities there are evidences of modernizing 
tendencies, the ordinary Chinese city is today still little different from what 
it was a hundred years ago. 

Protest against the Old Order— China's first real awakening came with 
the China- Japan War, when with the humiliation of a defeat at the hands • 
of a people looked upon as in every way inferior, she came to appreciate 
what Western learning has meant to Japan. Shortly after, however, the 
reactionary Empress Dowager stifled the sweeping reform edicts of Emperor 
Kwang Hsu, only a few years later to awaken to the grim realization of the 
significance of Western methods, when she was obliged to flee with her 
Court from the Allied troops, although the Boxer demonstration was in 
reality a protest (crude in its way) against unjustifiable foreign aggres- 
sion. The promise of a constitutional government, commissions sent 
abroad to study Western political societies, the feverish installation of 
educational plants fashioned after the Western model, and even the 
fibolition by Imperial decree of the classics as the test in the fifteen century 
old civil service examination, did not satisfy the demands of the impetuous 
Young China The Revolution of ion was not, strictly speaking, directed 
against the Manchus as such, for China had during the 267 years of Manchu 
rule absorbed the Manchus. It was a protest against the old order. 

An Appreciation of Old China — It may be well here to emphasize the 
fact that in referring to the Old China it is not intended in any way to 
belittle the wonderful civilization through several thousands of years 
which the Chinese people have enjoyed. 

A people who as early as c,2co B.C. had a ruler who was chosen for 
his ability to cope with the Yellow River floods, hence known as the 
Engineer Emperor ; a people, one of whose sages nearly 3,000 years ago 
produced a work of which Professor Hirth has written, "As an educator of 
the nation the 'Chow Li' has probably not its like among the literatures 
of the world, not excepting the Bible" ; a people who before the beginnings 
cf the Christian era produced Laotze, Confucius, and Mencius, and whose 
generals "carried the banners of the Eastern Empire to meet the banners 
of Rome on the shores of the Caspian" ; a people who in the seventh 
century, while Europe was steeped in the Middle Ages, inaugurated a 
system of civil service examinations in literature which had been per- 
Ipetuated down to the beginnings of the present century; a people, who 
a? early as 1021 A.D. produced a socialist-philosopher statesman, Wang 
An Shih, whose theories were given a ten years' trial under the Emperor 
Shen Tsung and embodied the ideas (1) that the State take entire manage- 
ment of commerce, industry and agriculture into its own hands with a view 
to succouring the working classes and preventing them being "ground into 
the dust by the rich." (2) that tribunals be established throughout the land 
to regulate the daily wage and the daily price of merchandise, (3) that 
the soil be measured and divided into equal areas, graded according to its 
fertility, in order that there might be a new basis of taxation, (4) that 
taxes be provided 1 y the rich, and the poor be exempt, (5) that pensions 
be provided for the aged and employment for the unemployed, and 
(6) that every family with more than two males provide one for a State 
militia, etc. ; a people who invented the mariner's compass, gunpowder, 
paper, ink, printing, chinaware, and porcelain, gave' silk and tea to the 
world, and produced the poetry, literature, art and architecture which 
equal and in some particulars probably surpass those of other nations ; 
these people are indeed possessed of a rich civilization. 

The Old Culture — Every member of Chinese society today shows 
evidence of a culture which has filtered down through the countless ages of 
their rich civilization. Someone was telling the other day of overhearing 



own capitalists also? How can such a danger be avoided, and how tan 
emphasis be laid on persons and the rights of the poorest and least favour- 
ed, in a country where the central government is weak, where labour is 
little organized and where there is scarcely any informed public opinion 
on these questions ? Has the Church a duty in this matter and if so, what 
is it? 

3. Can the class division and class war that have been the outcome of 
the industrial revolution in the West be prevented in China ? In a society 
that has been fairly homogenous is it inevitable that a deep cleavage must 
come with the use of modern machinery and a great development of factories 
and the wage system ? 

4. How can those elements that are of value in the old Chinese 
family and social life be preserved with all the flood of new ideas that are 
pouring in, and the vast changes due to the growth of modern cities, in- 
creased standards of living, disruption of family ties and so forth ? 

These are a few of the grave questions that arise in our minds as we 
peruse these pages. If there be a Christian answer there is no time to 
lose in discovering it and applying it to the situation. The Church that 
has a clear and true message on these questions will command a respectful 
hearing in China today. If we are truly to estimate China's need for the 
Gospel of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ we cannot be blind to this 
insistent call. For this reason no survey of China can be complete without 
recognition of her present economic condition. (Henry T. Hodgkin). 



two ricksha coolies engaged in a quarrel on the streets of Peking. In 
accord with the usual custom of these pacifist people, it was a war of words 
rather than a fistic encounter. One coolie was overheard to exclaim tc 
the other, "You should be ashamed of yourself for you have forgotten the 
eight principles." The servant in the household, the poor illiterate coolie 
pushing a wheelbarrow or carrying a load, the boatman clad in rags, and 
the fisherman at his net have all inherited a certain degree of this culture. 
You do any of these a favour and note the gracious manner in which it is 
recognized! The difference between the one member of this society and 
another lies in opportunity and education rather than in caste or class. 
Lack of Scientific Environment— Living in a scientific environment 
in the West as we do, in contrast with the non-scientific surroundings is 
which the Chinese are living, we absorb from this environment, as well as. 
from our occupations, much by way of education which the Chinese do 
not get. The very fact that we in the West are keyed up to railway, office, 
and factory schedules, are obliged to think in terms of figures, and our 
effectiveness as a member of our society depends in a large measure upon 
our response to the demands of a mathematical and scientific atmosphere 
means that cur processes of thinking and acting are influenced thereby. 
How far behind the Chinese still are in this direction may be surmised 
from the absence of technical terminology in their language. For instance, 
a Chinese engineer or industrial manager is obliged to resort to English 
fcr much of the necessary technical terminology in his orders to his non- 
English speaking subordinates. 

Among the masses in China this lack of contact with a scientific 
environment has naturally resulted in the perpetuation of superstitions. 
Thus when Western science and methods knocked at China's door the 
people were naturally reluctant, because of self-sufficiency on the one 
hand, and ignorance and superstitious fears on the other, to bid them wel- 
come. The scholar did not want railways, because the sages were not 
concerned with the toys of modern civilization and the uneducated masses 
feared the belching locomotive would disturb the peace of the spirits or 
their ancestors. 

Distribution of Population — Through lack of railways and other 
modern communication facilities, the Chinese have crowded themselves 
together in a comparatively small area, leaving hundreds of thousands of 
square miles of lands, abounding in rich resources, undeveloped and sparse- 
ly populated, creating the impression abroad that the country is over- 
peopled. Six-sevenths of China's population are today living in one- 
tbird of its area. In Mongolia and Sinkiang China possesses almost 
2,000,000 square miles of territory with an average of less than 4 persons 
to the square mile. Asiatic Russia possesses 6,000,000 square miles with 
an average of only 5 persons to the square mile. In this vast empire cf 
8,000,000 of square miles of thinly populated territory, abounding in rich 
resources, there are less than 8,000 miles of railways, and but a few hund- 
reds of miles of good motor roads. The United States with little more 
than half the area claims 265,000 miles of railways and probably 250,000 
miles of metal-surfaced motor roads. 

Emigration and Land Developments- One has only to take a trip over 
the Peking-Suiyiian Railway to Inner Mongolia, a country which a few 
years ago was as sparsely populated as the Western plains in America, 
before the advent of the railway, to find the immigrant Chinese by the 
thousands making their way into that land of promise, and without the 
encouragement of government aid or land development companies. 
•Similarly the building of railways in Manchuria has been followed by 
millions of immigrants from over-populated Shantung, who are transform- 
ing Manchuria into a granary for not only a big portion of Asia but for the 
West as well. Within the past six years, the South Manchurian Railway 
has increased the amount of produce hauled from five to ten millions of 
tons. During 1920, it hauled 60,000,000 bushels of soya beans, 20,000,000 



GENEEAL BACKGEOUND 



21 



cbushels of wheat, 17,000,0)0 bushels of kaffir corn, compared with 30,000,000 
Tmshels of soya beans, 650,000 bushels of wheat and 4,800,000 bushels of 
kaffir corn during the year 1915. Mongolia, with its 1,300,000 square 
miles of territory (1/3 the area of the United States) three-fourths of which 
ate fertile lands, will be opened to settlement and development with the 
extension of railways into that section now having less than one person 
to the square mile. In the lowest reaches of the Yangtze, and extending 
north and south along the coast, in an area of 50,000 square miles, there 
is a population of almost 40,000,000, or about 800 to the square mile. 
Durin^ the past few years, since the restrictions against Chinese settling 
in Harbin were removed, a Chinese city has grown up with a population 
now in excess of 300,000. There were no real estate companies or other 
boosting agencies to push this work along. The word seems to have bean 
massed along among the Chinese themselves and a city sprung up faster 
than any Middle West boom town in America. 

Future Commercial Possibilities in West China — There are in conser- 
vative figures, seventy to eighty million people in so-called West China, 
that is, in the provinces of Szechwan, Shensi, and Kansu, which are cut off 
from economic communication with the rest of China, hence with the rest 
of the world. The fifty or more millions of people of Szechwan are as near 
to being self-supporting as any people can be. They could not get to the 
sea for their salt, so they drilled into the ground over 3,000 feet. The 
Chengtu Plain, 60 by 40 miles, supports a population of five millions and 
has an irrigation system which dates back to the third century before the 
Christian era. On the road from the Wei Basin to the Chengtu Plain one 
may meet coolies carrying on their backs loads of cotton weighing 160 
pounds. They will carry these loads 15 miles a day for 750 miles at 17 cents 
silver a day, which is the equivalent of 14 cents a ton mile. Thus at this 
rale it costs $106.25 (silver) to transport one ton 750 miles— the railways 
should be able to haul this for $15.00 or 1/7 the amount. The Peking- 
Mcukden Railway carries coal for the Kailan Mining Administration at less 
than 1% cents (silver) a ton mile. With the coolie-carrier the cotton spends 
.50 days on the road, whereas the railway would make the haul in 2 days, 
thereby saving 48 days interest on the money and landing the cotton in 
better condition. In addition, the railways which make for the expeditious 
exchange of money, thereby eliminating losses in exchange, also tend to 
-a standardization of weights and measures along the line, a very important 
-consideration in China where we have 70 different tael or ounce weight units 
for silver and a score of weights and measures for commodities. Further- 
more, the railway tends to eliminate internal tax stations along its line, a 
serious barrier to trade in China. The greater security against brigandage 
and robbery which the railway accords is a prime consideration in China, 
not only for the passenger traffic but for freight as well. 

Handicaps due to Lack cj Railways — Wheat in the Wei Basin in 
Shensi, where the rich loess soil continues to produce 30 and 40 bushels to 
the acre after forty centuries of cultivation, sells at one-third the price cf 
wheat at Hankow, 600 miles away, yet, the cost of cart transportation is 
so high that it cannot profitably be shipped 300 miles to the railway for 
transshipment tc Hankow, in fact, wheat can be shipped from Seattle ic 
Hankow, nearly 7,000 miles, for about half of what it costs to ship it from 
the Wei Basin in Shensi to Hankow. Thus without railways, the more 
wheat the people in the Wei Basin raise over and above their own wants 
"the worse off are they. A similar condition obtains everywhere in China 
-where the people are obliged to depend upon coolie, cart, or pack animal 
for transportation, in «pite of a very low wage rate, an almost criminal 
handicap to a people at this time in the world's history. 

The 260,000 miles of railways in the United States carried during 
1919, 1,238,000,000 tons of all commodities originating on the lines. During 
the same year the 3,500 miles of railways under the control cf the Chinese 
Government carried 21,400,000 tons. The average length of haul for the 
American railways was 277 miles, while that of the Chinese was 97 miles. 
Consider these figures in the light of China having a territory 1/3 again 
as large and a population 4 times that of the United States. 

Railway Construction— China has made very slow progress in railway 
■construction since its first railway, forty years ago. 'Ihe methods under 
which railways have been built, through exclusive concessions to certain 
foreign groups, have militated seriously against a rapid expansion in rail- 
way construction in China, for the reason that these concessions carry 
stipulations miking the construction of lines in proximity to those built 
•difficult, if not impossible. The consortium of certain foreign banking 
interests was organized to overcome this unfavourable situation. The 
training of a considerable number of Chinese in railway engineering and 
operation adds to the advantages to faster construction for the future. 
Furthermore, the Chinese are themselves now thoroughly alive to the 
-economic value of the "iron road," and with their own men trained in 
construction and operation, we may hope for much faster progress in the 
future. 

It is estimated that China needs 50,000 miles of railways to handle 
her imperative transportation needs. Figuring the cost of railway con- 
struction and equipment at $150,000 (silver) per mile, a low estimate, 
the 50,000 miles will cost $7,500,000,000 (silver). The 3,500 miles of rail- 
ways now being operated by the Chinese Ministry of Communications 
represent a capital investment of $500,000,000 (silver), including 
$120,000,000 equipment. A further $100,000,000 for equipment will have 
to be added to this amount during the next two years, bringing the 
total to $600,000,000. Railways can pay handsomely in China where 
■operating costs are lower than 50 per cent of the operating revenues. It 
-would seem that it is safe to prophesy that this work will be done during 
the next few decades. It will result in stupendous changes in the economic 
life of the Chinese people, as is already evident in sections where railways 
-are in operation. 

Development of Water and Railway Terminals — Directly connected 



with the problem of railway construction is the question of improved 
port and harbour facilities, and terminals generally. Ports will spring 
into prominence commercially which are today of little significance to 
the life of the Chinese people. When Shanghai became a treaty port in 
1842. it was not known to the outside world and was not a city of much 
importance even in China. The site of the present city was mud flats 
and rice fields at the time it was arranged to lay out a section where 
foreigners might reside and da business. The assessed valuation of the 
land in the International Settlement is now over $200,000,000 (silver), and 
that in contiguous territory within the port limits including the French 
Concession would probably increase this amount by 50 per cent. The 
trade of Shanghai has passed the $1,000,000,000 (silver) mark. Shanghai 
is probably destined to become the world's most populous city, for the 
reason that it is located at the mouth of the greatest of water-sheds, 
which claims one-tenth of the world's papulation. There is no economic 
western outlet for this population. The Yangtze Delta wih an area 41 
*)er cent of that of the United Kingdom has a population nearly as great. 
Other strategically located ports both on the Yangtze and throughout 
other sections of the country are bound, with the developments of rail- 
ways, waterways, and road transportation, to grow in wealth and 
importance. 

Resources in Coal — Necessarily associated with the development of 
transportation is the question of fuel. Prof. Francis H. Wilson of the 
.Leigh Technical School says, "Great Britain undoubtedly owes her 
wonderful position among the great nations of the world to her vast 
store of that natural source of energy — Coal." China's lesources in coal 
as well as those in iron, the two forming the backbone of a modern 
industrial society, have been very much overestimated. However, V. K. 
Ting, Director of the Geological Survey of China points out that excepting 
the United States, "China is certainly the only country on the Pacific 
with respectable resources in coal." Mr. Ting estimates that the coal 
reserve possessed by China is probably from 40 to 50 billion tons or 33 
per cent of that of Great Britain. The United States coal output for 
1920 was 650,000,000 tons and that of Great Britain 180,000,000, while 
that of China was about 25,000,000 tons. During the past eight years, 
China imported 11,300,000 tons and exported 13,800,000 tons of coal. 
According to V. K. Ting, China's proportion of anthracite to bituminous 
coal is greater than one to three, whereas that for the world generally is 
about one to eight. The question of accessibility to some of the richest 
coal deposits in China will only be settled with increased railway facilities. 
With cheap labour such as obtains in China, coal can be mined at $0.75 
to $1.50 silver a ton. In a sense, we may judge of China's tardiness in 
modern industrial development by her failure to realize to a greater 
degree upon her resources in coal and iron. 

Resources in Iron — Linked with coal in the industrial development of 
any nation is iron. Here again China's resources have been greatly 
exaggerated. Mr. Ting gives the known iron reserve of China, as taken 
from the results of six years of work of the Geological Survey, as 
677,000,000 tons distributed as follows : 91,500,000 in Chihli province, 
387,000,000 in South Manchuria, 23,000,000 in Shantung, 160,000,000 in 
the Yangtze Valley provinces and 7,500,0010 tons in Fukien. He estimates 
this amount as probably about 1/2 of China's total reserve in iron ore 
and conservatively places the total at 1,000,000,000 tons. Thus, Mr. Ting 
gives China about one-quarter the reserve of the United States, 4/5 that 
of England, and 1/3 that of France or Germany before the War. The 
present production of iron ore in China is about 1,500,000 tons, of which 
about 2/3 is smelted in China. In the. United States the production 
of iron ore in 1920 was 70,000,000 tons and about 36,000,000 tons of pig. 
Japan has contracted for 1,000,000 tons of ore annually from China for 
the next few years. The exceeding low per capita consumption of pig 
iron in China is noteworthy. It equals about 0.0025 tons per head com- 
pared with a consumption of 0.34 tons per head in the United States, a 
very significant contrast between the industrial developments in America 
and the situation in China. There are eight iron works 
constructed and under construction in China, with a total output equal 
to about 1,000,000 tons. 

The question of transportation figures again prominently in its 
relations to the iron industry in China, in fact, the slowness in the 
developments in this industry appear to be due, in a large measure, to 
transportation. Mr. D. K. Lieu, farmer Cost Accountant of the Hanyang 
Iron and Steel Works, in a very illuminating series of articles which 
appeared in the "Peking Daily News" this last summer, contrasts the 
cost of the production of pig iron at the Hanyang Works with that at 
the Japanese plant at Penkihu, Manchuria, the former costing $48.50 
silver a ton and the latter but $22.00 a ton. The Hanyang Works draws 
upon its own stores of ores, producing its coke from its own coal mines, 
hence the market fluctuations in the prices of raw materials did not enter 
into calculation. Mr. Lieu attributes the greater part of the difference in 
costs to the one item, coke, and shows that it is the transportation factor 
which is accountable in the main for this. The coke landed at Hanyang 
from Pingsiang, a distance of about 200 miles, costs $24.54 compared 
with a cost of $5.74 at Penkihu. At Penkihu, however, the coke is 
used where it is produced, so transportation is not a factor. The ore 
at Hanyang costs $6.55 compared to $5.10 for the ore at Penkihu. The 
Hanyang Works have their own boats to carry coke and ore, yet the cost 
is so very high. Mr. Lieu contends that if cheap railway transportation 
be substituted for the boats the cost could be greatly reduced. Although 
the Penkihu iron involved much lower productioni costs, when trans- 
ported to the market it was sold at more than $40.00 (silver) a ton. Mr. 
Lieu therefore concludes that unless transportation is facilitated, China 
can not expect to compete with other nations in mineral production, that 
is, develop basic industries which produce bulky commodities made from 



22 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



equally bulky raw materials. The hopeful sign iu connection with the 
development of a modern industrial society in China lies in the fact that 
the Chinese are now appreciating the inter-relationship of transportation, 
fuel arid basic raw materials. 

Other Mineral Resources — In minerals other than coal and iron, 
China is also by no means poor, over 50 per cent of the world's resources 
in antimony are accredited to China. During the War this mineral was 
in heavy demand and China profited greatly thereby. China ranks 
third in her riches in tin, following the Malay States and Bolivia. The 
exports for 1920 amounted to about $15,000,000 silver. Practically all of 
this came from Yunnan province; Kwangsi and Hunan provinces contain 
considerable deposits, but here again the difficulties cf transportation 
have prevented development. In copper, China is apparently very poor, 
having probably exhausted most of her resources in this metal which 
has figuied so prominently in the arts and industries of the people. Lead 
and zinc are found in Hunan and Yunnan. Under present conditions, it 
dees not pay to work these deposits. The disturbed political conditions 
and poor transportation in Hunan undoubtedly account in a measure for 
the present inactivity. During the War there were heavy shipments of 
tungsten, molybdenum, and manganese from China, used in connection 
with steel manufacture, but the sudden drop in prices, and other un- 
favourable factors resulted in cutting off the demands from abroad. The 
local consumption is not as yet sufficient to make the working of these 
mines profitable. Although China is one of the largest silver using 
countries, ranking second after India, it produces no silver, hence this 
mineral, so important to the economic life of the people, must be 
imported. In petroleum, investigations have not yet proceeded sufficiently 
to justify a statement one way or the other. The general impression, 
however, among geologists, seems to be that China contains resources in 
petroleum which may figure prominently in the future economic life of 
the country. Here also the question of transportation is also an im- 
portant factor. China is rich in limestone and other materials for the 
manufacture of Portland cement and the cement industry is forging ahead 
very rapidly, offering splendid opportunities for the investment of native 
capital. The absence of accessible timber for lumber makes cement even 
more valuable for building material, etc. Road work which is now at its 
inception will require large quantities of cement. 

Machine-Power— In an article on "Man-power plus Horse-power," 
George Otis Smith, Director, United States Geological Survey, made the 
statement, "Edward Everett Hale charted the course of industrial 
development when he said that the extent to which the world had changed 
the labourer who uses his body into the workman who uses his head 
was the index of civilization. The true measure of industrial progress is 
found in the amount of mechanical power used to supplement man- 
power." If we had to hire coolie-carriers to carry the freight, not to 
mention one billion passengers carried, which American railways hauled 
last year, it would take twice the present estimated population of China, 
ox 8oo,cco,coo men, each man carrying 160 pounds 15 miles a day for 365 
working days. Mr. Smith calculates that "the motor power we are now 
using, steam and electricity, gives us the equivalent of five energy 
servants for every man, woman, and child in the U. S., which in itself 
is equivalent to giving us industrially the effectiveness cf 500,000,000 of 
people working without this power." This statement can be appreciated 
in a country like China, where there has not yet been developed one 
horse power of its wonderful potentialities in hydro-electric power and 
where steam power is only at the threshold of its possibilities in modern 
industry. 

Industrial Developments — During the past ten years, China has been 
making substantial strides in modern industrial activity. These 
developments are revolutionizing the economic life of the Chinese people. 
Shanghai has become the principal industrial center, due to its strategic 
position as the heart of the most densely populated section of the country, 
its advantages in cheap transportation and the cheap power furnished 
through the broad visioned policy of the municipal electric power 
plant. Hankow, Tientsin, Canton, Wusih, and other cities are rapidly 
assuming the appearance of modern industrial centers. Cotton mills, 
flour mills, canneries, knitting mills, ship-building works, iron 
founderies, steel works, electric light plants, packing houses, tanneries, 
lace and hair net factories, match factories, oil mills, printing and 
lithographing works, railway shops, silk mills, smelting works, sugar 
factories, cigarette factories, woolen mills, water w<*rks, newspaper 
plants, egg factories, saw mills, glass works, furniture factories, paper 
mills, distilleries and breweries, cement works, chinaware and porcelain 
factories, brick works and arsenals are some among the modern industrial 
plants now in operation. It is not possible within the limitations of 
this article to describe in detail many of these, but an effort will l-e 
made to indicate the trend of! developments, and something of the 
potentialities which the field offers. 

Growth in Cotton Textiles Manufacture — Greater progress has been 
made in the cotton textiles manufacture in China than in any other field 
of modern industry. The first ten years of efforts in cotton manufacture 
were unprofitable although the same basic conditions to success obtained 
then as favour the industry now. China then produced considerable raw 
material, was blessed with a plentiful supply of cheap labour and had one 
of the biggest markets in the world in her domestic needs. Those who 
witnessed the failure of the industry during the first decade, proclaimed 
that China would never become an industrial nation, contending that 
the people lacked the capacity for successfully handling organized 
capital, directing large groups of labourers, or using modern machinery. 

If there is any one modern industry in which the Chinese have 
proved signally successful, it is in the manufacture of cotton yarn and 
cotton cloth. Chinese mills, with Chinese capital, Chinese management 



and Chinese labour, working on Chinese raw material and disposing off 
their products in a Chinese market, are now paying upwards of 50 per" 
cent dividends. The developments in this industry are progressing s»- 
rapidly that some have expressed themselves as fearful lest it be over- 
done. It may be pointed out that China imported during the year 1930, 
$i25,cco,cco (silver) in cotton yarn, $265,000,000 in cotton cloth and. 
192,000 bales (U.S. bale unit 477 pounds) of raw cotton. It exported (or 
the same period $4,500,000 in cotton yarn, $7,500,000 in cotton manu--;: 
factured goods and 105,000 bales of cotton. It is apparent from thee 
figures, that it will be a long time before China is able even to supply- 
her domestic needs. It must also be borne in mind that while striving 
to meet these demands, the price of labour in China will increase, as is. 
already evident, and with the advances in labour costs, the purchasing; 
power of the labourers will improve, resulting in heavier demands from*, 
the masses for cotton goods. Those who now wear little or nothing" 
during the summer will have the wherewithal to keep clothed. Similarly 
those who are now wearing patches upon patches will decide with a. 
better purchasing power to wear fewer patches. Those who are content; 
with one or two suits of clothes a year will, with more ready cash, findc' 
their pride calling for two, three, and four suits a year. Thus it is- 
more likely that with the developments in the cotton manufacturing" 
industry in China, the demands for cotton goods will for many years/ 
txceed the ability of the people to meet them. Dr. Wu Ting-fang once- 
said, "If one could succeed in adding one inch to the shirt tail of every* 
Chinese, he would keep the cotton mills of the world busy for years 
in supplying this increased demand." 

Statistics of Modern Cotton Mills — As China has not yet developed" 
the statistical habit, and as no inventory of its resources is being kept,, 
it is extremely difficult to secure correct data on the economic situation.. 
Recently the British Chamber of Commerce Journal, Shanghai, publish--; 
ed a list of modern cotton mills with details as to number of spindles- 
and looms, nationality of ownership, and machinery. A resume of thisv 
list may be stated as follows : — 

Nationality of Number of S ^f|™^ 
Management Mills 



British 
Japanese 

Chinese 



and under 
erection 
256,808 
(336,452 
I 27,456 
j 802,647 
1 437,912 



Spindles on order 



Total Number of 
Spindles 



4,000 
(441,500 
\ 35,000 
(367,316 
(345,908 



262,808 British 
f 777,952 British 
I 62,456 American 
(1,169,963 British 
i 783,820 American 



TOTAL 83 1,863,275 1,193,724 3,056,999 

According to this list, there are at present nearly 2,000,000 spindles-- 
under operation and in course of construction, and an additional 
1,000,000 spindles ordered. Thus with all the mills in operation, 
under construction, and ordered, there are in the aggregate some- 
3,000,000 spindles. As for power looms, those in operation, being erected,, 
and under order, aggregate about 15,000. In the United Kingdom there- 
are 59,000,000 spindles and 840,000 looms, in the United States there are- 
36,000,000 spindles and 443,000 looms, and in Japan there are 3,600,000* 
spindles and 45,000 looms. Thus China's position in the modern textile 
industry is not one which need cause apprehension. The country cart- 
easily handle 10,000,000 spindles and 100,000 looms. In capital outlay, 
10,000,000 spindles mean $800,000,000 silver. It is going to require some- 
years before this amount of capital is available for this purpose. 

The cotton textile industry is centered for the most part at Shanghai' 
and vicinity; Hankow, Tsingtau and Tientsin follow in importance. It- 
appears, however, that Shanghai is destined to become the Manchester 
of China. 

Labour Supply and Wages — Labour is a very important .element irt« 
the textiles industry. The Chinese operative is excellent material- 
Indicative of China's backwardness in modern industrial developments, 
is the fact that the country has as yet no factory Jaws or labour- 
legislation. As might be expected under this condition, labour is being: 
ruthlessly exploited by capital, although to the credit of some of the mill 
owners, it may be said that much is being done in the interests of the 
operatives. However, the hours are long, children of tender years are- 
impressed into service by the tens of thousands, sanitary conditions are 
not what they should be, wages are pitifully low and labour conditions- 
are on the whole bad. It is true, however, the labourers are developing 
a class consciousness. They are being organized into unions. Through 
strikes, the results of increasing cost of living, wages have been advanced. 
Clouds are gathering on the horizon in the industrial labour world of 
China as also evidenced by the recent Chinese seamen's strike at Hong- 
kong, where 275 ships with an aggregate of 250,000 tons were laid up for 
weeks, paralyzing the trade of the port and eventually forcing the 
authorities to recognize their organization and the ship owners to meet, 
their demands. 

Labour at Shanghai is at present on the following scale of average 
prices : Unskilled; 

Unskilled coolie labour, 25 to 35 cents a day (10 to 12 hours). 

Mill workers, male, 30 to 40 cents a day (9 to 10 hours). 

Mill workers, female, 20 to 25 cents a day (9 to 10 hours). 

Mill workers, children, 10 to 20 cents a day (9 to ic hours). 
Skilled: 

Brick-layers, 50 cents a day (9 to 10 hours). 

Masons, 60 to 80 cents a day (9 to 10 hours). 

Carpenters, 50 to 80 cents a day (9 to 10 hours). 

Painters, 50 to 70 cents a day (9 to 10 hours). 

Machinists or mechanics, $1.00 to $2.00 a day {9 hours). 

Engineers, $50 to $100 a month. 

Mill foremen, $40 to $90 a month. 

Ivocomotive engineers, $45 to $50 a month. 



GENERAL BACKGROUND 



23 



The above are given in silver, which may be converted into gold at the 
rate $2.00 silver equals $i.co gold. During the past three years wages 
have advanced about 25 per cent. 

It is generally conceded that the Chinese possesses good mechanical 
instinct, especially the Southerner, and makes a very good worker. A 
plant which manufactures electric lamps in Shanghai, stated that within 
six months, green material was trained to turn out as good work as 
experienced labourers in the United States, in the same line. In Man- 
churia in the Japanese iron and steel works, the foremen admit that the 
Chinese labourer is superior to the Japanese. 

Hand Looms— The hand loom is destined to play an important part 
in weaving of cotton cloth in China for many years to come. As to the 
numbers in use in the country or the sum total of their products, there 
are no figures available, nor even intelligent estimates. There may be 
several hundreds of thousands or even motes. Probably from 80 per cent 
to 85 per cent of the people may still be classed as agricultural. The 
hand looms are for the most part handled by women, assisted by children. 
The industry is the domestic household sort and generally speaking it 
does not occupy the time of the operatives to the exclusion of the other 
work they may be called upon to perform in the home and in connec- 
tion with their agricultural pursuits. In other words, it may be called a 
by-product of tbeir labour. The anti-Japanese boycotts of the past few 
years lent a very considerable impetus to both the power and hand looms, 
as Japanese cotton goods were boycotted and patriotic demonstrations 
throughout the country popularized the home made products. The 
boycott as an effective economic weapon has been demonstrated in China 
and must be reckoned with in the future. However, as the economic 
conditions throughout China generally improve, the hand loom will 
gradually give way to machinery. 

Raw Cotton — As for raw material for the cotton industry, cotton is 
indigenous to China. At all events, the native Chinese cotton has 
developed along such distinctive lines that it refuses to hybridize with 
the foreign imported cottons, although cotton is a most gregarious plant. 
The native cotton is hardy as are all Chinese plants, but it is of very 
short kinky staple or fiber, hence not in itself adequate to meet the 
needs for good yarn. Efforts are being made, however, to improve the 
length of the fiber by selection and indications are that this work will 
be successful. In the meanwhile, seed from America is being used quite 
extensively throughout the cotton growing areas, and with good success. 
Associations of manufacturers and merchants are actively interested in 
bettering the cotton grown in China and in an increased production per 
acre. The Department d Agriculture of the University of Nanking 
with an American cotton growing expert is working in cooperation with 
these organizations. It will be a matter of good fortune if China is able 
to prevent, with her indiscriminate importation of cotton seed, the 
introduction of the boll weevil, which has cost the American cotton in- 
dustry hundreds of millions of dollars. 

It is difficult to make anything like an accurate estimate of the 
amount of cotton grown in China, on account of the small size 
of the fields, and because of the fact that much of the cotton is consumed 
in the household industries and does not find its way out into the 
larger channels of trade. Estimates of China's normal production range 
from 3,000,000 to 6,000,000 of bales (U.S. unit of 477 pounds).. It would 
seem that we are safe in placing China third as a cotton producing 
country. The yield per acre and the acerage given to cotton will 
increase with the work being done to further cotton production in China. 
From 100,000 to 300,000 bales of Chinese cotton are exported annually, a 
large part being taken by the United States for manufacture into 
blankets, as the kinky fiber resembles wool. 

Silk Industry — Next after cotton, silk probably offers the best 
prospects for the immediate future among the industries of China. How 
rapidly silk has become a factor in the industrial life of America may 
be adjudged by the fact that, whereas in 1874 the United States imported 
1,000,000 pounds of raw silk (silk yarn), 47 years later these importations 
increased to 47,000,000 pounds. Figuring silk at about $8.00 (gold a 
pound, this means nearly $400,000,000 gold for the importation of raw 
silk into the United States. The continual development of the silk in- 
dustry in the United States depends upon its ability to compete against 
artificial silk and the maintenance of prices at such a level that the 
consuming public will net be obliged to take to cotton or wool because 
of the prohibitive prices of silk fabrics. The industry as built up in the 
United States represents an investment of nearly $1,000,000,000 silver. 

Naturally, those not cognizant with the situation, might conclude from 
their knowledge of China as a silk producing country that America 
obtained a considerable percentage of its supplies of raw material from the 
land which gave silk to the world. Eighty per cent of America's supplies 
of raw silk are furnished by Japan and less than 20 per cent by China. 
The American high speeded machine loom cannot use the Chinese skein 
made for the hand looms of China, as they are too long, are irregularly 
laced, and not uniform in texture ; in a word, they do not correspond with 
what is known as the American standard skein. The Silk Association of 
America realizing the need of a bigger source of supply has during the past 
«x years taken an active interest in encouraging the Chinese silk pro- 
ducers to make the standard American skein. With this end in view their 
representative visited Canton and the silk producing sections of the 
Yangtze Valtey about six years ago with a motion picture demonstration 
showing the needs of the American industry. In spite of prophecies from 
all sides that the Chinese silk producers would not respond to suggested 
changes because of being steeped in the traditions of centuries, his 
demonstrations and representations to the Chinese silk interests were so 
enthusiastically received that within five years, the Canton filatures 



changed their methods completely and are now spinning the standard 
American skein. As a result, Canton's exports of raw silk to the United 
States are 40,000 bales in place of less than half this amount formerly. 
Figuring a bale of silk as worth $1,300 silver, this makes an aggregate of 
$50,000,000. The silk filature men responded so effectively, because it was 
shown to them that it would pay them well to make the change. This is 
important to keep in mind in connection with the economic changes which 
the Chinese people are undergoing. 

In Shanghai, the situation is somewhat complicated by the fact that 
the great majority of the 80 steam filatures are real estate propositions, 
that is the filatures are not operated by the owners whose only interest 
is the rents they secure from them. For this reason, the operators do not 
find it to their advantage to stand the expense of making the changes 
necessary to the production of the standard American skeirt as their 
expenditures may be made in the interests of others rather than them- 
selves. On the other hand, the owners not being silk men, do not care 
to go to the expense if they can rent the filatures without so doing. The 
remedy will come through a greater interest in the industry, as an invest- 
ment for Chinese capital, when it becomes generally known that the silk 
industry, as now being adapted to new conditions, offers handsome returns 
on capital invested. To further assist in this situation, the U. S. Testing 
House, the stock of which is held by the Silk Association of America, 
formed a joint Chinese-American company with a capital of $60,000 gold, 
and installed at Shanghai what is known as the Shanghai International 
Testing House under the management of the U. S. Testing House. By 
means of this Testing House, silk which passes the tests will be accepted 
in any market on certificates from the Testing House. These certificates 
then become negotiable documents so soon as the silk is in the hands of 
the Testing House. In this manner the silk producer is protected in his 
standard product against chances which in the past rendered his business 
somewhat a gamble. It is planned to establish a similar Testing House 
at Canton. Thus so far as the manufacture of the silk yarn is concerned, 
conditions are rapidly pointing to a very substantial forward movement in 
the industry, with the likelihood that within five or ten years the exports 
to the American market will increase to a valuation of several hundreds of 
millions of dollars silver. With the improvements in the production of 
the yarn, naturally, the weaving of the silk cloth will advance. At present 
there are but very few modern silk weaving mills in China. One large 
mill at Hangchow, employs several thousands of labourers and is 
financially a conspicuous success. With the production of the standard 
American skein, power looms will develop more rapidly and make for the 
building up of an industry in China, which along with the improved steam 
filatures, will revolutionize the entire silk industry and thereby assist 
materially in the betterment of the economic conditions throughout the 
silk producing sections of China. 

Sericulture — As with the manufacture of cotton goods, the silk industry 
depends in its final analysis upon the raw material. In the non-scientifie 
environment of China, it was not to be expected that the Pasteur process 
of examining eggs would become known and adopted. Investigations 
have proved that in many sections, 85 per cent of the eggs are from 
diseased moths, hence produced poor worms (and some worms which died 
before maturity) with consequent poor cocoons and silk. Through the 
efforts of the International Society for the Improvement of Sericulture in 
China, assisted by such other agencies as the Department of Agriculture of 
the University of Nanking and the Canton Christian College, the Chinese 
are being furnished with disease free eggs. Here again the response on 
the part of the producers of the cocoons has been most favourable because 
of their discovering the fact that the better eggs produce 
cocoons which bring better prices. In some sections where the certified 
eggs were distributed, the demands for them actually caused riots, and 
police had to be used to line up the applicants so that all might be served. 
The changes due to the work of these agencies have reduced the diseased 
moths in these sections, in some instances, so it is stated, to as low as 
15 per cent. Eventually pebrine will have become eradicated and the 
disease free moth will be the rule rather than the exception. In the 
improvement of the mulberry, work is also progressing in a very favour- 
able and effective manner. The statement has been made upon good 
authority that without planting another acre in mulberry or investing 
another dollar in raising cocoons, with disease free eggs, the Shanghai 
district can raise from three to five times the amount of silk now produced. 
This means an industry bringing in between one hundred and one hundred 
and fifty millions of dollars (silver) in place of one bringing in but fifty 
millions. This instance demonstrates what modern methods will do for 
China's economic life. 

Educitii'n in Sericulture— While on the subject of sericulture, it may 
be well to mention the position of the sericultural school. There are a 
number of these being conducted under native auspices. A few are quite 
good, but unfortunately some are teaching antiquated methods, thus are 
actually doing more harm than good. The teachers in these schools are 
apparently sincere but do not realize that there is anything better. Strange 
as it may seem, "teachers in sericultural schools in one place are not aware 
of the existence of similar schools in nearby vicinities. Much remains to 
be done by way of bringing the teachers of these schools together and in 
giving them a special course of study during the vacation months, to 
bring their work into line with modern day demands. The short-term 
courses in sericulture now given by the University of Nanking and Canton 
Christian College are producing splendid results. 

Knitting Mills — Closely allied to the textile industries are the knitting 
mills. These are springing up rapidly in China, centered for the present, 
however, at Shanghai. Cotton knitted underwear finds an almost un- 
limited market in China and the development of mills to supply the home 
demand will engage much Chinese capital and labour. Chinese knitted 



24 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



siik hosiery has become an important article of export. Chinese em- 
broideries and laces, both cotton and silk, are rapidly replacing the Italian 
and French products in the American market. The small hand and deft 
fingers of the Chinese, combined •with the plentiful supply of labour, make 
the future of the lace and embroidery industries very promising. Already 
the exports of laces and embroideries figure in the millions in the 
aggregate valuation. 

Vegetable Oits—Aiter texiles, the vegetable oils industry probably 
ranks next in importance, in its future possibilities. This industry was 
given a great impetus by the War, and placed China in a permanent 
position in the world's markets for these essential products. The rise of 
the soya bean from a position of obscurity in China's foreign trade several 
decades ago to a place second in importance to silk reads like a romance. 
<For the year 1920, the exports of silk, raw and manufactured, was 
equivalent in value to $130,000,000 silver, and beans and bean products 
$115,000,000. The exports of bean oil were equivalent to $21,000,000. 
During the previous year the exports reached $30,000,000. Of the beans 
exported the bulk is used for oil for soap manufacture. Bean oil mills will 
be installed in larger numbers in China and the bulk of the extracting and 
refining of the oil will eventually be done in this country. 

Peanut Oil— By using bean oil in the manufacture of soaps, large quan- 
tities of cotton seed oil are released for a greater use in edible fats. Next 
in importance after bean oil, among the vegetable oils in China, is peanut 
oil. The exports of this product for 1920, amounted to $13,000,000 silver, 
as compared with $20,000,000 worth the previous year. The exports of 
peanuts amounts to about $8,000,000 silver annually. The bulk of the 
peanuts and peanut oil comes from Shantung where it has developed into 
a very important industry- Thirty years ago, an American missionary 
distributed a quart of American peanuts among his converts in Shantung 
with the result that Shantung now produces nearly 200,000 tons annually, 
the bulk of which enters into the export trade. Peanut oil is used in the 
manufacture of salad oil and oleomargerine. As the soya bean has 'had a 
tremendous effect upon the economic life of the people of Manchuria, so 
the* peanut industry has improved the economic conditions of the densely 
populated districts of Shantung, and Southern Chihli. 

Other Oils— Wood-oil ranks next in importance among the vegetable 
oils in the value of its exports, amounting to about $10,000,000 silver a 
year. . This oil is taken from the nut of the Wu-tung tree, which grows in 
a wild state throughout the upper Yangtze region. Hankow is the port 
of export. The oil is used in making varnishes and certain paints. It is the 
jnost rapid drying oil known. The other vegetable oils of importance are 
cotton seed (used for salad oils and cooking fats), sesamum seed (used for 
high class oleomargerine), rapeseed (used for lubricating and cooking), etc. 
Ihe aggregate value of the exports of these vegetable oils amounts to about 
$50,000,000 silver annually. As China produces no butter, vegetable tils 
form the basis of the cooking fats and are used freely and liberally all over 
the country, hence already occupy an important place in the economic life 
of the people. With improved transportation, the introduction of better 
methods and machinery for extracting these oils, with the installation of 
refineries and storage tanks, with testing houses for standardization, 
and with improved marketing methods, the vegetable oil industry in China 
bids fair to become of commanding importance in both the domestic and 
foreign trade. 

Flour M-inufacturing Industry — It is interesting to note the develop- 
ment in modern flour manufacturing industry in China. Some years ago, 
the mills could not pay dividends. Everything imaginable seemed "to 
throttle this industry. Firstly, bad and expensive transportation ; second- 
Jv, because the wheat was all produced by small growers, it had to go 
through the hands of numerous middlemen who collected it in bits from 
different growers ; thirdly, the difficulties and expense in having to go 
through many different units of measure and currency in passing from one 
district to another ; fourthly, middlemen took the liberty of adding stones 
and dirt and water and through a combination forced the mills to buy or 
boycotted them; fifthly, within an area of a few hundred square miles fifty 
different varieties of wheat were produced; sixthly, the local officials 
through numerous tax stations taxed the wheat all it would stand and 
sometimes more and subjected it to vexatious delays ; seventhly, no market 
could be found for bran ; eighthly, relatives of directors of the mills had lo 
have jobs at good salaries and with little work ; and lastly, a costly system 
of marketing the finished product added further to the difficulties in 
paying dividends. The industry has had to weather these handicaps and 
not all of them have been overcome. "Unfortunately owing to the floods 
in the Yangtze Valley during 1921, the wheat crop was reduced to less 
than 40 per cent normal, seriously crippling the mills in their supplies from 
that section, so that substantial importations of wheat came from 
America." At Shanghai, the center of the industry for Central China, the 
juills have a daily capacity of over 6,000 barrels. The Hankow mills 
have a large daily output. Harbin, in Northern Manchuria, is also 
an important flour center. Last year, China exported nearly three million 
barrels of flour. Ten years ago, China imported as much, with no exports. 
In addition to the flour exported, China, during 1920,- exported about 
twenty million bushels of wheat. Most of the wheat was exported from 
Manchuria, while the bulk of the flour went from Shanghai. With the 
development of the modern flour milling industry the growing of wheat is 
extending as is also its use. There is no reliable data upon which one can 
base an intelligent estimate of the amount of wheat produced in China. 
It appears the amount must be upwards of 100,000,000 bushels. In its 
varied ramifications, the development of this industry is having consider- 
able effect upon the economic life of the people, especially those in Central 
and North China, the wheat growing sections. The difficulties in the flour 
industry are similar to those which have attended the development of other 
industries along modern lines, but where the basic factors remain favour- 



able, the difficulties in the situation will be overcome. 

Egg Products — There are many articles which are produced in China 
which are of the nature of byproducts in the trade and commerce of the 
country. For instance there is- uo such thing as a poultry industry in 
China, although every family. in the country raises a few hens and has eggs 
to take to the market, as eggs are not consumed by the country people. 
Middle men collect the eggs and they find their way to the centers of tiade,* 
where transportation conditions permit. During the past ten years, 
China's export trade in eggs and egg products has been advancing rapidly. 
Last year 650,000,000 eggs were exported from China, valued at $7,000,000 
silver, and $17,000,000 worth of yolk and albumen. It is quite likely that 
an organized poultry industry will be the resultant of the demands for 
eggs and egg products from abroad. 

Milk Products — During the past few decades, the Chinese people have 
learned to appreciate the value of milk as a food, particularly for infants, 
through the importation of condensed milk in increasingly larger 
quantities. This will lead to the growth of dairying interests in the 
country, unless the manufacture of milk from the soya beau prevents. 

Great Developments Possible — China's future as a food producing 
country is bright. With enormous areas of undeveloped, unsettled lands, 
capable of cultivation, some in field crops, some for cattle and sheep 
raising, some for fruits and some for timber, there is much to expect as a 
result of transportation facilities making these lands accessible. Even in 
the sections which have been under cultivation for hundreds of years, there 
are improvements possible which will revolutionize the economic life of the 
people. For instance, the famine in North China last year could have been 
averted to a considerable degree had the people been provided with a means 
of tapping the water with power pumps or windmills which could be 
reached at a few tens of feet below the soil. Irrigation throughout North | 
China can save this section from the ravishes of droughts. Deep plowing 
will do much to couserve the moisture in the land and to prevent floods 
during unusually heavy downpours. Reafforestation will also contribute 
much in this direction. It has been pointed out by Mr. Sherfessee, adviser 
in forestry to the Chinese Government, that the planting of trees on barren 
hills, which exist in abundance, can be made a commercial proposition 
and pay handsome dividends for the timber which finds such a ready 
market in China. The schools of forestry now in operation in China, 
indicate the interest the people generally are taking in this subject. The 
fact that a day is observed throughout the country as Arbour day attests 
also to the appreciation of the needs of afforestation. 

Necessary Element* in a More Favourable Situation — The selection of 
seed is a matter of prime importance to a people who have to resort to 
intensive cultivation, as it will increase the productivity of the lands to a 
remarkable degree. A more intelligent use of the lands for crops which 
will have a better market value will follow as a result of the study 01 
agriculture in a modern way. One of the greatest handicaps under whicii 
the Chinese farmer lives today is his inability to secure loans against hi? 
crops at anything aproaching reasonable rates. Usury is hurting China's 
economic position badly. When a farmer has to pay 30 per cent for money, 
there is but little chance cf his being able to establish a bank balance. 
There are no indications at present that this important subject is being 
given any serious consideration. 

More and bettr.r Reads — The question of good roads, so essential to the 
welfare of the farming population, and from 80 to 85 per cent of the 
Chinese fall into this category, is one which is being discussed throughout 
all sections of the country, particularly in the North where dry land crops 
obtain. In the rice producing South, the question of roads is far more 
difficult. However, the South is equipped with a network of canals which 
makes the question of roads not nearly as pressing as in the North. 

Importance of Agriculture and Migration of Rural' People to Cities — A 
large portion of China's population must remain agricultural, if the prime 
needs of the people are to be met. The demands upon the country for 
improved methods in agriculture, irrigation, afforestation, coping with 
plant and animal diseases, transportation, and rural credits are indeed 
pressing and with their solution the whole economic structure of society 
will be raised to a higher plane. There is the danger that the people of 
China will lose sight of the relative importance of agriculture and the 
migrations of rural people to the cities, because of the inducements offered 
by the factories and modern industrial organizations, will be hard to with- 
stand. Already there is evident a very decided movement in this direction. 
Moreover, the Chinese cities are not yet prepared properly to house and 
care for the industrial populations which are growing up in the midst cf 
unsanitary and otherwise unwholesome conditions. One of the greatest 
problems confronting the Chinese educator and administrator of today is 
how to make conditions among the farming classes such as to insure to the 
nation several decades hence, an intelligent rural population capable cf 
applying modern civilized methods to the opportunities which their 
environment presents. 

A movement of much significance for the future in the agricultural world 
of China, is the growing tendency on the part of those interests' dependent 
upon the products of the field as raw material, to buy up large tracts of 
land and cultivate these for the crops or products needed. For instance, 
Chinese operating cotton mills are organizing for the growing of cotton 
through the control of lands for cotton raising. In this way they are able 
to affect improvements and economies which would be difficult and almost 
impossible under the system of numerous small growers, ignorant of thfe, 
needs of the modern cotton mill industry and not in a position to be easily 
educated to an appreciation of the factors essential to the success of the pro* 
duction of cotton as raw material for an industry dependent upon supplies 
uniform in quality and quantity. One of the serious handicaps to thft 
success of the modern flour mill in China, is (he dependence of this industry" 
upon the product of innumerable small growers, who are in n£> 



GENEEAL BACKGEOUND 



25 



•way in direct contact with the mills using their products, hence 
do not appreciate their demands, nor in any way organized to 
act as a unit, hence are at the mercy of numerous middlemen, who are 
neither interested in the growing of the wheat or the manufacture of the 
flour. Wheat produced under these conditions is neither uniform in quality, 
quantity or price. Furthermore, the collection of this wheat from 
numerous small growers is most expensive, as it must be carried to the 
market towns in small quantities and peddled there. The internal tax 
stations increase the cost through numerous exactions, which in the 
aggregate for the larger quantities, amount to considerable sums. The 
failure of China tea in the trade of the world, in contrast to the success of 
The teas of other countries, is due in a large degree to the difficulties in 
securing uniformity of quality and quantity from the growers. The Indian 
snd Ceylon tea industry owes its success to the large plantations which 
insure standardization of raw material. Furthermore, the plantations 
operate upon an organized basis, tax themselves for an advertising fund 
and act as a unit for other essentials to the success of the trade. 

The Place of the Business Man in Old China — Business principles 
apply to all phases of human activity. In this article much has already 
been said in regard to modern business methods. Unfortunately under 
the old order in China the useful function which the business man per- 
formed in economic society was not recognized. In the social order, he- 
was given a place after the scholar, agriculturist and labourer, on account 
of his being a middleman and not a producer. In the old China the 
official exacted taxes where there were evidences of wealth. This prompted 
the business man to conceal his wealth ; hence shops did not make the 
display which the goods that they possessed might warrant. The business 
man received little protection and encouragement from the Government 
and came to consider it as a necessary evil. To protect his interests, he 
was organized in trade and provincial guilds. He avoided contact with the 
Government officials and for this reason the guilds were called upon to 
adjudicate oases arising between members to avoid dragging them into 
the magistrate's court ; in fact, there was a certain disgrace attached to the 
idea of having to appear in court. In most places the tradesmen even 
provided their own watchmen or police. 

Under the family system, the individual business thrived and there 
was no incentive to encourige corporate bodies. The family interests re- 
mained intact and each man was his brother's keeper ; hence business was 
a family affair. The same conditions obtain in Chinese society generally. 
Along with the family system developed the institution of "face." The 
good name and credit of the family had to be preserved and the individual 
responsibility attached to one family was shared by all members of the 
family. Thus the 'obligations of one became those of the other members. 
This assisted very materially in preserving the sanctity of the contract, 
verbal or written. 

Chinese society developed as one in equity rather than one in law. 
The ideas of strict legal definition and terminology were foreign to these 
people; there was no place in China for the lawyers, for the decrees of 
custom tempered by equity generally obtained. 

Transformation in Business Principles — These conditions are now in 
process of transformation. The family system is gradually breaking down. 
Corporate enterprises, which were impossible under the old system, are 
now becoming a recognized necessity and the responsibility of trusteeship 
is beginning to be appreciated. Equity is giving way to law, as rights 
and obligations must be clearly defined in a corporate society. A civil 
code is gradually being built up and the interests of shareholders will have 
to be protected. Through such a code of law, along with the machinery of 
modern courts to interpret it, the lawyer then becomes % necessary institu- 
tion. Already law schools are in operation in the provincial capitals. 

Business Interests Consolidate— Chinese capital is now being invested 
in corporate enterprises under Chinese management and control. One of 
the big Chinese department stores with branches in four cities has an 
aggregate annual turnover of twenty millions of dollars silver. The Com- 
mercial Press is a huge manufacturing and commercial enterprise employ- 
ing over three thousand people, with numerous branches and agencies 
spread over the country. It is well managed and pays 15 per cent 
dividends on stock held by numerous individuals. The modern Chinese 
bank under up-to-date methods is no longer merely an exchange shop, but 
discharges the functions of a Western bonk. The advantages of cooperation 
are now appreciated by the bankers. For the first time in the long history 
of banking in China, Chinese bankers from various parts of the country 
met together last year in a convention to discuss matters of mutual interest 
as well as the finances of the Central Government. They organized a 



Bankers' Group, or Consortium, to participate in loans to the Government, 
stipulating at the same time, that they be assured of certain control over 
the expenditures of these loan funds. 

Chambers of Commerce — While the chamber of commerce has func- 
tioned in China for nearly two decades, it is only recently that it has 
assumed a constructive policy. Two years ago the Shanghai Chamber was 
reorganized and progressive men placed in charge. A few months ago it 
opened in a three-stcry building in Shanghai, specially built for the 
purpose, a commercial museum where Chinese manufactured products and 
raw materials were placed on exhibition in a manner which would do 
credit to any Western community. The Canton Chamber of Commerce 
has raised four hundred thousand dollars silver for a building 
which is soon to be erected to serve its purposes. The meetings of the 
Affiliated Chambers of Commerce of China are turning the thought of the 
Chinese business men to the problems which face their communities, as 
well as the country at large. 

Relation of Political Conditions to Economic Developments — Little 
direct reference has been made in this article to political China. The 
subject does not call for a dissertation on Chinese politics. Due 
consideration has been taken of the chaotic and complicated political 
situation; however, as noted, in spite of the political turmoil, trade 
and industry advance year after year. Technically, the Peking Govern- 
ment may be financially bankrupt. It is receiving no direct revenues from 
the provinces. The situation is analogous to the failure of a large bank 
in the U. S. in its general effect upon the country. A national debt 
of one and a half or even two billion dollars silver is comparatively little 
for a country with the resources of China. New York City's bended 
debt is greater. It must be borne in mind, China has never departed 
from a specie basis, and the country still continues on a silver and copper 
basis, with no depleted currency. The country not having an aristo- 
cracy must develop its political institutions gradually. The work must, 
so it appears, develop from the bottom up, a necessarily slow process, but 
one which makes for the most substantial results in the end. To those on 
the spot, the outlook is anything but promising. They are too close to 
the picture and see only the ugly daubs, instead of beholding it in per- 
spective. China's history is reckoned in centuries rather than in decades. 
Viewing the developments of the past twenty years, China has during this 
peiiod made marvelous strides. Young China has her shortcomings and 
none appreciate these better than do the Chinese people themselves. It is 
one thing to know lhat something is wrong, but quite a different matter 
to know just how to proceed to remedy the faults. The people merit the 
kindly constructive sympathy of the outside world. 

A Time for Encouragement — From the viewpoint of the contact of the 
West with China, it is very important that everything possible be done to 
encourage the Chinese people with their improvements in transportation, 
industry, agriculture, and business and governmental administration. In 
so doing the economic inequality obtaining between China and the West 
will disappear and there then need be no further alarm concerning a so- 
called. "Yellow Peril." The labouring classes in the West have been suffer- 
ing from a nightmare of a possible inundation of cheap Chinese labour or 
byproducts of this labour. China's future lies in Asia, where it has its 
greatest potentialities. The sooner modern science and mechanical 
equipment come to China in the aid of the development of the wonderfully 
rich resources which this country and its contiguous territory possesses, the 
sooner will the fears on the part of the West of being overwhelmed by the 
hordes of cheap Asiatic labour be allayed. Of still greater importance to 
the West, are the unlimited possibilities in trade and in industrial enter- 
prises which will be opened to the world following in the wake of the 
transformation of China, respresenting one-quarter ox the world's popula- 
tion, into a modern economic society. 

The Place of the Missionary in the New Social and Industrial Order — 
The foreign missionary has played a prominent part in the passing or the 
old order in China. The impression he will make upon the New China will 
depend upon his ability to meet the conditions which the political, social 
•-md economic changes demand. Some are fearful lest he allow his vision 
to be blinded by non essentials. A prominent Chinese educator, a non- 
Christian, recentlv made the statement that the Christian missionary has 
his greatest opportunity for service to China during these next two decades 
and contended lhat his success or failure will be measured by his breadth of 
vision and his ability to work with the Chinese people in the solution of 
the big problems now facing them. This means he must know the 
tremendous changes now taking place in China and understand the 
aspirations of the people, if he would bring New China into full harmony 
with the ideals of Christianity. 



THE COMING OF THE FACTORY SYSTEM TO CHINA* 



Agatha Harrison 



Rapid Growth in Industry— The coming of modern industry to China 
has been described as "a terrific invasion." This modern revolution is 
taking place so quietly that few people are aware that anything untoward 
is happening. To estimate the growth in terms of figures is not easy, since 
no authentic and complete list of factories has as yet been published. Jn 
the China Year Book of 1921 a list of "the more important trades" is given, 
showing that almost every type of industry is to be found in China, eg. 
Arsenals, Canneries, Cement Work, Confectionery, Cotton, Chemicals, 
Breweries, Dockyards, Shipbuilding, Engineering, Flour Mills, Furniture, 



Glass, Iron and Steel, Lace and Hairnet, Leather, Match, Nail and Needle, 
Oil and Beancake Mills, Printing, Paper Mills, Piano and Organ Factory, 
Bice Mills, Rope, Silk, Soap and Candle, Sugar, Tea, Tobacco, Wool. 
This list does not include certain industries with which the name of China 
is particularly associated, e.g. Carpets, Rugs, Porcelain, etc., etc. The 
above are listed under some 50 centers scattered over China. The secretary 



» The information given in this article has been obtained first hand, and is based 
on visits to factories and personal interviews in a number of centers in China. 



26 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



of the Chinese Maritime Customs says, "There are few foreign-type articles 
of domestic consumption that are not now manufactured in China by 
factories.on modern lines, the majority without foreign assistance." 

For proof of this mushroom-like growth, return visits to some of our 
factor}- districts after an interval of a few mouths will suffice, or reading the 
notes under "Industry in China" which appear in the Far Eastern Review 
or in the Weekly Review of the Far East from time to time. • 

Effect of this Growth—In an article written recently by J. B. Tayler 
M.A., Professor of Economics In Peking Christian University, the following 
description was given : — "Modern industry cuts the workers off from their 
old life with its social ties, its economic inter-relations, and its moral 
sanctions, and casts them adrift on the currents of an uncharted and 
troubled sea. China has hitherto shown the most remarkable social 
stability. Her family and clan system, with the democratic village life 
based upon it, has persisted for 4,000 years, surviving repeated foreign 
conquests of the country. And these families have had an economic 
stability based on their ownership of land. What industry and trade has 
been, has organized itself in guilds. But the large scale modern industry 
is growing up entirely outside the guilds, and it is causing the family 
system to crumble and destroying the almost universal connection with the 
land— the break with the past is complete. The old supports have largely 
gone; the old loyalties by which they were upheld, the precepts by which 
they were guided are disappearing or losing their hold in changed con- 
ditions. How are the illiterate, apathetic workers to build up a new social 
heritage to replace the old?" 

The above situation is further- complicated by the lack of protective 
legislation, and apparent!}' very little conscience on the part of industrial 
leaders. "The stern face of Robert Owen has not yet been duplicated 
among the Chinese employers." comments another writer. 

One of the effects of this rapid growth is the demand for a larger supply 
of labour. Slowly labour is becoming articulate and developing a group 
consciousness. Proof of this is to be seen in the growth of workers' 
organizations and in the strikes that are becoming a common occurrence. 

In an interesting article on Labour Unrest in China by Ta Chen, 
M. A., in the Monthly Labour Review of August, 1921, the causes and 
manifestations of unrest are thus described : "In industries where the 
workers are well organized, their discontent as to conditions of employment 

is expressed through the strike In industries where the strike has 

not been used, trouble has been brewing unseen Throughout the 

country, there has been general uneasiness and discontent among the 

rank and file of labour Recent tendencies in agitation have 

been along the line of the worker's health and safety The labour 

organizations of today are most concerned with the task of arousing labour 
from passiveness to a conscious fight for its rightful position in society." 

As a very large part of the industrial population is drawn from 
among women, striking changes are taking place, and Mr. Chen, writing 
for the Weekly Review of the Far East, April 30, 1921, page 455, says : 
"Entrance of women into industries will gradually assure their economic 
independence. This is encouraging. But, with the emancipation of 
women, the clan family system will soon break down. The old-fashioned 
Chinese home now appears dull to certain classes of women as compared 
with the hustling and bustling of the factory." 

"While industry has lured many American women away from the 
kitchen, in China the change lies in the refusal of the housewife to live 
under the same roof with her aunts and sisters-in-law. Similarly, the 
Chinese mairiage system is undergoing a momentous change. Contrasted 
with the old practice of arranging marriage through parents, the young 
woman of today insists on freedom in marriage, with the right to choose a 
husband voluntarily. These intricate social problems, arising from a 
quasi-industrial revolution, are ever increasing." 

Actual Working Conditions of Factories — It might reasonably be 
expected that men from such countries as the United States and England, 
where ameliorating factory conditions are in operation, would bring some 
of these standards to China. This has happened in a few cases, but in 
lamentably few. "Industries in foreign-owned concession cities, such 
as Shanghai, do not come under the law of the home land — England, 
America, or France, for instance — and accordingly no attempt is made to 
live up to such laws. Nor are there any laws in Chinese provincial or 
national governments controlling conditions of industry. In fact, one 
finds greater desire and tendency to do the right thing on the part of the 
Chinese managers, especially those who are Christians, than on the part 
of foreign employers." Report of the Deputation from the Federation 
of Women's Boards of Foreign Missions, p. 43. 

Hours of Work — These vary, although a 12 hour shift day and night 
is the general rule. In factories where there is no night work, 14 hours 
of work are sometimes required. Some employers are doing pioneer 
work in shortening hours and instituting an 8, 9 or 10 hour day. In some 
factories in the South where hand looms are used, laxity as to hours is 
often apparent, the women being paid by the "bolt" and coming in and 
going out as they like. Many factories begin the day at 5 130 or 6 : 00 
in the morning. In one case, where there is no night shift, work begins 
at 4:30 A.M. The break for meals varies from fifteen minutes to one 
hour — in a large number of coses no recognized break is given at all. 

Night Work — This is very common in China. As the day workers 
come out, the night shift goes in, and vice versa. To any one who has 
never seen night work in operation a visit to a factory found about 
4 :oo A.M. is a revelation. Judging from the sleeping, or half asleep 
workers, one wonders how, apart from every other consideration, night 
work can be a paying proposition. 



Child Labour — This is the most tragic and humiliating sight. It is 
not easy to generalize on the age when children begin to work, many of 
them are brought in as babies by their mothers. In some of the factories 
visited women were working with babies stapped on their backs, and in 
one case a woman had her baby strapped in front, in order to feed it, and 
at the same time work with both hands and a foot. Brought up in the 
factory atmosphere, children learn to do odd jobs at a very early age and 
at the ages of six, seven, and eight years are to be seen on regular work. 

It is often argued that these little children do "not" work ', but are 
brought by their mothers who cannot leave them at home. To a ceit.iin 
extent this is true, but the remark of an employer is a significant answer, 
"If we stop employing children our mills would have to close down." 
Another has said, "Children's hands are peculiarly fitted for this work." . 
Twelve hours a day and alternate weeks twelve hours a night tell ihc 
life history of many little people in China whose heritage the world over 
is a few years at least of school and play. A standard, however, is set 
in cases (1) Where the nature of the work prevents the employment of 
very young children, (2) Where one or two factories have established a 
height standard (four feet being the standard set in one large group of 
mills) or (3) Where a few employers steadily set their faces ag liust 
employing children under 14 years (foreign count), child labour is 
unknown. These places are relatively few. 

Rest Days — "One day's rest in seven" is anything but the rule in 
China, though there are indications of a growing number of firms adopting 
this plan. Where night work is in operation the rest day ends at 6 00 
P.M. on Sunday. The Western idea of a half day on Saturday and whole 
day on Sunday is in operation in a few factories. 

Ventilation and Sanitation — Very little attention has as yet been given 
to this matter. In Hongkong a minimum amount of air space can be J 
enforced by the Sanitary authorities, but this seems to be the only place : 
where any regulation exists. Everywhere else overcrowding is rife, the air ; 
is bad, and modern appliances for removing dust are rarely to be .seen. 
In factories working day and night shifts, there is naturally no time for 
airing the rooms. The sight of the workers leaving the cotton factories, 
with the fluff on their clothes and in their hair is a pre of of what must 
be absorbed into the lungs. When visiting a cotton factory in a busy 
center recently, the visiters were escorted by a man having large financial ' 
interests in the concern. So bad was the dust that he was forced to go 
through the rooms with his handkerchief pressed to his nose and mouth 
Yet his workers spend 12 hours a day in that same atmosphere. 

The sanitary arrangements are primitive in the extreme, and what 3; 
conveniences there are, are frequently badly placed and most unsanitary. 
In one or two factories in Shanghai flush toilets are to be found. 

Health — The effect of these working conditions on the lives of the 
workers can only be surmised. Hospitals in the vicinity of factories 
testify to the result of fatigue, and to the number of accidents due to 
this cause. A remark was made in one factory after commenting upon 
the great amount of dust in a certain factory in China, the manager was * 
asked if any records were kept as to sickness resulting. His answer ; 
was, "No, there are constantly new faces, however, they either go to the 
next mill for more money, or to Kingdom Come." In another factory 
where eye-strain was particularly noticeable, the firm were considering the 
appointment of a doctor to deal with this trouble "in order to prolong j 
their period of usefulness." 

Medical treatment is to be found in a growing number of factories, 
the services of a full-time or half-time doctor being engaged whom the i 
employees can consult. In one large concern employing many women and 
children; a woman doctor visits two days a week. First aid appliances 
are to be found in some cases, but these are primitive .Many of the 
firms "make arrangements with hospitals in the districts to care for theii 
employees when sick or injured. 

A very few firms have insurance and pension schemes in operation, 
and make payments in cases of sickness; in most industries, however, 
the worker has no protection against sickness, accident, or unemployment. 
There is a high percentage of accidents in China caused through unfenced 
machinery. A visit to any hospital located in a factory district will prove 
this. A branch of the "Safety First" movement, so well known in 
America and England, might well be introduced in Chinese factories. 

Facilities for Meals — Very few factories give this matter much thought. 
The food of labourers can be seen in the workrooms often under the 
machines exposed to all the dust and dirt. In one or two places visited a * 
room was set apart with tables and benches, and pure boiling water (not 
that, as is frequently the case, which comes from the steam boilers) was 
available. In one factory facilities for heating food were provided. But 
the general rule is to find the workers eating in the work rooms. 

Wages — On this subject it is hard to give authentic figures, as very 
few reliable statistics are to be obtained. The system of fines and squeeze 
complicates the matter too. Mr. Chen in Millard's Review, April 30, 
1921, p. 455, says, "Wages vary greatly with the nature of employment, 
and it is misleading to generalize. Forming an estimate based on average 
conditions, it may be said that the daily wage for foremen is about 
seventy-five cents (Mexican) ; for common labourers, forty to fifty-five 
cents; for children, twenty cents; for forewomen, fifty cents, and for ; 
female workers, thirty cents." 

The following extract is taken from a trade paper and requires no 

comment: — "The profits of the factory again surpass $1,000,000. 

To those who bestow thought on the progress of textile industries in China, 
the following particulars regarding this concern may be of interest, Tha 
company was started in 1904 with a paid up capital of $600,000, divided 
into 6,000 shares of $100 each. The capital was increased to $900,000 in 



GENERAL BACKGROUND 



27 



1916 For the past two years it has been running night and day 

without intermission The working hours are from 5,30 a.m. to 

5.30 p.m. and from 5.30 p.m. to 5.30 a.m. respectively. No meals are 
supplied by the factory. Most of the cotton used is produced locally 

It will be seen that the company is in an exceptionally favourable 

position. With the raw product at its doors, an abundant and absurdly 
cheap labour supply to draw on, and no vexatious factory laws to observe, 
it is not surprising that its annual profits should have exceeded its 
total capital on at least three occasions." 

The above description is depressing in the extreme, but it fe a 
statement of fact. The field of industrial welfare in still practically 
untouched, all the great fundamental problems remain unsolved. 

Experimental work is being done in several centers, often by people 
who are already on full-time work, but who, seeing the need, are lending 
a hand. The YWCA and the YMCA have full-time industrial secretaries 
who are now devoting much time and thought to the matter. 

One Social Center has already been started in a big mill district as 
<i laboratory for the sociological department of one of the large 
colleges. Other colleges and universities seeing a future need are planning 
sociological courses for men and women. 

A great deal of educational and recreational work is being done by the 
YMCA°and others in connection with some factories, the money for this 
being provided largely by the employers. Valuable as this work may be, 
it is frequently nullified by the conditions under which the people work. 
It seems therefore that concentration first on these conditions would be a 
natural place to begin any industrial welfare program. 

The need for trained experienced industrial workers in China is great, 
though perhaps an even greater need is voiced in the recommendations 
made by the Deputation from the Federation of Women's Boards of Foreign 
Missions in 1920 : "That the Mission Boards be strongly urged to adopt a 
standard for every evangelistic worker providing for training in sociology 
and economics, and practical experience in social work ; etc., etc. In view 
of the importance of having an educated public opinion behind all reform 
and of having a trained intelligence behind all volunteer and paid service, 
this Commission recommends : That the Christian forces in each com- 
munity cooperate in some scheme for general training in social thinking 
and activities, through social service institutes, lectures, and exhibits, 
training conferences for social evangelists, newspaper articles, etc." 

The development of a public conscience on the matter is an urgent 
need. People are too prone to dismiss the subject by citing the overwhelm- 
ing difficulties in the way of any reform, the general poverty, lack of 
legislation and schools, etc. 

It is argued that children are better off in factories ; that anyhow they 
are warm, away from dirty overcrowded homes— until one would imagine 
industry was a philanthropic institution, a kind of refuge. And so the 
responsibility is shifted from one to another and the vicious circle con- 
tinues. 



This problem is the' concern of no one section, but is the responsibility 
of all. Reluctantly it has to be stated that a callousness exists on the 
part of some of the leaders of industry to the general state of things. 

Hopeful Signs — Yet there are some encouraging features in this situa- 
tion. The growing public opinion is leading to some practical results. 
Hongkong, for example, recently held a commission of enquiry into the 
problem of child labour, and recommendations were made that will result 
in some form of helpful legislation in the near future. The Southern 
Government also is considering this question of legislation. 

In Shanghai individual employers and groups of employers are meeting 
and considering what can be done. This is one of the most encouraging 
signs. Also in the same city groups of men and women are studying this 
problem and are ready to help in carrying out much needed reforms. 

Then there is the pioneer effort on the part of a few employers, foolh 
Chinese and foreign, to humanize industry. One , large factory has an 
eight-hour day, no night work, no child labour, medical facilities, sick 
benefits, healthy working conditions, schools, fair wages, etc. Also a 
large mining concern has a full-time welfare worker, and news has just 
come of the appointment of a Chinese woman welfare worker to a large 
factory in Shanghai. On such efforts as these the legislation of the future 
will be built. 

Of great significance is the recent visit of a Chinese woman to the 
International Working Women's Congress and the International Labour 
Conference held in Geneva in October, 1921. 

A request came to the YWCA from Washington, D.C. to send a fraternal 
delegate to these important conferences. Miss Zung Wei-tsung was 
accordingly sent, travelling via England where she spent some time visit- 
ing factories. The presence of a Chinese woman for the first time at these 
conferences produced a profound impression, not only abroad, but since 
she has returned to China. Relating some of her experiences recently she 
said : "At this Congress every delegate was asked to report as to whether 
the country she represented had adopted the recommendations passed hy 
the previous Congress held at Washington. I waited dumfounded; not 
knowing what I should say if called upon, wishing that the Congress would 
let me discuss China's marriage customs, its folk songs — anything but 
industrial conditions. However, I was obliged to report on factory con- 
ditions. I could not tell them anything very cheerful. I told the truth, 
and when I sat down I felt as if I had been speaking in the language of the 
Middle Ages, telling things which should long ago have been out of date 
and obsolete." 

Who is to lead the way in a crusade to arouse the public conscience if 
not the members of the Christian Church ? It may be that this is the 
greatest challenge that lies across the path of the Chinese Church today. 
Christ's fundamental principle of the supreme worth of each human life is 
at stake in the development of modern industry in China. The Church's 
response to the industrial problem may be the "acid test" of its ability to 
serve China in the next few decades. 



NON-CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS IN CHINA 

Lewis Hodotjs, d.d. 



The present report is based upon returns to a questionnaire received during the 
summer of 1920 from all provinces but one. These answers were most enlightening. 
In addition the writer has had correspondence with a number of people m different parts 
of China. Personal investigation in ten different provinces was supplemented by con- 
versations with missionaries and Chinese and gleanings from the students magazines, 
daily papers and all manner of periodicals. The writer acknowledges especially the 
valuable services of Bev. H. K. Wright of the Christian Literature Society, Shanghai, 
who has helped in the preparation and study of the questionnaire as well as in corres- 
pondence and who will in the future endeavour to keep in touch with those interested m 
the non-Christian religious situation as it develops from year to year. (Editor). 

ANIMISM 

The fundamental religion of the Chinese is animism. This may Le 
divided into two parts. In the more primitive animism man regards the 
phenomena of nature, which oppose or help him in satisfying his needs, 
as having a life corresponding to his own. He projects himself into the 
forces which confront him. By means of magic he tries to gain the 
favour of the good forces and to overcome the evil forces. This primitive 
animism appears in the various annual festivals which correspond to the 
breathings of nature, such as the Tsing Ming festival, the festival of the 
5th moon, 5th day, the Harvest festival, 8th moon, 15th day, and_ the 
festivals at the winter solstice and the New Year. These annual festivals 
have been affected very little in the last ten years. They are observed 
with as much joy as usual. It is difficult to distinguish between the 
festive and the religious aspects. They give opportunity for relaxation 
and enjoyment. Often they afford an outlet to surplus wages. The Con- 
fucian officials have always opposed certain aspects of these festivals and 
there are numerous tracts against the brawling, gambling and mixing up 
of the sexes at these times. The boat-racing at the Dragon Boat festival 
has frequently been prohibited by the officials. It is performed, how- 
ever, in spite of proclamations to the contrary, though on a smaller scale. 
These festivals will probably continue for many generations. More and 
more the magic element should be put into the background and the 
play, recreating side, developed in so far as it ministers to a normal 
social life. 

The second part of (animism is that which peoples the world with 
spirits, spirits of the departed and spirits produced by the co-operation 
of various causes. These spirits are behind all phenomena which affect 



man and are the cause of all his weal and woe. The deities are related 
to certain functions and ideals necessary for the individual and social 
life and the believer tries by various magical forms to obtain the help 
of the good spirits against the bad spirits. Wealth, posterity, long life, 
absence of sickness and trouble, the present social order and life are 
all dependent upon these spirits. The worship is as a rule local, though 
there are a few gods of national importance. These are, however, neglect- 
ed for the local gods who are close to the people. 

This animism has numerous manifestations. There is the usual 
worship at the temples, expressing the various needs of the individual, 
the family and the social group. This has probably decreased very little 
because it is resorted to in time of need. Only the Christians and the 
people influenced by Christianity and the modern renaissance would find 
their needs supplied in some other way. The temple in ruins may be 
due to poverty or to the fact that that particular god has lost power 
( JH ) but it does not mean that animism has been superseded by a 
higher religion. Nor does it mean an indifference to idolatry, which is 
the reaction of the intellectual or the industrial worker entangled in the 
machinery of modern life, but not of the peasant attached to the soil. 

The processions to bring rain, prevent floods, drive out the demons 
of disease are the habitual expression of the groups brought face to face 
with disaster and death and without any apparent human agency to over- 
come the danger. They relieve the strain and through the community 
action reenforce hope and enable the people to face the situation more 
calmly. They are the age long methods and die slowly. The 
correspondents agree generally that they have not decreased to any 
extent. "Possibly a little less than before the Revolution, but no great 
change. A few years ago things seemed on the decrease, but now they 
are back about as before the Revolution" (Anhwei). "Idol processions 
about as eleven years ago" (Kalgan). "Very little change except dressing 
the idols more modernly" (Fukien). This opinion is reflected in most 
of the papers. 

The periodic recrudescence does not necessarily mean that all the 
people believe in the efficacy of these processions. They are usually 
organized by the lowest members of the village who are out for a good 
time and a feast to lelieve the monotony of village life. Once started, 
group pressure compels every one to contribute and many contribute to 



28 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



avoid trouble. The processions, and this may be said of other social 
religious ceremonies, are the evidence of a strong group consciousness 
rather than the distinctly religious motive on the part of the whole 
community. 

The general conclusion from the answers is that animism has not 
the hold it had twenty years ago. During these years many gods have been 
discarded and are dropping into oblivion. The gods of the literary class 
are rapidly fading away. The altars of Heaven and Earth are open to 
tourists who enter through the middle gate through which not even the 
emperor deigned to pass. The altar to Shen Nung ( jpfjl Jg. )> the S°^ 
of agriculture, has been turned into an experimental station for agri- 
culture. The emperor's altar to the ^ods of the grain and ground is a 
part of a public park. The god of literature (2fc H ) and the Host of 
deities who assisted the aspiring student to obtain his degree are neglect- 
ed and rapidly crumbling away. Other gods have felt the secularizing 
tendency of the new age. The extensive use of vaccination lias left 
many a temple dedicated to the goddess of small-pox deserted. Even 
idol processions to drive away the demons of disease may be replaced 
by processions advertising a sanitation campaign. The railway, the 
school, the renaissance, and the preaching of the Church are undermining 
the confidence in the power of the gods. The correspondents all bear 
testimony to the change of attitude on the part of the people to the 
animistic beliefs. There is a readiness to hear the message ofi 
Christianity, One writer from Honan says : "I am convinced that after 
twenty years the Christian propaganda has loosened the faith of many iu 
their idols and any time we may see a large movement toward the 
Christian Church." 

ANCESTOR WORSHIP 

Perhaps ancestor worship has suffered the least in the last twenty 
years. It is still the fundamental and universal religion of the Chinese. 
The changes which have taken place touch merely the surface and do 
not affect the heart of it. The motives behind ancestor worship are at 
least three. The people firmly believe that the dead need the offerings 
of the living. Without descendants to minister to the soul immortality 
is most unhappy and unbearable. The people still believe that the 
departed have power to bless and to punish their descendants. Then 
behind it all there is that profound social feeling that with the worship 
of ancestors is bound up the present moral and social life. The people 
want to preserve this particular form of family and social life and hence 
continue the various rites and ceremonies which give expression to it. 

In spite ef the hold of the religious side of ancestor worship certain 
changes are taking place which will weaken the religious value of the 
ancient cult. The rapid growth of individualism has strained each one 
of the five relations (ruler-subject, father-son, husband-wife, elder 
brother-younger brother, friend and friend). In each of these relations 
the individual has received a larger recognition. The power of the family 
is decreasing. Even in the country districts the clan or large family is 
breaking up and there is a strong tendency to the formation of the small 
family where the individual enjoys a larger freedom. Woman is being 
liberated. In the industrial centers these changes are going on more 
rapidly. With this change in the structure of the family and with the 
larger freedom to move about, ancestor worship is destined to change 
from the magical relationship between ancestors and descendants to a 
moral relationship. The old forms of worship will continue for many 
years, but the crass magical ritual will be sloughed off and a moral 
connotation given to the current forms. This is already taking place 
among the intellectual classes and will slowly permeate all classes. We 
need not expect a sudden change, however. The popularity of the services 
for the dead and the elaborate funerals even among the Christians testifies 
to the great hold which ancestor worship still has over all classes of the 
people. 

TAOISM 

The term Taoism is here applied to the scattered groups of Taoist 
monks ( ^ rfc ) (also spoken of as belonging to the £. Jit, gg ) living 
in monasteries and temples, and also to the large number of Taoist priests 
living in families ( i^^^db ) (also spoken of as belonging to the 
5c f»lj) M or ?8 — " M )• Poetically in all parts of China are groups of 
monks who are organized somewhat on the model of a Buddhist monastery. 
They are vegetarians and do not marry. They are divided into about 
one hundred and twenty-eight sects, which to a large extent have lost 
their significance. They practice meditation and breathing. According 
to their philosophy the air contains the positive principle of nature ( $j% ) 
and it should be takea in and exhaled according to definite rules. The 
more of it that can be obtained the longer life is prolonged. They also 
make the elixir of life {ffijfy)- Their ooject is to prolong life on 
earth, attain to immortality and by means of magic gain power over 
spirits who dominate all things. 

While 'here are reports of attempts to' adjust themselves, on the whole 
these groups are finding it difficult to exist under modern conditions. A 
report from Sooehow says : "In 1918 they did a little preaching and 
explanation of Taoist classics, but nothing since." From Kwangtung 
comes the report of personal work with a view to enlisting men to study 
their doctrines. In Szechwan men posing as the initiated teach others 
their breathing exercises and other secrets. Other places report a 
recrudescence due to local circumstances. The scholars, however, look 
down upon this organization. There has been comparatively little new 
literature produced and very little activity aside from those mentioned 
above. 

The Taoists who live in families make their living by reciting sutras 
at funerals and practicing various forms of exorcism and dispensing 



charms and powerful medicines. Their business has not suffered vety 
much because they minister to the fundamental religious aspirations of 
the mass of the people. In fact their business has increased in certain 
sections in these days. They acknowledge the so-called Taoist l'cpe 
{ §^^Sp) as their master and employ his charms in warding o& 
sickness and danger. 

While their organizations are either at a standstill or deteriorating, 
some of their ideas are assuming a modern garb and are wielding a grow- 
ing influence in China. Magic writing by .means.oL a. brush. suspended 
from a bow hanging from the ceiling ( ,|| ^ ), or by means of the forked 
stick ( ^ (&[, ) held in the hands and writing in a platter of sand is quite 
common and in certain sections on the increase. Prescription for disease, 
advice in trouble, messages from the dead are received by this method. ; 

Communication with the dead has always existed, but it has become 
more general and more modern. Photographs of the soul of the departed 
are foisted on the relatives and the genuineness of the likeness is taken: 
for granted by the educated men of the community and the pictures are 
published in the magazines. I have in my possession a copy of a photo- 
praph on which appear several likenesses of the departed souls along 
with the living members of the family. From Kansu comes the rqjort : 
"Especially among the scholar class spiritualism and hypnotism seew| 
to be making considerable headway. It is true of Lanchowfu at any rate.!f 
For some 3 r ears past certain Japanese have been advertising extensively 
in Chinese papers, or papers printed in Chinese, ihe teaching ui 
hypnotism. It is likely that in a border province such as this, where 
communication with spirits is so much sought after in connection with 
practices of Tibetan Buddhism the above two cults should spread." 

Several societies for the study of spiritualistic phenomena have come 
into existence and a number of magazines have been started, though they 
have been short-lived. 

Sitting in meditation ( jffiffi ) is now quite extensively practised In 
various societies and also privately. Many students have taken it up and 
several books have been written on the subject. The most widely read : 
is that called "The Practice of Meditation" by Yin Shih-tze ( gJ^^.^ 
^ $fe ) who is at present in the Ministry of Education. Those who practice ; s 
this sitting in meditation claim that it improves their health and enables : 
them to find peace and contentment. This meditation is noticed here 
because it has more affiliation with Taoism than it has with Buddhism. 

We are accordingly faced not with outward superstitions, but with 
practices backed by modern science so-called, and spread by organized 
effort and by advertising in the newspaper, magazines and organized 
associations. 

CONFUCIANISM 

The situation of Confucianism is rather interesting. Up to the 
Revolution it was the state ritual or religion. Since that time, while the 
ritual is kept up in part, the system as a government system has suffered 1 
great modification. There has been an attempt to revive Confucianism 
as a church or a society. This is connected with the desire to get the 
social and personal relationships back again to the old times when ruler 
was ruler, father was father, and son was son. While there is a part of | 
the more conservative elements who would like to restore the status qua 
there are efforts to modify Confucianism so as to make it acceptable la 
the moderate conservatives. 

The Confucianists have organized the Confucian Society ( IJL j|Sc Hf ^ 
with headquarters at Peking. There is also a branch in practically every 
provincial capital and hsien city in China. The central society is presided 
over by Dr. Ch'en Huan-chang (]S|f ^| j|£-). He is editing a daily news- 
paper in Peking (|g -{ft ^$£) which contains articles on Confucianism. 
He is also raising money for a Confucian headquarters in Peking to 
cost about two million dollars. This will provide for gymnastics on the 
first floor and lectures on the second. The third floor will be the 
sanctuary rising to a dome in the building. There will be rooms for a 
library, lecture rooms, etc. His plan is to have a Confucian University. 
The ground has been broken for the foundation and a number of large 
subscriptions have been received. 

Dr. Ch'en has also issued a Creed of Confucianism ( ^ j|£ ■ff j|£ ^B ) 
consisting of five articles. 1. jf> J£ g> g? |g f| jgj g§ 3 ^ . By 
sacrifice to Heaven, the sages and ancestors, to do reverence to the three 
roots of life. 2. /§; j| ^^J£A $fc 3£ M- To Rather the five 
blessings by meditation upon the sages and classics. 3. 5gj£ rf» jgj- 5p 
&> 3t£ — "M • To establish a harmonious social order by the cultiva- 
tion of the doctrine of the mean and harmony. 4. ft* -g tj-i -fj Jgj t^ 
^£jpj. To establish universal brotherhood by the use of property and 
personal influence. 5-^iS^^H^@^. To attain the 
highest longevity by nourishing the person and the soul. 

The society is responsible for the establishment of the birthday of 
Confucius as a national holiday. On this day a special offering is made 
at KiifoW; Shantung, the birthplace of Confucius, and a convention of 
Confucianists is held. 

The local branches in the provincial capitals and hsien cities keep 
the Confucian temple in repair and look after the spring and autumn 
sacrifices. As a rule the Confucian temple is in a good state of repair. 
The members are the old scholars and gentry. In some places this 
local society has carried on propaganda work by lectures. It has also 
put up in various places little boxes for the deposit of paper with 
characters. I saw a large number of them in Peking recently. Not long 
ago a Taoyin of Ningpo punished severely the proprietor of a mill whic« 
had been using old printed paper as material for making coarse wrapping 
paper, and ordered all the finished product to be burned. Outside of these 
routine activities the societies are not very active. 



GENERAL: BACKGROUND 



29 



The status of Confucianism in the schools varies in the different parts 
of the country. In the country districts all over China the Four Books are 
studied as they were before the Revolution. This is even true of places in 
Kwangtung. In the government primary schools excerpts from the classics 
are used. In the middle and higher schools the various classics are studied 
j-s ancient literature. Many of the students find it difficult to read an! 
interpret the classical books. 

The worship of Confucius is carried on in a perfunctory way in th» 
government schools, and depends almost entirely on the President of the 
school. Attendance at worship is not compulsory. 

The above holds true of all provinces but Shansi. Here there are two 
organizations, namely, the Tsung Sheng Hui (^g^) and the Hsi Hsin 
She or Heart Cleansing Society ($£,£> ffc). The latter has grown out 
of the former. The Heart Cleansing Society meets on Sundays for lectures. 
The Tsung Sheng Hui looks after the sacrifices twice a year. There is no 
recorded membership in the Heart Cleansing Society. Attendance at meet- 
ings held on Sunday is compulsory. Soldiers, students and business men 
all must send representatives. The Heart Cleansing Society has branches 
in all district cities and in many of the larger towns and villages. It is 
semi-official in character and % supported by the officials. There is a hall 
for meditation and worship at Taiyiianfu called the Self -Examination Hall 

The object is to adjust the social relaticns on the Confucian model 
modified to meet the requirements of modern life. Governor Yen, the 
prime mover of the movement, also publishes a weekly magazine and also 
large editions of booklets, a Manual of Citizenship, and a Manual f<r 
Village Headmen. The.se advocate a return to the "five relations," wor- 
ship of Shangti and thrift and morality. The "five relations" and the "five 
constant virtues" are put into a modern garb. The movement is tolerant of 
Christianity and other religions and. often Christians are invited to address 
meetings of the society. 

The present Tuchim government in China has revived the worship of 
Kwan Ti and Yoh Fei. These two are models of loyalty and sincerity. At 
Hangchow a temple to the latter is being erected. There have also be?n 
built in many cities temples to the heroes of the Revolution and they are 
honoured on the anniversary of the Republic. 

Perhaps the strongest direct force against Confucianism is the modern 
renaissance originating from Peking. It threatens to sweep away the 
spiritual basis of Confucianism. Its modernizing of the written language 
threatens to relegate the classics to the museum of ancient manuscripts 
and also to take away the last shadow of superiority from the classical 
pundit. It attacks severely the Confucian gradation of society and the 
subservience of the individual tc the authority of the aged. It is trying 
tc level these gradations. It advocates coeducation and greater freedom 
for woman to develop her long unused powers. It is pushing farther the 
process already started to give the individual larger liberty and to relate 
him to the larger groups, namely, of the nation and of the world. 

The movement, while emphasizing patriotism and the larger good, is 
to quite an extent an individualistic movement making the individual and 
his feelings and desires the standard for conduct. This is in revolt to the 
great power of the group characteristic of Chinese society. No doubt the 
mean will be duly reached. 

The movement is also a secularizing movement not merely misunder- 
standing the function and place of religion in society but undermining the 
hold of all religion upon the individual. As such its influence is being fe?l 
not only by the Chinese religions but by Christianity as well. While 
noting the above it should not be forgotten that this renaissance h a move- 
ment of great importance and promise. It is creating a public opinion and 
s-timulating a love of country and emphasizing large values which are 
bound to be related to a religious feeling somewhat different from the 
present aestheticism which the leaders advocate. 

SECTS 

One of the most interesting phenomenon of Chinese religious life is tbe 
large number of cliques and societies organized about a religious nucleus. 
Most associations (the village, the guild) have such a religious nucleus, but 
the sect or society usually is a more or less voluntary organization and has 
a definite religious purpose though it may also have other purposes. 

These sects spring up quite naturally especially at a time of nationil 
trouble or local difficulty involving the well-being of society or certain 
sections of it. Many of the present sects are survivals of sects long existing 
in China. Their names are often changed, but the society is the same. 

These sects were organized for some definite purpose, self-protection, 
protection of the social ideals, of the social life, of the nation against a 
decadent dynasty or the hated foreigner, the attainment of peace and con- 
tentment, to gain power over the spirit world and assist in warding off 
disease, calamity, famine, floods and the attainment of long life here and 
hereafter. They have as their aims the attainment of values which are <i 
£reat importance to certain groups. Hence they often manifest a higH 
degree of religious feeling. 

They are organized not only about some desirable ideal, but this is 
usually embodied in some god. Often it is the name and influence of the 
founder that holds them together. Their methods, doctrines, spiritual 
world are pieced together from the three religions and now often contain 
elements of Christianity. As a rule the religious basis is Buddhist and 
Taoist and the ethical practices are Confucian. The members practice 
vegetarianism. They have books containing excerpts from the Buddhist 
and Taoist and Confucian classics. 

They employ hypnotism, magic writing, and have among their number 
good psychic media. Their members belong to the lower classes, though 
in many towns and villages some of the best people are among their 
number. Among them are found both bad and good people. The same 



rociety will be composed of good members in one place and very bad ones 
m another. Some of the societies are open to women. In some men and 
women are associated together. 

The government in the past has always been hostile to them and has 
exterminated them ruthlessly. The reason for this was not so much their 
religious tenets as their political aims or at least the danger of banding 
together against the government. The great rebellions of the eighteenth 
century, the Taiping Rebellion, the Boxer Uprising, all have been largely 
promoted by the sects. 

These associations show the inadequacy of the so-called three teach- 
ings to meet the needs of the ordinary people. There is the need of human 
fellowship and mutual intercourse and mutual support which the formal 
religion does not supply. 

These religionists form very good material for the Christian Church. 
They are already in groups which at times act for the larger good. Many 
of them are earnest seekers and are very diligent in the practice of their 
religion. There is, it is true, a too strong sense of the small group and its 
immediate needs and dangers to enable them to get acclimated to the 
altruism of the Christian Church. 

It may be of use to give the names and some of the tenets of these 
societies. One of the largest and most widely spread is the Tsai Li Chiao 
(lb M fit)- TJlis is the successor of the Lotus Sect { Q gg ^) which 
arose in the early part of the Tsing Dynasty. Its founder was Yang Lai-ju 
(^ W. HH ) a Shantung man and a Chin-Shih of the Ming Dynasty. At the 
end of the Ming he retired and meditated and then established the Tsai Li 
Chiao. The idea of the Tsai Li is that it is the mediator among Taoism, 
Buddhism and Confucianism and the fulfillment of their main doctrines. 
It observes the ritual of Buddhism, the practice of Taoism and its morality 
is Confucian. It forbids wine and opium, though it does not forbid the 
use of meat. The members worship Buddha or some Buddhist deity on the 
first and the fifteenth. It is also called Li Men (J!g {"J). It is found m 
tbe northern provinces of China including Manchuria. In Peking there are 
about thirty-one organizations. The members belong to the lower classes. 
The reports and personal investigations have brought its presence to light 
in Manchuria, Chihli, Shantung, Shansi, Honan and Kiangsu. It exists 
in other provinces also. 

Another fairly large sect is the Hsien Tien Chiao ( jfc 5^ ^), the se.-t 
worshipping the great "original Heaven." This sect believes that the 
uncreated, the invisible created the visible and hence worship should be 
given to the invisible being. Ancestor worship and idolatry are dis- 
couraged but allowed until tbe devotee sees their uselessness. They meet 
in small groups, "The members here seem to be very much pleased with 
Christianity and say that it is along their line, but goes much farther." 
(Nantunghsien, Ku.) This society is reported from Kiangsu and Shansi. 

The Chin Tan Chiao { fe ft jfc ) is the sect of the philosopher's stone 
(the substance by which base metal could be turned into gold). This sect 
makes much of universal love. It is quite possible that it may be related 
to Nestorian Christianity Its founder Lii Yen ( g Jj| ) (or %ft §1| or 
Wi. Wi "? ) raa y have b€en La Hsiu-yen (gH§) the writer of the 
Kestorian Tablet i'Saek.s) This also exists in Honan, Hunan. Shensi, and 
other provinces. The Tsui Shang Chiao (jjfr Jt^) is a small sect in 
Hunan not as large as the Chin Tan Chiao, but very active. 

Kansu reports the existence of the Maui sect. "They have great faith 
in the Tibetan six-syllable prayer formula 'Om Mani Padme Hum.' This 
sect meets twice a month at which time they spend whole days chanting 
their prayer. It has had a rapid growth in the last twenty years." 

Shansi reports the Chiu Kung Tao ( fa 7£. ffj^ ) an old organization 
which still exists, but is not very active. It was repressed very severely 
at the close of the Manchu Dynasty. Its members believed that the Son 
of Heaven was in hiding at Wu T'ai Shan. He was represented as having 
huge long ears reaching to his chin and a large square mouth. 

The Shen Chiao ( jjiji ^) the Sect of the Shen or Spirits is reported 
from Hunan. It is also called Wu Chiao ( 3£;Uc) or Sect of the Magicians. 
It drives out demons, performs magic arts, asks blessing of their god at 
harvest on lands, cattle and chickens and stock, heals the sick, prays for 
rain and success in the undertakings of life. Szechwan reports the Wu 
Chiao and says it emphasizes exorcism of devils in time of sickness. The 
Wu Chiao there is composed of ignorant people who incline to he somewhat 
fanatical. 

There are quite a number of organizations which not only use magic 
in healing and solving people's troubles, but also carry on various philan- 
thropic enterprises. One is reported from Szechwan called the Shan Tang 
( 4& H 1 " )• Th ere are others in Changsha, Wuchang and other places. 
With the giving of medicines, coffins, garments they also associate the 
magic pencil and the use of spiritualistic media. The organization at 
Changsha, Chi Shan Hsiao Pu Tang ( ffffl /M§^) OT Hal1 assisting 
the Accumulation of Virtue, also publishes large quantities of books which 
it distributes freely. 

From Western Fukien we have reports of the Pai Ta Po, Sect of the 
Great Chief ( ^ ^cffl)- This sect was established by a Kiangsi man a 
few years before the Revolution. At one time it was regarded as shielding 
a political movement. The members get hold of people by the use of 
hypnotism in the breaking of the opium habit. The patient is kept without 
sleep swinging backwards and forwards on a cushion before a shrine taking 
nothing but tea. In case of sickness no medicine or tea is taken but they 
go to a high place in the house or to a mountain and either repeat a ritual 
themselves or have it repeated by others. This going to a high place is 
no doubt on account of the "Yang" which is better the higher one gets. 
The sect worships the absolute (£§: fjgj). They have built up a number of 
places through the western part of the province. 

Quite a number of these societies take the name of their founder. 
Szechwan reports a Liu Men, the followers of a learned eclectic named 



30 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OP CHINA 



Liu who tried to harmonize the three religions, considering all religion as 
simply sanctions for good conduct. He inclined toward Confucianism. 

Another sect in Szcchwnn, called the Yao Chi Chiao, inclines toward 
Buddhism. It employed hypnotism and clairvoyance. 

The sects arc especially active in certain parts of Shantung. From 
Tehchow there is a report of the Lan Yfl Hui (^ -£ ^ ), the Society 
established for the deliverance of souls. The report is that Fang Mao Lin 
died twenty years ago and was deified and worshipped by the adherents of 
this society. A new temple was built in his honour at the village of Wang- 
hwa in Kaotang. Temples are being built in villages not far distant. The 
society is eclectic with an element of spiritism. There are said to be over 
ten thousand adherents in one county. Representatives go to local fairs 
and markets and preach to the people. The society gives food to poor 
people and also medicines. It distributes tracts. There are books especial- 
ly prepared for use in families. A special feature as the name indicates is 
the recital of prayers for the dead in order to release them from purgatory. 

In northeastern Shantung a sect called Kuei Yi Chiao, or Return-to- 
One Sect ( 0$; — JlJr ) has teen quite active. The preachers go out in bands 
of two or more to the fairs and markets. They are trying to unite the 
tenets of all religions including Christianity. The preachers are invited 
by the leading men to spend a few weeks in the neighbourhood preaching at 
the fairs. 

A society reported from North Kiangsu has a good name but bad re- 
putation. It is called Sheng Hsien Chiao ( glj jg j|£), the Sect of Saints 
and Sages. It is associated with nocturnal rites quite inconsistent with the 
usual Chinese behaviour. 

In North Kiangsu there are small groups called A.n Ching Pan 
(5c Wt fl5 ) practicing various rites. 

A place replete with sects is Hinghwafu in Fukien where one in five 
belongs to some vegetarian sect. The San Yih Chiao Chu 
(tr — ^ ^ ) belongs to Taoism. It attempts to harmonize the three 
religious. The Shan Tien Tao (*&JZ$, ) has both men and women 
who live celibate lives. 

Kwangtung reports a great revival in the Classic Halls (jH^) within 
the last five years in Loting district. A number of these halls has been 
erected. Here they preach and teach the chief tenets of the three religions. 
They preach merit and forgiveness by money payment, worship, reciting 
the; sacred books. Ancestors are saved from purgatory by the same 
means. Saints' birthdays, abstaining from food, paying large subscrip- 
tions, are strongly emphasized. The magic pen is used for special 
messages from the other world. The members and their children are 
given instruction in these preaching halls. 

A year or two ago a society calling itself Fu Tze Hui ( ffi ffi -ff ) 
sprung up in southern Fukien. It was led by Taoist priests who by 
charms promised to render the members invulnerable and who undertook 
to drive out the southern army by means of antiquated muzzle loaders, 
wooden swords and gongs. The result was rather disastrous to the mem- 
bers of the society. 

Apart from these numerous sects there are two societies which have 
been established among the upper classes. The Society for the study of 
Ethics, Tao Teh Hsueh She ( ^^g^ffc), was founded in 1916 in 
Peking. Its object is to unify all religions. It worships the god 
of all religions. In the sanctuary is a tablet with the charac- 
ters |^ -|Jt 5g ifs ;£, jjfcjr. meaning "the most Holy Spirit of all 
Religions." In its books it employs the name Shangti. The 
members meet weekly for lectures and usually the worship follows the 
lecture. It consists of an opening prayer by the leader. This is follow- 
ed by silent sitting in meditation. The Society has its headquarters in 
Peking and branches in Nanking, Hankow and Kalgan. Its membership 
does not go much over 1,000. It has quite a number of publications issued 
by its press in Peking containing the discourses of Tuan Cheng-yuan 
(Ht IF 7C) '* s teacher, a commentary on the doctrine of the Mean and 
a catechism. 

Another society is the Cooperative in Goodness Association 
(I!*! Hf ft )■ lt was starte d in Peking by Yao Tsi-tsang ( $fc ^ ;jjf ) of 
Szechwan in 1917 and is really an offshoot of the Tao Teh Hsueh She. 
Its headquarters are in Peking and its branches, some 400 in number, are 
all over China. It is a secret order with sixteen degrees. Four degrees 
constitute one a teacher. Initiates are entered into the first degree and 
upon mastering its principles are advanced to a second degree. All 
instruction is given verbally in an inner shrine. The sect grows by 
personal work and testimony. Men join, are benefitted by its tenets and 
then invite their friends to come and see. They are under a most solemn 
oath not to reveal the secrets ( 5^i{|§ ) ar "l riot to discuss them outside 
of the sacred precincts of the lodge even with members. 

The ostensible purpose of the society is to unite the three religions. 
They express it by $£ ^ g§ — or "all teaching to return to one 
teaching." They appreciate Christianity but believe that Christians are 
in the dark m to the real meaning of Christianity. They believe in 
transmigration, practice sitting in meditation in private as a rule. They 
cultivate the person by meditation. In some places they meet for worship 
and meditation ; in others they practice it in private. 

Their headquarters are usually well fitted up. They have, besides 
offices and reception rooms, a sanctuary in which may be found a picture 
©f Buddha, Laotze, and Confucius. There is an inner shrine into which 
the casual visitor is not admitted. It is here that initiation takes place. 

Its members consist of gentry and official classes. At Hangchow 
there are over 2,000 members and in Chekiang over 20 branches. Various 
theories are entertained as to the real purpose of the society. The man 
on the street regards it in some places as an attempt to restore the 
Manchus, in another place as a support to the Anfu Club, etc. 



BUDDHISM 

Buddhism was introduced into China A.D. 67 according 10 the official 
account. It really penetrated China by the trade routes through Central 
Asia before the Christian erat. Its history may be divided into four 
periods : 1. From its introduction to 430 A.D. which may be called 
the period of preaching and translation; 2. From 420 to 601, the period 
of interpenetration or boring in ; 3. To the end of the five dynasties 
960 A.D., the period of establishment; 4. To the Revolution, the period 
of consolidation and decay. The last period came to an end somewhat 
before the Republic was established. The world passed through great 
changes which were bound to affect the people of the Far East. In the 
West there was the organization of the world states and the scramble for 
power in Asia, in the East the Chinese-Japanese War and the emergence 
of Japan, the Boxer Uprising, the Russo-Japanese War and the making 
of Japan a continental power; the Chinese Revolution; and finally the 
Great War. The revival of Buddhism in Japan was preceded by a literary 
revival before 1889. Buddhism in China has felt the impact of all these 
forces and has begun to respond to the spirit of the age. In 1893 
Dharmapala came to China and tried to awaken the Chinese monks to 
undertake a mission to India and ultimately to the whole world. He was 
disappointed by the lack of intelligent interest on the part of organized 
Buddhism. Since then, however, Buddhism has made considerable 
progress. 

In the early years of the Republic the Jetavana school was established 
at Nanking. This school had for its object the training of missionaries 
for India primarily but ultimately for the world. It came to an end 
on account of lack of funds. 

At the present time there are indications that there is a stirring of 
life in this old religion. While this new activity in Buddhism is seen 
in Kiangsu and Chekiang the impulse has penetrated more or less other 
parts of China. In this connection it should also be remembered that 
certain parts of China suffered from the Taiping Rebellion, when 
not only monasteries were destroyed, but the cities were burned. But 
even in the midst of such districts the Buddhists have rebuilt a number 
of temples in the last fifty years. 

In the provinces of Chekiang and Kiangsu there is considerable being 
done in the way of repairing temples. At Puto, Hangchow, Soochow 
and Ningpo large repairs are being carried on. A pious pilgrim has 
given $30,000 to repair the Prince Imperial Pagoda at Puto. Soochow 
reports : "Theie has been a marked movement to rebuild or re-equip a 
large number of temples during the past ten years, «nd practically all 
are well kept up." Report from Kienninghsien, Fukien, says: "A 
couple of years ago all the one hundred and fifty temples in this city 
were repaired to some extent, a great deal of money was spent, a reaction 
after their severe neglect after the Revolution." Other places report 
repairs, namely, Peking, Kaifeng, and Kiangsi. There are also a large 
number of places where there is no activity in this line. These repairs 
have been made by popular subscription. 

The number of monks in China has been estimated at from 400,000 
to over a million. The former estimate is based upon very careful 
observation and probably comes near the actual number. The nuns are 
probably under 10,000. An impression received from several sources is 
that the number of men ordained during the last few years has been 
increasing. This is probably true for Kiangsu, Chekiang and the monas- 
teries about Peking. This spring 1,000 were ordained at Changchow 
alone. There is also a general opinion that the number of scholars 
interested in Buddhism has increased. The correspondent from Kalgan 
expresses this conservatively : "There is not a general movement toward 
Buddhism. Sometimes seme prominent man becomes an enthusiast in the 
Buddhist faith." "The head of the Buddhist brotherhood for this district 
is a well educated gentleman who is rather prominent in public affairs, 
but takes very little interest in religious affairs" (Kweichow). "General 
Dan and chief Secretary Li of the late Hsiong Ke Wu government have 
been enthusiastic leaders, but are now defeated and have fled." (Szechwan). 
Anhwei reports two former officials becoming monks. These men are 
studying Buddhism for various reasons, the beauty of its literary style, 
the deep philosophy, the enforced leisure due to retirement from offici il 
life and the desire to forget the world. But the number studying has 
increased in the last few years. A correspondent from Hupeh says : "I 
have been told by Chinese friends that there is a good number of people 
in Hupeh pursuing private studies in Buddhism and that there exist 
groups of such men working in fe^owship." 

On the other side we should also put the use, to a small extent, of the 
endowments of monasteries, and to a larger extent of the temples for 
school purposes. Many temples are being occupied by soldiers or being 
used as hospitals. From Anking the report is that endowments are used to 
a small extent and temples not at all. Shansi reports : "Many temples have 
been turned into schools, idols thrown out and the income from the pro- 
perty has been transferred to the support of schools. Quite frequently 
the Buddhists anticipate any such drain upon their resources by establish- 
ing a school themselves." 

Another sign of the rising tide of Buddhism is the increased output 
and sale of Buddhist books. There are Buddhist publishing bouses at 
Peking, Yangchow, Nanking, Hangchow, Changchow, Ningpo, Shanghai, 
Tsinan, and Chengtu besides a number in the monasteries themsdves. 
According to reports, their business has been increasing. The denvind 
for Buddhist works has brought into existence a number of shops which 
handle Buddhist books only. The largest are at Peking which have on 
sale over t,ooo different books published in 13 cities. A bookshop ''11 
Shanghai has 000 titles. Nanking, Hangchow, Ningpo, Changsha, and Wu- 
chang have places. Ths sales are increasing. They are made to laymen. 
The Chung Hwa Book Company and the Commercial Press have al*> 



GENERAL BACKGROUND 



31 



published a number of Buddhist works. The most notable publication is 
the Buddhist Tripitaka (r£ Jjg). A number of modern books have appear- 
ed dealing with the adaptation of Buddhism to European philosophy. 
Ihere is also in process of publication a Dictionary of Buddhist terms. 

Besides the books, two magazines are published, the Hai Ch'ao Yin 
(MM #) and Hsiu Fo Chiao ( $T •$» tfc)> both monthlies. The latter 
does not find favour with the more conservative leaders who oppose some 
of its extreme positions. It has only about 200 subscribers and even the 
writers take different names so as to make it seem that there are many 
of them. 

Besides these literary activities there have been definite attempts to 
organize Buddhism and bring the scattered units together. In 1919 theie 
was organized the National Association of Buddhists ( % ffc |g -§f ) with 
headquarters at Peking. At one time a large number of branches all 
over China were organized but many of them have ceased to function. 
The above society was formed to prevent the Chinese going into a larger 
organization including Mongolia, Japan, Korea, China and Tibet which 
was formed in Tokyo in 1918. The efforts to organize an all Buddhist 
society are still in the making and we shall probably see them consum- 
mated. The society in Peking is quite active and the same, may be said cf 
those at Shanghai, Ningpo, Soochow, and a few other places. Most of the 
societies are quite moribund. 

These societies have elaborate programs. The new Buddhist Associa- 
tion at Ningpo ( $f tffo ^ jjil: ) proposes to publish books and periodicals, 
establish primary schools, middle schools and colleges, provide lecture- 
ships, carry on investigation, build preaching halls, libraries, Buddhist 
factories, stores, experimental stations for agriculture and afforestation, 
orphanages, hospitals and sanatoria. 

The Buddhist Philosophy Club of Hang-chow has conducted lectures" 
for the last two or three years at each of the vacation periods so that 
teachers could attend. The lecturer was a teacher of the Kashing- Com- 
mercial School who graduated from a Buddhist college in Japan. He has 
lectured on the Prajfia para mita hrdaya (fo |g?) Sukhavati-Vyuha 
(|gj $jjj pg |g), Vidya Matra S'astra (pjg fg| fj|), Achta Das'a Kas'a 
Sastra (-f- /\ PJ ffr), Mahayana Sraddhotpada S'astra (;fc f|$ j& fit 
|^ ), and Vajracchedika-Prajnaparamita ( & |gl] |g )• The society 
at Peking has held lectures every evening during the spring and summer 
attended by scholars and officials from all over China. It has also 
established two preaching places where Buddhism is preached on Sunday. 

In connection with these societies various forms of service have been 
carried on, such as lecture*, study ot Buddhist classics, summer school m 
Shanghai and other places. The Buddhists have done some work in the 
Red Cross. The Society at Peking organized for famine relief to date 
has had over $100,000 in subscriptions. They have distributed tracts and 
sutras in prisons. Perhaps the most extensive activity has been the 
services for the dead which had a strong hold on the sentiment of the 
people. Many monasteries have held special services for the dead on the 
battle fields of Europe and those drowned at sea by submarine warfare. 
The influence of Buddhism through this avenue alone is so immense that 
it behooves the Christian Church to study carefully the Chinese attitude 
toward the dead and see how it can remove the magic of it and keep 
those elements which must be the abiding elements of Chinese civilization. 

There is another aspect which is noticeable and that is an attempt 
to adapt Buddhism to the modern age. That is a difficult and a great 
task. There is the inherent conservatism to overcome and the legalistic 
and formal attitude toward life which are deeply set. But the process 
of adaptation is already well started in Japan. There is not a sect in 
Japan which has not acquired new life in the last thirty years, and the 
movement has only just begun. Japan has first-rate Buddhist scholars 
who are studying Buddhism and fitting it into the modern atmosphere. 
The statement has been made by a careful observer that in Japan the 
Buddhist theological student gets a better training and insight into 
Christianity than the Christian student receives of the non-Christian 
religions of Japan. This work of adaptation is being taken over by China 
through books, through students trained in Japan and through the visit 
of Chinese and Japanese Buddhists. The above report shows that the 
adaptation is already started. The Buddhists in Japan are rapidly 
orienting themselves with reference to European science and philosophy. 
The Chinese Buddhists are just beginning this process. An important 
factor in this adaptation will be the various Hongwanji temples (;£. •=£) 
located in Peking, Shanghai, Tsinan and other cities. 

Another fact which after all underlies what was said above is the 
emergence of a few Buddhist leaders. Buddhism has had men of affairs 
and practical ability, but the last few years a few men have shown 
ability to point the new way. Such was Yang of Nanking, a layman 
who died a few years ago. There are such men as Yin Kuang Fa Shth 
( ft! % i& 8P ). T'ai Hsu ( ± fa ), Yuan Ying Fa Shih ( [fj % j£ gjji ) 
and several others. 

The Buddhists are directing their attention toward the establishment 
of schools for the training of leaders not merely for China but ultimately 
for missionary work in Tibet, Mongolia and India. Above was mentioned 
the Jetavana School at Nanking ( f£ |g 5j# f5* ) • Another school at 
Hangchow was closed on account of the death of its founder ( f§ ffi 
&W )• Apart from the schools in certain monasteries and lower schools 
under Buddhist auspices in Shanghai and Hangchow, there are two 
schools which have for their object the preparation of Buddhist leaders. 
One is the Preparatory School for the Buddhist Higher School. The 
school is located in Changchow. Its course extends over three years. 
Besides the studies in Buddhist works it provides for the study of Taoist 
and Confucian classics, geography and history. The school is open to 
monks and laymen who have had a middle school education. After the 



three years the students will be advanced to the regular course. 

Another school is located in the Kuan Tsung Ssu ( gg *& ^ ) in 
Ningpo. It has a number of good teachers and also a graduate course 
for special study. It has about fifty pupils.* 

In this connection should be mentioned the establishment of the Chair 
of Philosophy of Religion in the National University at Peking. This 
department will do something toward the religious reconstruction in 
progress. There are already courses in Sanskrit and Indian Philosophy 
given at the University. 

This report would not be complete if it did not mention the growing 
unity of the whole Buddhist world. There is a getting together which 
has made some progress in the last thirty years. The awakening spirit 
of nationalism, the tide of which is running strong in China, will hinder 
the use of such a religious movement in political ways, but the spiritual 
affinities will not be so much affected by it. We shall witness an in- 
creasing consciousness of the growing unity of the people of Asia and 
Buddhism will be a great uniting factor. 

In view of all this development the special attention on the part of 
the Christian Church is very timely. Rev. K. L. Reichelt has given us 
a plan of work which merits careful consideration. His plan is to es- 
tablish a Christian Brotherhood among Chinese Buddhist.-; for the purpose 
of leading the followers of Sakyamuni to understand that Jesus Christ is 
the great Saviour of the world, who in His Person completes the deepest 
aims and ideals of Higher Buddhism. The plan is this. There will be 
a central institute located in the Yangtze Valley. The building and 
organization will resemble a Buddhist monastery as far as possible and 
yet express the great Christian ideals. There will be an evangelistic 
department under a trained pastor and his assistants. This will receive 
all who apply and impart Christian training to them. The educational 
department will train those who are capable as catechisls, teachers and 
nurses. The administrative department will look after the management 
of the institute and branch institutes in various parts of China. It is 
hoped that the movement can be related to the home boards and the 
churches on the field through an advisory board which will represent the 
missions and the Chinese Church in the prosecution of this work and 
the relating of it to the Church of China. 

This particular movement should not only win converts but should 
make the Christian Church acquainted with the best in Buddhism and 
should also interpenetrate Buddhism with the riches of the Christian 
revelation in cur Lord Jesus Christ, and be the means of interpenetrating 
Buddhism and the other religions with the Christian motive and aim. 

SUGGESTIONS GROWING OUT OF THE STUDY 

The Church in China should select one of the Theological Schools 
already organized, provide it with sufficient equipment and staff so that it 
may present Christianity adequately, study the Chinese religions, develop 
a sound apologetic, and train leaders who shall be competent to present a 
vital Christianity and take a leading part in the religious reconstruction, 
which is already in progress. Special provision should be made for the 
publication of a strong Theological Magazine. 

The Church in China should make plans to produce literature dealing 
with the history of religion, philosophy, theology and the person and work 
of Christ. There should also be books in English on Animism, Taoism, 
Confucianism and Buddhism, giving due recognition to their contribution 
to the past history of China and relating them to the present situation and 
the Christian teaching. 

The Language Schools have made a necessary place for themselves in 
missionary work by enabling the missionary to obtain an accurate and 
facile use of the Chinese language within a short time. Their equipment 
should be increased and their staff enlarged so as to make it possible for 
them to keep abre.ist of the rapidly developing situation in the work of the 
missions and in the economic, social and religious reconstruction now in 
progress and enable them to orientate the student in this situation by 
relating him sympathetically to the Chinese, the Church of China, the 
missionary and the work he has done, and acquainting him with the 
present missionary progress, its methods and ideals. These schools should 
extend their activities so as to provide advanced courses and direct by 
correspondence the work of a number of missionaries in special studies 
preparing them for literary and other activities. 

The Church in China should draw upon the vast resources of Christ- 
ianity in mysticism, and while not in any way reducing its emphasis upon 
morals and Christian service, it should stress much more the religious and 
mystical elements and should encourage the cultivation of the spiritual 
life and seek expression and stimulation of this life through its symbolism 
in ritual, architecture and decoration as well as the regular ministration cf 
the Church. 

The Church should recognize and give due credit to the depth of 
sentiment gathering about ancestor worship and should definitely conserve 
all that is Christian in it. While it should remove all the magic elements, 
it should encourage those which express the personal and moral relations 
between the living and the departed and thus minister to a harmonious 
family life and a healthy social order. 

The Church should make definite plans to give graded Christian in- 
struction to all the children of the Church. Much more reliance should be 
placed upon continuous vital religious instruction as a means to the 
cultivation of the spiritual life, and inculcating those spiritual verities 
upon which Christian civilization ultimate 1 y rests. 



* A prospectus has been issued for the Chie Ka Nei Hsiieh Yuan to be located at 
Nanking. The plan is to raise a million dollars for the purpose. There are to be two 
courses, a Middle School course of four years and a University course of three years. 



32 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



PART II 



CHANGE AND PROGRESS IN THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT IN CHINA 
DURING THE LAST TWO DECADES (1900-1920) 



Frank Rawunson 



The year of the Boxer Uprising v/as a divide between the China that 
was and the China that will be. Its real significance is even now just 
becoming apparent. It was the outcome of a complex of national sentiment 
and thwarted ambitions. Natural resentment against Western encroach- 
ments upon China played a large part ; mingled with this was a deep 
dread that China's material and spiritual possessions were in danger. It 
was also the inevitable clash of a people and a civilization long secluded 
with a world movement which was forcing people of all nations to mingle. 
One immediate stimulus was the clutch of a passing regime upon its 
ancient privileges. It was thus an attempt to ward off an internal danger 
by pitting the people against a world movement that was looked on as a 
common danger. For the political forces in China that were finally over- 
thrown had much to do with the Boxer movement. This movement of 
desperation opened the doer to a new era by stirring China to the depths 
and starting thoughts and aspirations which are still moving forward and 
upward. It meant a clearing of the ground for the changes which have 
since taken place. It was really an awakening to a new world situation 
and the necessity of action, though old weapons were wildly wielded in 
the first dazed period of realization. China today is not the China of 
twenty years ago— outwardly nor inwardly. Change is written large over 
the cities, the politics and the attitudes of the Chinese people. 

This uprising against Western expansion included Christianity as 
something also Western. While it only affected territorially about one- 
tenth of China, yet its effect went deep into the whole country and into 
the life of the Christian Movement. Its real effect upon Christianity 
became apparent in the 1907 Conference, which registered a new outlook 
upon the place and work of the Christian Church in China. For one thing 
it temporarily retarded the work. The era of the great advance in North 
China (except Chihli) was the decade immediately preceding the Boxer 
year, one-half of the stations in Shansi and Shensi being established during 
that period. From 1881 to 1900, mission stations increased nearly fourfold, 
the annual increase being at the rate of 18 a year. The China Inland 
Mission and the Church Missionary Society were particularly active during 
this time, which has been described as a "strong pioneer period." An 
instance or two will show how real was the stoppage which took place 
particularly where the Boxers were most active. Every Baptist in Shansi 
perished ; all the schools in the North and West of China were temporarily 
abandoned or closed ; and during this year very few new stations were 
opened anywhere. 

Yet in general the effect of the Boxer movement was that of a stimulus. 
It not only focussed the attention of the world on China but turned the 
attention of China upon herself. Pagan superstition gave an exhibition 
of its futility that will never be forgotten. It showed that incantations 
and blind fury cannot solve the problems facing China. And outside the 
affected area, while waves of uneasiness flowed all over the country, yet 
the rising popular desire for modern education already under way in some 
parts was not abated. During this year it was announced that a college 
would be established in Soochow and in one day Mex. $1,015 tuition was 
paid into an institution not yet built. This movement brought China into 
the world's thinking and stirred the thinking of the Chinese as nothing 
ever did before. 

CHANGE IN THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE CHURCH 
The two decades since 1900 have been distinctly revolutionary in 
tendency: this not in the old sense alone which resulted in the displace- 
ment of individuals, but deeper, in that during this period ancient 
principles and institutions have been moved, aside for something new. 
While the fear of external dangers which helpad stir up the Boxer move- 
ment has not disappeared, yet teeognition of internal dangers has been even 
more prominent. Fluidity has been the most evident characteristic of this 
period ; the direction of many changes is not yet settled. More significant 
than any other change has been that in the temper of the people. After 
all, the changes already registered are precursors of wider ones. China will 
not only reflect the changes going on all over the world but will materially 
help to change the world. Four hundred million people cannot wake up 
and leave the rest of the world untouched. 

That this revolutionary movement has stirred the Church is shown 
in one instance, typical of others. Throughout the churches in Fukien a 
new spirit was manifested as the result of the dynastic overthrow in 191 1 ; 
out-stations alone in this province increased 114 per cent. This year re- 
leased the pent-up energies of the Christians as much as those of the people 
in general. 

Growth of Democratic Spirit — The anti-dynastic movement of this 
period is not a new feature of Chinese life. But there were certain 
elements during this period which are new. Since 1900 autocratic govern- 



ment has been shaken to its foundation. The fundamentally democratic 
spirit of the Chinese has pushed its way up and through autocratic 
institutions. The attempt of Yuan Shih-kai to revive autocracy failed so 
signally that it does not encourage further attempts along that line. Then ' 
in 1919 there was a strong protest against political corruption which ex- 
pressed itself through the "student movement." While this was in part 
a recrudescence of resentment against foreign aggression as seen in 
Japanese interests yet it indicated an awakening of responsibility fo- 
political rectitude that cannot be ignored even though it later dwindled 
somewhat. 

Anti-vice Activities — Another phase of this period is seen in the 
strong anti-vice movement expressed mainly against the opium traffic 
In the West China Conference of 1908, Dr. Woifendaie said that in the 
previous Conference of iSo^v one could hardly say that there was a con- 
science in China against opium. But in 1908 it was vitally existent and 
worked itself out through one of the greatest moral efforts the world has 
ever witnessed. While the high level then reached has not been main- 
tained, yet this evil has not been able to drag the nation back to the low ? 
levels on which this traffic had placed them; imported addictive drugs, 
however, particularly morphia and its derivatives, threaten to undo this 
situation. The movement against foot-binding also gained impetus during 
these two decades though that like the anti-opium movement it is some- 
what less in evidence at present. 

Rationalistic Movement and Growth of Militarism — Two negative and 
undesirable aspects of life and thought have become prominent since 1900. 
There is the "rationalistic movement" now aggressively strong. In 1907 
while recognized it was not widespread. It represents in large part certain 
rationalistic tendencies in Chinese philosophy which have been stimulated 
into renewed and wider activity. The ease of disseminating rationalistic 
ideas through literature and the press, makes this one of the present pro- ; 
blems to which the Chinese Church needs to give special attention. Another 
negative development, prominent today, and certainly not prominent in the 
thinking of Christians in 1907, is that of militarism. It represents an appeal 
to force that is out of consonance with the genius of China. Prominent 
Christian leaders are also querying whether it is not necessary that a 
militaristic regime be promoted to enable China to stand up for herself. 

Intellectual Revolution — But constructive movements in Chinese life 
are even more numerous than campaigns against existing evils. All -A 
these affect the Chinese Church and indicate some of its aspirations and 
explain some of its aims. There has been a rising flood of new ideas and 
activities. Overtopping all other movements and largely the cause of 
them is the intellectual revolution that has swept over the country. Con- 
nected with this are the educational reforms which came to a head in 1905 
hut have been growing ever since. The change in China in this respect 
is phenomenal ; it has developed with unusual rapidity. In 1902 Dr. J. C. . ■ 
Ferguson said, "I have failed to discover in any of the memorials any hint 
of humble acknowledgment tht>t China is in need of Western education." 
Yet in 1905 the desires of the people forced the rulers to scrap an 
educational institution long cherished by both people and rulers. Attempts 
to increase popular intelligence have also increased. In 1907 it was sr.id 
that there was not a lecture hall in the Empire. They are fairly common 
now. When the educational movement started, Dr. Tenney and Dr. W. M. 
Hayes were at the head of it. But Western-trained Chinese educationalists 
have long worthily taken that position. 

Movement from Wenli to Mandarin — But nations of today cannot be 
educated in the effete terms of past civilizations. Knowledge must be pur 
into the common language. A realization of this explains the growing 
movement for the unification of the Chinese language and the use of the 
vernacular for literary purposes. In 1904 all newspapers were still in 
Wenli. In the 1907 Conference one mission authority said, "All our 
important texts are and will continue to be in Wenli." But Mandarin is 
now largely used for literary purposes and another mission authority on 
literature said, recently, "The profound Wenli of early days has vanished 
from Christian literature." It was this need for the common use of 
Mandarin all over the courtry which led to the movement to unify as far 
as possible its pronunciation. 

Movements toward Financial independence — Another significant move- 
ment is the organization along medern lines of Chinese bankers. It was 
in part intended as an offset to the Consortium which seems to hare , 
halted indefinitely. Hers has developed a power that will make itself 
increasingly felt nationally in trade, politics, and morals. 

Growth of Western Industrialism under Chinese Control — Another 
striking development is the rapid increase during recent years of Western 
industrial enterprises under Chinese control. This is due to a desire to be 
independent and also to a human wish to reap as much as possible of the • 



GROWTH SINCE 1900 



33 



economic profit involved therein. As an instance we cite the ease of a 
gnodern candy and cake concern in Shanghai which has over 700 small 
shops scattered over the city. The ready use of Western patents is raising 
an ethical question which needs to be carefully and promptly considered. 

Emergence of the Middle Classes and Growing Interest in Politics— As 
-a factor in politics we have the emergence of the middle classes who, 
particularly through the business men, are expressing their ideas as to local 
and national government. One result is the development of provincial 
government as over egainst the national which for the nonce is leaving 
the national government somewhat weaker than formerly. This will 
continue until the provincial governments are sufficiently articulated to 
determine what the national government shall be. Another result is the 
growth in municipal responsibility. This is linked up with a strong 
desire for community improvement and makes possible tremendous 
developments in co-operation between the moral forces in China and the 
Christian Church. Just as the Christian forces are endeavouring to work 
with national forces in promoting the phonetic adopted to unify the 
language, so the Christian forces can work with municipal forces to pro- 
mote social health, as the Council on Health Education did in a striking 
anti-cholera campaign in Foochow. 

Growing Religious Toleration — It seems inevitable that during this 
period the movement for religious liberty should receive an impetus. It was 
said in the 1007 Conference that the policy of religious toleration had been 
adopted ; but it was not until 1016 that this principle was incorporated in 
the law of the land. In securing this national religious toleration Christian 
leaders took a large part. They worked with Buddhists, Roman Catholics, 
snd others, thus giving a remarkable example of the possibilities of co- 
cperation for great national aims. It was on cecount of its assistance in 
this great fight — for it became a fight towards the end — that the potential 
significance of the Christian Church was recognized in a new way. A 
leading dairy paper said that no political organization or party had ever 
shown such unity of purpose as the Christian Church in this movement. 
It helped to bring about the* recognition that the Christian Church is better 
articulated— though still far from perfectly— than any other group in 
China; a fact that put some politicians to musing on the possibility of 
utilizing it to further their political aims. 

The above chinges in the environment of the Church have to some 
extent come from the activity of the Christian Church itself, but to a larger 
extent from the impact of the civilization of which Christianity is a part. 

World Movements affecting the Environment of the Church — There 
are also certain world movements which have affected the environment of 
the Christian Church. Among these is the Great War which has acted 
as a stimulus to a slowly emerging nationalism. One result is a growth 
of the desire for self-determination in both the Church and the nation. 
Another is the enhancement of the importance of self-dependence as essen- 
tial to securing a proper place in the circle of nations. Extending over a 
much longer period is the activity of returned students. Chinese students 
went abroad before 1000 but did not come into active participation in 
government and institutional affairs until after that year. Some recent 
developments have been largely due to the influence of these student 
groups. In 1907 there were 13,000 of them studying in Japan and it is 
largely to their influence that Japan has received so much sympathy in 
her political aspirations in China against which the student movement was 
largely directed. From this viewpoint the "student movement" meant 
a conflict of the ideals of students trained in China and the ideals of those 
trained in Japan; a fact to be carefully pondered over. Eater Germany 
tried to set up an educational system aimed to increase German influence 
in China. And recently British commercial interests have been moving 
in a way that leads one to infer a desire on the part of some Britons to 
increase national prestige through educational influences. The same thing 
has been hinted at with regard to the educational work of other nationals. 
All this means cross currents arising from these student contacts with 
«ther nations which tend to divide rather than to unite China, and which 
from that viewpoint are not helpful. For these different groups of students 
really become spheres of influence along the lines of the national ideals of 
the countries in which they have been educated in part or in whole. Educa- 
tion to be profitable to China must be first Chinese. 

Growth in Communications and Publicity Agencies— All these change;, 
whether they come from within or without China have gained strength 
through the "tremendous rapid growth in communications during these 
twenty years. It is possible that the revolutionary activities of this 
period are to be understood rather through an accelerated spread of ideas 
than through their newness. One of the causes of the Boxer disturbance 
was the "Battle for Concessions" carried on by railroad interests just 
previous to too©. And one result of that movement was that Chinese con- 
trol of railroads in China became more prominent. Most of the railroads 
in China have been developed since 1900. Again we note that the Chinese 
Post Office has since 1900 increased in its volume of service and agencies 
594 per cent. The movement for a Chinese Press was strong about 1909, rut 
it was not till after 1911 that the movement really went ahead. The 
last issue of the China Year Book gives 578 periodicals in Chinese of which 
18 per cent are weeklies, 22 per cent monthlies, and 43 per cent dailies. Of 
these varied productions most emanate from Peking, next Shanghai, third 
Canton, and fourth Foochow. There is now possibly hardly any place 
where there is a Christian Church which does not also have some contact 
with the Press, and hence contact with the country and world at large. 

All this increase in communications has a direct bearing upon Christian 
work. Access to the people is made easier in every way. The post office 
and the press can be and are used directly for Christian propaganda, in 
this way the distribution of Christian Literature has been greatly 
facilitated. The railroads make travelling easier and quicker. Contacts 
are multiplied tremendously bevond what they were in 1900. As for 



instance there are in the Offices of the China Continuation Committee the 
names of 1,400 pastors and evangelists scattered throughout China who can 
be reached directly through the post office. The China for Christ Move- 
ment has largely done its work through the post office. The possibilities 
of educating the Christian constituency have thus grown enormously. 

New Spirit of Enquiry— The growth and spread of revolutionary ideas 
of all kinds has been largely dependent upon these improved communica- 
tions. This increase in contacts with the nation and the world has helped 
develop a new consciousness in both the Church and the nation. This 
manifests itself conspicuously in the new spirit of enquiry which has 
delved even into the foundations of ancient Chinese ideas; a movement 
which heads up largely in Prof. Hu Suh of Peking University, also a 
Western-trained student. Everywhere is apparent a new public opinion. 
Efforts at standardization are also in evidence as indicated above in the 
movement for the unification of the language and in the attempt 
teing made to standardize certain features of Chinese railroads which 
heretofore have been samples of most of the railroad systems in the world. 

Creation of National Organizations— These changes have produced 
national organizations to carry them out. The work of unifying the 
language has been under a Commission of 100, working under the Ministry 
of Education. Educational interests have been promoted by the National 
Educational Congress which has held five meetings and in 1919 was attend- 
ed by fifty-one representatives from a number of provinces. These Chinese 
educationalists have already pushed Chinese education forward, so that in 
Xiangsu and Chihli provinces it is a keen competitor to missicn education 
and indeed is helping furnish models for educational work. There is also 
a National Medical Association which works in co-operation with Western 
medical men, though being entirely under Chinese direction. The Chinese 
Red Cross also, though it has relapsed somewhat from its early zeal, has 
done notable work. 

CHANGE AND PROGRESS IN THE STATUS OF THE CHURCH 
Attitude of Non-Christians toward Christianity— The change in the 
environment of most significance to the Christian world is that of the 
changed status of Christianity. As late as 1908 Dr. A. H. Smith said 
that "the Christian Church to get a footing must get recognized, 
respected, approved, and accepted." Generally speaking the first two 
seem to have been achieved and the other two also, though to a much 
less extent. At the beginning of this period the Christian Church was 
largely known but probably little understood. It tended to be classed 
as one feature of that Western expansion which was also misunderstood and 
little appreciated. Then too, Christianity was supported by treaties which 
gave it a political tinge much enhanced for a time, about 1900, through 
indemnities and special privileges granted to Roman Catholic priests. In 
other words, suspicion on the part of officials and misunderstanding on 
the part of the multitudes were the predominating attitudes before 1900 
and for some time after. In 1890 Dr. Timothy Richard said, "Examples 
of generous support from the Chinese Government, mandarins, and 
literati are hitherto so few and feeble that the best that can be said is 
that they do not oppose Christianity." But not the least striking fact 
about this period is the changed attitude on the part both of public and 
officials, a change noted in a number of reports sent in to the China 
Continuation Committee in 1917. An instance p-obably typical of the 
altitude prevailing in many places is that in 1895 foreigners in Szechwan 
fled for refuge to Chinese homes ; in 1916 the Chinese took refuge in 
foreign homes. The Christian movement is now more clearly recognized 
as religious and less looked on as political. One of the efforts that have 
helped produce this change was the work in leading cities of Drs. Mott 
and Edd\', together with the scientific lectures given bv Professor 
Robertson under the auspices of the Y.M.C.A. Again the presence of 
Christian leadership in national affairs has helped make Christianity 
better understood as being a part of Chinese life rather than merely an 
extension of Western life into China. In 1907 it was said that "high 
officials for the most part are not men who have been vr who are under 
Christian influence," though at that time graduates from Christian 
schools were teaching in government schools. But in the establishment 
of the Republic Christians took a large part ; in Canton they were so 
prominent in political leadership that suspicion was aroused. In 1890 
Dr. Richard said that the Blue Books of the Government did not show 
the slightest acknowledgment of any benefit derived from modern missions. 
Yet the request that a statement dealing with Christianity under the 
Manchu Dynasty should be included in the history of that dynasty was 
received favourably by the Commission appointed to draw up that history, 
though it is not yet clear what was actually done with the statement 
prepared and later accepted. In a way this change of attitude towards 
the Christian Church was gradual, though it was tremendously accelerat- 
ed after 1911, which brought the Christians into prominence : in 
1912, 65 per cent of the Kwangtung officials were Christians. However 
Christianity still labours under the difficulty, through its foreignized work 
and th« prominence of foreign leadership and Western tone, of being 
considered not yet naturalized. Nevertheless its value to the life of the 
Chinese people is recognized. 

GROWTH IN THE EXTENT OF THE CHURCH 
Change and Progress in the Extent of the Church — The pioneer pericd 
previous to 1900 took Christianity into every province in China, though 
in many cases the occupation was weak. Since then the geographical 
expansion has been striking. Including Catholics and Protestants there 
is now one Christian to every 200 Chinese. About three-fourths of China 
Proper is now claimed by Protestant forces, and seven provinces report 
no unclaimed area whatever. In the last twenty years as many missionary 



u 



THE CHEISTIAN OCCUPATION OP CHINA 



residential cotters have been opened as in the previous ninety-three years; 
that is 337 or 48 per cent of the missionary stations have been opened 
since 1900.1. ail of the cities with populations of 50,000 or more are occupied 
except eighteen. In the provinces of Chihli, Honan, Hunan, Kiangsi, 
Kweichow, and Yunnan, about three-fourths of the missionary residential 
stations have been opened since 1900. Mission stations have increased 
between 1900 and 1920, 9.5 per cent, or from 356 to 693 ; this is also about, 
equal to all the stations set up during the previous 95 years. In the 
active period from 1881 to 1900, stations were opened at the rate of 
eighteen a year; since 1900 at the rate of twenty-six a year. All this 
means a tremendously rapid increase of Christian contacts, totalling now 
nearly 10,000 evangelistic centers of all kinds. An access of Christiin 
zeal in Western Churches plus a rapidly opening country are two reasons 
for this. 

The most rapid extension took place in seven provinces : Hunan, 
Honan, Yunnan, Chihli, Xwangsi, Kiangsi, and Kweichow. The average 
increase in stations in each of these provinces was 75 per cent, with 
Hunan having 93 per cent on one end and Kweichow 65 per cent on the 
other. Only one of these provinces was affected directiy or very much 
by the Boxer movement. With the exception of Chihli and Kiangsi, this 
extension comprises mostly new work. One reply of Christianity to the 
Boxer movement is an increase of about three-fourths in mission centers, 
Hunan, Hupeh, and Honan have trebled their stations, while the re- 
mainder of the country has only doubled ; thus the greatest relative 
growth in mission stations has taken place in the geographical heart of 
China. 

Increasing Concentration — While there has been this rapid geo- 
graphical expansion there has also gone on a decided concentration in 
Christian work, which is more true of that in connection with American 
societies than British. In general this means that effective occupation 
has not proceeded as fast as geographical extension. Between 1905 and 
1915 the missionaries increased 55 per cent, but missionary residential 
centers only increased 24 per cent or less than half. This concentration 
is not as evident in the case of the Chinese staff, for while 66 per cent 
of missionaries reside in cities with populations exceeding 50,000, only 34 
per cent of the Chinese staff is found there. It is therefore evident that 
new workers from the West went largely into the old stations. A some- 
what larger proportion of British missionaries are in medical work; 
while in education the Americans lead in numbers. This concentration 
is due in some measure to the growth of institutional work. It indicates 
that for the missionaries the pioneer period of Christian work in China 
ha? passed the climax. In considering the establishment of the Christian 
Church in China it also raises the question as to "whether such concen- 
tration pays from the viewpoint of the evangelical aim of the Christian 
Church. 

There is a rough correlation between this concentration of forces in 
centers and staff and the growth and strength of the Chinese Church in 
numbers, training and richness of church life. This is indicated by the 
following facts. Kwangtung is high in number of missionaries, mission- 
ary residential centers, Chinese force and membership. Shantung and 
Fukien are high in number of missionary residential centers, Chinese force 
and membership. These three provinces rank first, second and third 
in number of Christians. It is furthermore in these three provinces that 
the work of evangelizing and Christianizing the Chinese people has 
farthest advanced. Chihli also illustrates this correlation. In the last ten 
years this province has increased its missionary force 25 per cent, its 
ordained men nearly 200 per cent, and its Chinese workers 50 per cent; 
it is during this time, it is estimated, that fully half the Protestant church 
membership in Chihli has been won. This relation of concentration and 
growth is seen again in the work of the MEFB, which while it has only 
8 per cent of the mission centers has 21 per cent of the Christians, 
and in the case of the Presbyterians who while having only 9 per cent 
of the mission centers, have 23 per cent of the communicants; the 
Presbyterians have also twice as many to a church as any other group. 
In the seven coast provinces we have 57 per cent of the missionaries, 65 
per cent of the Chinese educational staff, 65 per cent of the Chinese 
evangelistic staff, and 65 per cent of the Chinese medical staff. In these 
same provinces are 63 per cent of the lower primary school students, 77 
per cent of the middle school students and 71 per cent of the church 
members. Furthermore, the Survey adds that the work of evangelizing 
China attains its height in the foreign residential centers, and it is in 
connection with these that the concentraton of forces is most seen; and 
it is here that we find the largest churches and the strongest church 
membership. This fuller manifestation of strength of church life where 
there is concentration is doubtless due to the fact that it is just in these 
centers that the working force of the Church is capable of undertaking 
all needed forms of work. This may indicate what is still needed in 
other centers opened but not yet adequately staffed. Age of work affects 
this question but does not seem to be as large a determining factor as 
is ordinarily supposed, as a study of Hunan will show. One can only 
hope that the centers where this concentration has given added strength 
will furnish Chinese workers to meet the needs of the other places 
opened as a result of the rapid movement of extension; if workers are 
thus provided to meet the needs of the 88 per cent of Chinese who still live 
in relatively small cities and rural districts, then concentration may be 
considered to be profitable ; if not it leaves an uncertainty as to its value. 
Increase in Missionary Societies—The growth in missionary societies 
is also worth noting. In 1900 there were sixty-one societies at work in 
China ; in 1906 sixty-seven, but in the 13 years after this they increased to 
one hundred and thirty. During this 20 years there has been an Increase 
in missionary societies of 47 per cent. In addition there are about 36 



Christian organizations doing different types of work either indirectly con- 
nected with existing societies or on an independent basis. This period 
therefore has seen a rapid increase in small societies, which indicates a 
development in China of the individualistic or particularistic side of 
Christianity. Yet the opening of new missionary residential centers is 
more due to the activity of the older societies, as over two-thirds of these: 
new ventures are credited to them. It would seem that these new and 
small societies were absorbed as much into old centers as new ones; per- 
haps more so. One element in this increase is the number of Lutheran 
societies representing six .'ountries which while distinct nationally, are yet 
one religious group. They indicate a rising of Continental Christian, 
interest in China. 

Two societies which work on national lines need special mention. One, 
the YWCA started fifteen years ago, is fourth among all the societies m 
rapidity of growth, and the other, the YMCA, has had its greatest period" 
of development during this period, actually being third in rapidity c-f 
growth. Together these two societies have begun work in 33 cities in 
twenty years. In fifteen years the YWCA has opened Association.; in r 
large cities, and already has 120 women on Boards of Control and a secre- 
tariat about equally Chinese and Western. Relative to the position of 
women in China and the age of the organization, it has made retmrkahie 
progress in developing Chinese women into leaders. The YMCA has. 
reached in a special way non-Christian students, and developed Chinese 
leadership until the whole organization is under a committee composed 
entirely of Chinese. Both these organizations have done work among the 
literati, and both have secured large support from the Chinese. Indeed" 
the YMCA with its erection of a building on land donated by the Chinese- 
and a Western secretaryship working in institutions which raise all cum nt 
expenses locally, has attained a high degree of co-operation and self- 
support in Christian work. Both these organizations lay special stre=-. on 
various forms of social activities. The report of the Canton Board of Co- 
operation states that it has been recommended that the YWCA be asked to- 
take the direction of a Young Women's School of Social Service, and the 
YMCA has been asked to take the initiative in organizing and developing 
social service among men. 

Other special societies are the Salvation Army, which in addition to- 
religious work does practical social work in relieving distress. Then there 
are societies such as the Yale Mission and the Princeton University Center- 
in Peking (YMCA) which represent a direct extension of Western univ< rsity 
life into China. Canton Christian College as a case in point, is assisted 
directly by six colleges in the United States. 

GROWTH IN THE STRENGTH OF THE CHURCH 

How lias the growth of the working staff kept pace with the needs Y 
The foreign staff has since 1907 increased by about 103 per cent ; foreign: 
medical workers considered by themselves have increased only 54 per cent. 
It is in Kiangsu, Kwangtung, Chihli, Szechwan, and Shantung that 1 he- 
largest number of missionaries are found, of which one-half are at pressut 
American and one-third British. In 1907 American missionaries comprised 
yi per cent of the foreign staff, British 52 per cent. The relation of these two- 
sources of supply to Christian work in China is exactly reversed since 
1907. The fields of British societies extend over half of China; those of' 
Americans over about a third. 

It is instructive to compare the growth of the foreign 
missionary body with that of the Chinese force and the church member- 
ship. Since 1907 the church membership has grown about 105 per tent, 
which is about the same rate of growth as the missionary body. Hospital: 
assistants have grown 492 per cent, which is about nine times as fast as 
foreign doctors. Chinese ordained men have increased about 200 per cent. 
The Chinese pastorate, therefore, has grown nearly twice as fast as the- 
missionary body and the church membership. This shows that the need* 
for an ordained ministry is being progressively met. 

Unordained Chinese workers have grown only 37 per cent, while the 
ordained ministry has grown about 5,4 times as fast, which shows that the 
ordained ministry is catching up on the unrcdained workers— a healthv 
sign. Bible women have increased 165 per cent, while single women 
missionaries have increased 100 per cent, which is about the same rate of 
growth as the whole missionary body. That the Chinese staff is growing 
relatively faster than the missionaries is also shown in the statement made 
in the Interchurch World Survey that the 1920 Budgets of Missions for 
work in China showed a larger expenditure for salaries of Chinese workers 
than for missionaries. For every 100 church members we find that there 
are 7 employed as workers, most of whom are church members. The- 
Lutherans, Methodists, and the CIM have the larger proportion of the 
^Chinese force engaged in evangelistic work; all other missions have the 
larger part of their Chinese staff engaged in educational work, though this 
numerical superiority o£ the educational over the evangelistic is small in 
most cases. 

Indigenous Leadership — In connection with the development of the- 
Christian forces the emergence of an indigenous leadership stands out r-n- 
touragingly. Nothing shows the change in this regard more clearly thin 
the rapid growth in recent years of participation by Chinese Christians in 
National Christum Conferences. In the 1907 Conference 1,000 missionaries 
—of whom 500 were elected delegates— and mission workers, assembled, but 
no Chinese. The missionaries then assumed that the Christian leadership 
in China was still in their hands. In 1913, out of 115 delegates one-third : 
were Chinese. In the China-for-Christ Conference in 1919 one-half were 
Chinese delegates ; in more ways than one their leadership was felt as .1 
force in this Conference. The National Christian Conference (May 1922) will 
have about as many Chinese delegates present as the number of missionary: 
delegates who attended either the 1890 or 1907 Conferences, and more thin 
all who attended the 1913 National Conference. This emergence of Chinese 



GROWTH SINCE 1900 



35 



leadership in National Conferences epitomizes the growth of indigenous 
Chinese leadership and the achievement of Christian co-operation. The 
maximum of missionary representation seems to have been reached and 
will, from now on, probably decrease in numbers as National Christian 
Conferences become mote representative of the Chinese Church 

Increase in Ordained Leadership — This development of leadership is 
seen again in the more rapid growth of ordained leaders. From 1914 to 
1920, while there was a net increase of communicants of about 6 per cent 
a year, the employed staff grew about 8 per cent, with as we have seen a 
more rapid growth among ordained men than unordained workers. It 
should, however, be noted that while 50 per cent of the missionaries are 
ordained, only 12 per cent of Chinese male evangelists are. Since 1907, 
however, Chinese ordained men have increased about twice as fast 
as ordained missionaries. 

With regard to the educational status of this Chinese leadership possi- 
bly about 7 per cent have been in College— though not all such took the 
full course ; about 25 per cent have been through Middle School ; while 
about two-thirds have had a good Chinese education with a Chinese degree 
-or graduation from a Higher or Lower Primary .School. In general, pre- 
sent-day aggressive leadership is found among the 7 per cent. 

There is noticeable a growth in expression. In 1900 it was true in 
-general of the whole Church what Dr. J. C. Gibson said of the Swatow 
church, "A working church without as yet any creed or formula such as 
-our confession of faith." We are now moving in the direction of a Chin- 
ese Church giving in its own terms its Christian belief. In 1922 Chinese 
leadership gives for the first time a presentation of the Christian Message 
to China. We have left behind the days of merely passive Chinese ac- 
quiescence in Christianity ; the Chinese Church is now positively reacting to 
its inner message. Twenty years ago, for instance, Chinese contributors 
to the Chinese Recorder were hardly thought of. Now they are of their 
-own accord writing and occupying an increasingly large place therein. 
'About one-third of the publications issued by Tract Societies are produced 
by Chinese, which is a slight advance over the past. The Christian 
Literature Society now has Chinese prominent on its directorate and there 
"has been recently increased activity in the Chinese authorship of Hs 
publications. 

Chinese leadership is also coming — a little slowly in some cases — into 
its rightful place of primacy. There are now Christian leaders who take 
lank among the leaders of modern China. A study of 34 societies shows 
that about two-thirds of the Church leadership is still in the hands of the 
missionaries as far as receiving church members and administering the 
sacraments are concerned, and there are still more ordained missionaries 
in China than Chinese pastors, though the number of ordained Chinese is 
-now nearly equal to the number of ordained missionaries. Ecclesiastically, 
therefore, leadership will actually soon pass from the missionary to the 
Chinese as far as numbers are concerned. Chinese leaders also play a 
kige part in guiding Church policies through committees of control and 
•co-operation. In education also Chinese leadership grows slowly. As a 
matter of fact, many of the strongest Christian educationalists are not in 
"Christian schools Vet the President of Foochow Union Theological 
"Seminary is a Chinese, as well as the Dean of the School of Theology of 
Peking University. There is evident a clearer understanding of the need 
and responsibility of leadership in the Chinese Church. The Board of Co- 
operation of the Canton Missionary Association has said, "Within the last 
"two decades the Chinese Church leaders have come to realize the place and 
lesponsibility the}- should have in the Church and are earnestly endeavour- 
ing to attain to such ideals." It would also be true to say that while the 
relative number of prominent leaders is small yet their influence on the 
thinking of the Church, as far as can be made effective through improved 
means of communication, is far beyond their numerical strength. 

One change has taken place in the type of leader now being secured. 
In 1907 it was said that Christian work was dependent on middle-aged men 
and merchants with some book learning; now educated 3 T oung men are 
turning towards the Ministry, though the fact that in 1920, of 2,027 students 
in fourteen Christian Colleges, only about 1 per cent were preparing for 
the Ministry, shows that we have neither an adequate source of supply for 
an educated Ministry, nor a satisfactory proportion of that supply headed 
in that direction. Apart from any disturbance of existing staff, there is a 
tremendous need for more ieaders of the type now actually leading. There 
is no doubt that the equality of Chinese leaders with their missionary 
colleagues is now fully recognized as well as the importance of their 
taking the primacy of position and influence. 

Increase in Church Membership — An additional word or two must be 
added about the communicant membership. Since 1907 while the mission- 
ary body has grown from 3,445 to about 6,250, the communicant member- 
ship has gone from about 180,000 to 366,000 which in the case of the 
membership is an increase of about 105 per cent as against an increase of 
missionaries of about 103 per cent. In "Mission Problems" Dr. Gibson 
said, "The increase of church membership during any period is not pro- 
portional to numbers of missionaries at work, but rather to the number «f 
natives who are already members of it." That statement seems to be borne 
out by the way communicant membership is concentrated in the older 
tenters. 

Status and Work of Women — One important element in the life of the 
Church is the status and work of women. Whereas in the U.S.A. the pro- 
portion of women in the Church exceeds that of the men, in China it is 
much the reverse. For there are about twice as many men in the Chinese 
Church as women. Oue wonders why, with the large number of women 
workers among the missionaries and the many family contacts of the 
Christian men in the Church with the women in their homes alone, this 
is so. To this problem no reply is yet in sight. This ratio of sexes in 
<ihe church membership works out otherwise also. Of the Chinese force 



only one-fourth are women, though according to the reports of 35 societies 
women are more prominent as teachers — actually 28 per cent of teachers 
are women— than Bible women in the ratio of three to one. But the same 
disproportionate emphasis is found in education, where 70 per cent of the 
students in Christian schools are boys and only 30 per cent girls ; though 
in only two provinces— Yunnan and Shensi — are no girl students 
found in mission schools. More girls also stop school with the 
lower grades, as while 31 per cent of students in the mission 
Primary Schools are girls only 17 per cent in Middle Schools are. 
And furthermore in the whole teaching force in Christian schools only one 
'woman is found as over against three men. Of course we have in this 
period the beginnings of higher education for women and also of co-educa- 
tion ; both however being comparatively recent. Then too a special litera- 
ture for women, Christian as well as non-Christian, has emerged. But the 
1 elation of Chinese women to the Christian Church is one requiring im- 
mediate and special attention. We should aim to correct this disproportion 
during the next decade. 

There are encouraging features that show that a movement has already 
started to correct this situation. The first girls' school by Chinese was 
started in Shanghai in 1898 with 16 high-class pupils who paid $3.10 a 
month for board. In 1916 the Chinese Government had 3,766 schools for 
girls, entry to which was not confined to any one class. These did not 
then include any schools above the Middle School grade, except one Higher 
Normal School in Peking. Again, compared with efforts to educate boys 
we find that there were in 1916 thirty-three Government schools for boys 
compared with one for girls, twenty-two male students to one girl, and 
sixteen times as much spent on the education of boys as on that of girls. 
Still the education of girls is a part of the new order of things. Christian 
schools seem to have gone faster in correcting this educational situation. 
For between 1907 and 1919, while Christian schools for bo\-s increased 
342 per cent, those for girls increased 221 per cent. In West China during 
the years 1913-1919, while the increase in boys' schools in the West China 
Christian Educational Union was threefold, the increase in girls* schools 
was sevenfold. 

In connection with the above is the social freeing of women which has 
taken place during this period. Of this freedom the unbinding of feet 
is a fitting symbol. Against the background of Chinese womanhood the 
leaders among the women seem pitifully few. Yet they are very much in 
evidence. Girl students took their part in the student demonstrations of 
1919. There is a noticeable change in the social relationships of men and 
women, more particularly among the youth in port cities. The present head 
of the W.C.T.U. in China is a woman, Dr. Mary Stone. Chinese women 
doctors are taking their part in medical work, and there is one woman 
preacher. Since 1913 Chinese women have appeared in National Christian 
Conferences. Women's clubs also are increasing — a little too rapidly in 
the judgment of some. There is also emerging a recognition of woman's 
fitness for an equal place with men in all forms of Christian work. 

4 

CHANGE AND PROGRESS IN THE LIFE OF THE CHURCH 

There are special features connected with the propagation of Christi- 
anity which must be noted. During this period more effort has been made 
to put Christian work on a city-wide basis. In this connection campaigns 
conducted by Dr. Mott and Dr. Eddy which reached not only students but 
highly placed political leaders have played an important part. In Canton 
in connection with the China-for-Christ Movement especially did city-wide 
effort stir the city to its foundation. In the same city the Christians 
put through an anti-gambling campaign that changed for the good the 
situation in this regard. On the other hand mass movements as ordinarily 
understood have not been prominent in the Christian movement in China. 
The exceptions appear to be in connection with the tribes movement <n 
Southwest China, and the CIM which in 1902 as a "result of the break- 
down of the Boxer movement" experienced a general movement over much 
of its field which brought a rapid and permanent increase in communicant 
members, and quickened the whole church in connection with thai Mission. 
Famine relief periods do not seem to have been followed in China with any 
particular rush towards the Church. 

During this period, however, through the efforts of the China Con- 
tinuation Committee, special work has been done for Moslems, more parti- 
cularly along lines of literary production. Special plans have also been 
mooted for work among Buddhists. A rapid growth of the work among 
the tribes, especially in Southwest China, is also in evidence. Of the 
work among the Miao and the Nosu it is recorded that churches have been 
erected in nearly a hundred centers. 

Progress in Sc! {-Propagation — Now we come to the question, what are 
the signs of progress in self-propagation on the part of the Chinese Church ? 
In the Chinese Recorder for 1899, Dr. Pott said, "The native Church is 
doing little at self-propagation." It has been said that the most 
striking feature of Christian work in this century is the advance that has 
been made in Hunan. A considerable contribution was made to this 
1 dvance by several journeys undertaken by Chinese missionaries sent out 
by the Christian Church in Hupeh. Home Itfission work is becomng a 
prominent feature of modern Christian work in China. In 1906 the 
Presbyterians in Manchuria started the Manchnrian Missionary Society. 
Later the Anglicans also started Home Mission work under Chinese 
leadership. This work is located in Shensi. And somewhat later the 
Chinese Home Missionary Society was started on national lines. This 
Society, which works mainly in Yunnan, is now affiliated with the Man- 
chnrian Missionary Society and is in close touch with the Anglican Home 
Mission work. There are at least, according to the Survey, 25 Home 
Missionary Societies in the Chinese Church. All of the above movements 
are under Chinese leadership and are really indigenous and, with some 



36 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



small exception, dependent on funds raised from Chinese. We have now 
therefore the beginnings of mission work by the Chinese Church. It is 3 
sign of life, that while small compared with the overwhelming needs, is 
encouraging as compared with the situation twenty years ago. 

Progress in Self-Control — As to the progress made in self-control the 
tacts are not quite so evident. In 1913 there was some tendency for Chinese 
leadership to split off from the missionaries. But the experience of the Con- 
ferences held that year showed that co-operation between the Churches cf 
China and the West was possible and advisable. The danger of a split was 
thus averted. Of course, the problem was largely one of self-control. As in- 
dicated above while in about two-thirds of China ecclesiastical leadership is 
still in the hands of the missionaries, yet it is evident that the Chinese 
pastorate more than equals in controlling influence that of their Western 
colleagues. The influence of Chinese leadership is felt through controlling 
committees much more than ever before, whether these be Synods, Con- 
ferences, or Boards. The affairs of the Kwangtung Church Council ire 
under the joint control of Chinese and missionary leadership. The work of 
the American Board is administered entirely through such a joint council. 
In the main it might be said that the present is the period of joint control 
with Chinese leadership becoming more prominent. The actual deter- 
mination of the policies of Christian work in China is tremendously 
influenced by Chinese leadership. 

One result of this desire for self-control is the Independent Church 
movement. The churches in this movement are also self-supporting. A 
large number of these maintain cordial relations with missions and mother 
churches. This movement seems to be strongest in North China. There 
is a small number of individual churches poorly organized in less close 
relations with mother churches. As a movement it is a sign of life but 
does not seem as yet to indicate any widespread desire for separation from 
the missionary element in the Christian movement in China. 

Progress in Self-Support — The thermometer of the development of the 
life of the Church is what is known as "self -support" and might better be 
called "financial independence." There is no problem of policy on which 
practice and ideas vary more than here. It seems to be impossible to say 
conclusively what plan or principle has worked best, cr is most favoured. 

There are not wanting instances of self-support attained twenty years 
ago. In 1881 the Chinese gave $10,000 Mex. to the Anglo-Chinese College 
at Foochow. The BMS had 275 chapels and schools in out-stations, the 
cost of which was provided by Chinese Christians; the situation was 
however different in the foreign residential stations of this mission. In 
1907 the English Presbyterians reported that their Chinese Christians had 
given 83 per cent of the whole expenditure on the salaries of ministers, 
preachers, and teachers in primary schools. Whatever the actual condition 
as regards self-support up to 1000, opinion thereon showed a sharp 
cleavage about that time. One can not help feeling that in general more 
emphasis was laid then than later on dependence on native financial ability 
as o\-er against subsidies from the West. The split in opinion was sc 
decided that one group connected with Southern Bapt : st work formed a 
new mission known as the "Gospel Mission," with the aim of promoting 
complete independence of Western pecuniary aid on the part of the Church. 
The emphasis laid by Dr. Nevius on this matter is also known. But the 
lise of standards cf work which have far outdistanced the economic ability 
of the Church, together with the rapid increase of support of mission work 
by Christians in the West, seems to have caused the curve of sub- 
sidization of Christian work in China to rise much faster than that of the 
financial independence of the Church. As a matter of fact the "Gospal 
Mission" has ceased to exist, and the Kevins plan does not seem to have 
worked wary widely. 

The opinions on and practice of self-support rotate around two deter- 
mining ideas. First, that complete financial independence is essential to 
real church progress and second, that subsidization will help to bring 
r-bout more rapid progress and finally more satisfactory self-support. 
Possibly facts could be produced to show that under certain conditions both 
these ideas have worked, though the standard of work is an important and 
greatly varying element in the situation. It is noticeable that administra- 
tive independence has often been offered as a prize to stimulate financial 
independence. How far the result aimed at is obtained does not appear. 
A deep desire for self-propagation would seem to be the most effective 
stimulant. Some would confine control of mission funds to missionaries, 
others allow Chinese to share in this control. The latter idea is gaining 
ground. The Board of Co-operation, Canton Missionary Conference, in 
its last report said, "Is it not worth while to consider if we have not in 
some wav-s hampered the development of this indigenous Church by an 
undue insistence upon financial standards which must be reached before a 
pastor can be appointed to a church ?" Such an utterance, the product of 
joint thinking by Chinese and Western Christians, is significant. It may 
be, however, because of this insistence that there is a tendency for ordained 
men to be supported by the Church more than evangelists and Bible 
•women. 

Changed Economic Situation — It must be kept in mind that in addition 
to the rapid rise in the stendards of Church work and equipment, there 
has been — more noticeable in the coast provinces and port cities — a change 
in the economic situation, both in the Church and around it. In 1907 few 
men of the scholarly class, or men of wealth or position, were in the 
Church. The presence of such in increasing numbers has augmented the 
financial strength of the Church. But the cost of living — here China 
shares in a world movement of the last twenty years — has also risen, and 
a large part of the Church is still, economically speaking, poor. Signs 
point plainly to the fact that the cost of Christian work has also risen 
mnch faster than the economic ability of the church members; this 
eeems to hi true also of the cost of living as it affects pastors. In 



1S90, for instance, unoidained helpers received an average of $5.00 (Mex.f 
a month and ordained an average of $10.00. A study of reports from oSo» 
pastors-^or those in charge of churches, both ordained and unordaiued — 
in 19 provinces, shows that while in 1920 the average living wage was r or 
a family with three children reckoned at $17.89, 67 per cent of the pastors-- 
replying are getting less than this — an actual average of only $13.21. F©r*| 
the larger proportion, therefore, of evangelistic workers the cost of living* 
seems to have risen faster than their support. It should be noted, more-*! 
over, that the average wage actually being paid to those 6S0 pastors, at\ 
those in charge of churches is $22.21 a month, which indicates that the- 
average stipend of those in charge of churches has somewhat more than 1 
doubled in thirty years. There is a wide difference between the stipends*! 
paid, varying between $6.00 and $120.00 per month. Progress in tlie- 
support of pastors has not been uniform? Some places have- 
made no progress in twenty years. This is due to great variation in thef 
economic conditions obtaining at different places. As a matter of fact, 
while 67 per cent of these 680 pastors received on an average $13.21 j>er- 
lnonth, the remaining y y per cent received on an average $31.67. 

Now comparisons with the past are difficult and rather dangerous.:, 
Still, something must be attempted. In 1876 the average per capita coh-lj 
tribution was given as $0.70; in 1800 $1.00. In Kiangsu province in 1917 
it was reported that the per capita contribution to the Church was $4.00,. 
yet there were then few self-supporting churches in the province. Taking- 
the statistics for the years 1912 — 1917 as given in the China Mission Yt-.ir 
Book, we find an average for the six years of $1.91, with 1917 giving the- 
highest average, or $2.70. This would indicate an increase in thirty \c-us- 
of about 90 per cent. In some cases the increase has been phenomenal ; in? 
others, nothing. From a number of reports from five different mis -ion* 
(1907 — 1921) recently icceived, we find that the average works out at about 
147 per cent increase, the highest being 392 per cent, the lowest about xM 
per cent. This is nearly double the average increase for the six yearsr 
mentioned above. It however takes no account of those places or mis^ions- 
where little or no increase has been noted. Generalizations are extremely- 
uncertain at this point. It would appear, however, that while in* 
thirty years the church membership has increased nine times, the?,;; 
average per capita contribution to church work has more then doubled,*;; 
which means that the Church is growing both in size and in economic- 
strength. It would appear also as though in 30 years the rate of growth* 
of the financial strength of the Church is about the same as that of support! 
of those in charge of churches. These generalizations must, however, be- 
taken with caution. 

But consideration of per capita contributions to church work does not 
tell all the tale. A study of the finances of 15 missions belonging to 13 
large societies showed that of the funds given for evangelistic work— || 
possibly mainly church current expenses — the Chinese gave about 24 per- 
cent. The reports from the 6S0 "pastors" mentioned above showed that 
in their judgment their churches were giving on an average about 31 per 
cent of the church expenses. It would be seen therefore that about two^ 
thirds of the funds for the support of church work are still coming from sub- : ; 
sidies. There has over against this been considerable increase in the Chinese- 
support of institutional work, and it seems likely that an increasing amount 
of Chinese money goes into equipment. From the same list as at ove, butr 
for 14 missions in 10 societies, of the funds given for educational work — 
again mainly current expenses — we find that the Chinese gave about 46 per 
cent, or nearly doable the proportion given for church work. A rapid rise- 
it: teachers' salaries as well in cost of education tends to retard progress- 
in financial independence here. According to the same financial return* 
of the funds given for medical current expenses, about 65 per cent came 
from Chinese sources. Bat it should be noted that educational and medicar 
work are not dependent on the funds from Christians alone as church work 
is. Schools and hospitals tap the Chinese non-Christian community 
for revenue in return for services received; of coarse this would net be- 
true where the schools serve only the Christians. Evangelistic work in- 
dependent entirely upon voluntary contributions given under moral obliga- 
tion alone. Still outside the support of missionaries financial independence- 
has advanced further as regards educational and medical work than as. 
regards evangelistic work. Up to 1900 free edacation was common, bat 
%vhile Christian schools are still heavily subsidized they rest in large-; 
measure upon the Chinese for current expenses. It is now the exceptionr 
rather than the rule for education to he given entirely free. 

Financial independence seems easier of attainment in rural fields due- 
in large part to lower standards of work and equipment. But the per capita 
contribation to charch work tends to rise faster in cities, though financial 
independence does not seem mnch nearer there than in the country. Tbe~ 
Independent Church movement, it should be noted, is mainly a matter 
cf the cities. This simplicity of equipment explains in part the rapid? 
progress made in self-sapport by some of the trites in Southwest China. 
As regards the per capita contribation to church work, some progress- 
appears to have been made, but progress in financial independence is not 
so much in evidence when the actual cost of Christian work is considered. 
It should not be forgotten too that the economic standards and needs cf 
Christian workers rise faster than the economic ability or standards of the 
generality of their Chinese supporters. Whether the economic ability of 
the Christians is lower than that of the community in general does not 
appear. 

Plans to stimulate financial independence vary. The Methodists have 
a program whereby the church increases its responsibility 25 per cent each 
year. Some emphasize tithing, others follow the policy of diminishing 
subsidies, in one or two instances an endowment plan is in operation, and In 
one case the effcrt is made to get the Christians to undertake village 
evangelization, and in another funds for institutional work must be raised! 
locally. Institutional church work is also not entirely dependent of" 



GROWTH SINCE 1900 



37 



Christian sources for support, which is also true of the YMCA and YWCA. 
While group plans are in evidence, the larger proportion seem to depend 
■on individual plans for individual places. 

It is evident that the actual situation as to present dependence on 
subsidies from the West is becoming tetter understood by the Chinese 
Christians. There is also a deepening of self-consciousness in this regard 
and of the feeling of responsibility for finances as well as for policies. 
Still one has a feeling, as one hears" of the liberal Chinese contributions to 
various interests, that the financial ability of the Chinese Church is con- 
siderably bevond what it is at present actually doing in support of 
Christian work. The risi in all standards both of living and work is due 
in part to the impact of Western civilization, as well as to advance ri 
•Christian methods and the broadening of ideas through Christiau education 
It may be necessary to find an outlet for the financial strength of the 
Chinese Church that will be adequate and yet not be so far ahead of them 
as to hamper and discourage them. It may be that this outlet will w e 
found to be Home Mission work. It should be noted in passing that the 
Chinese Church does net appear to be doiug much to finance Christian 
literature. 

Medical A cti?iiies— In philanthropical work the Christian hospital 
•Stands first. We have noted that Chinese financial support of medical work 
is relatively stronger than that of any other type of Christian work. We 
note that while foreign doctors have increased 54 per cent, hospitals and 
dispensaries have increased 165 per cent. As there has been progress in 
support ol medical work there has also been rapid progress in the develop- 
ment of the Chinese medical staff. The possibility of the increased work 
mentioned above is due to this fact. While in 1907 mention was made of 
5,000 Chinese hospital assistants, now only trained force is mentioned. 
"This is due to the existence of higher standards of preparation. In 1919 
there were 40- Chinese male doctors, 56 women doctors, and 469 trained 
nurses. Twenty years ago such were not mentioned. The increase in 
the number of Chinese physicians and nurses is a conspicuous feature of 
■mission work during the last decade. In 1905 no mention was made of 
Chinese nurses. Since 1915 Chinese doctors have increased threefold. Just 
as in financial support so in man power the increase in response on the 
part of the Chinese has been relatively more rapid first to medical work, 
-4ben to educational work, and last to the ministry. 

But the outstanding problem of medical work during this period, and 
the one on which most progress has been made, is medical education. It 
was the main issue of the 1013 and 1915 Medical Conferences. Progress 
•in this regard heads up in the Peking Union Medical College now in full 
swing with a modern plant and staff. This institution will be the standard 
-of medical education in China. There has also been progress in the use 
«f modern medical science outside of mission work, thcugh to what extent 
is not ascertainable. 

Famine Relief — Famine relief has teen one of the outstanding features 
of this period. In the famine of 1007, the Anhwei famine of 1910-12, the 
•Chekiang famine of 1917-18, and the North China famine of 1920-21, the 
•Christian forces rendered conspicuous assistance. These philanthropic 
efforts furnished excellent opportunities for co-operation. Among other 
things co-operation by the Chinese has grown with each famine. Espeei- 
-oDy suggestive has been the co-operation with the Roman Catholics in 
this work. This has been the only point of contact with them since about 
the beginning of the century when estrangement between them and Pro- 
testants increased owing to the special political powers conferred upon the 
priests. In general these efforts have increased the friendly feeling for 
the Church, both as a result of the care taken to avoid discrimination in 
favour of Christians, and of the service as a whole. It has also enhanced 
confidence in the Church. 

CHANGE AND PROGRESS IN THE TRAINING OF THE CHURCH 
We now come to the progress made in the training of the Church. 
"Here progress is somewhat mere easily ascertained than in some other 
•directions. Up to 1900 the aim of Christian education was in the main 10 
•educate the children of Christians. Now it is much wider, being more a 
■contribution to the life of China in general. The greatest emphasis on 
educational work exists among American missions, which have over half 
•of the Lower Primary students, two-thirds of the Higher Primary students 
and over twe-thirds of Middle School students. A study of 264 schools 
listed in the CCEA Survey of Middle and Higher Primary Schools shows 
that of these 74 per cent were started since 1900. This indicates the up- 
ward trend of educational work during these twenty years. In 1920 the 
number of pupils had increased 332 per cent over what it was in 1907. 
Strangely enough the number of Middle School students seems to be still 
about what it was in 1007, 15,312 being an increase of enly 78 per cent 
according to published statistics. Thfe— unless the statistics are unreliable 
—would imply that the greatest relative growth has taken place in higher 
and lower education. According to the statistics the proportion dt 
-students to communicants was iR per cent in 1912, and 15 per cent m 
>9r3, but in 1915-19 it jumps to 60 per cent. This is probably partly due 
to better statistical returns, but it also indicates a sudden rise in number 
• of pupils at that time. A study of 222 schools listed in the CCEA Survey 
-of Middle and Higher Primary Schools shows that 35 per cent were opened 
between 1912 and 1916. Furthermore, while according to the statistics in 
the China Mission Year Book between 1912 and 1917 communicants in- 
creased 106 per cent, students in schools increased 5S2 per cent or 5 times as 
fast. These facts indicate a strong movement of students into Christiau 
schools as a result of 191 1. They also indicate a rapid increase in the 
number of students during the last ten years. 

English. Language— -The use of English as a medium of instruction in 
secondary and higher education is a special educational feature of this 
.period. It is mentioned before rooo; in 1S89 a conference of missionaries 



in Pehtaiho urged the Boards to consider the demand of the Chinese for 
English. Between 1910 and 1917 there was a radical change in Shantung 
on this problem. Now a large part of the work is done in that language, 
which permits not a few missionaries to work without^ spending time va 
the language, and has helped to swell the number of male unordained 
missionaries. 

There was also little normal school work in 1907; though still 
inadequate, it is a growing feature of school work now. 

Higher Education — Conspicuous advance has been made in higher 
education. Up to 1917, the CIM had only elementary schools. It was sat 
until 1913 that a distinction was made in statistical reports between Middle 
Schools and Colleges so that the latter were treated by themselves. Now 
there are 14 Christian institutiens which rank as Colleges, having plants 
together valued above $6,000 ,000 Mex., and an annual expenditure of 
$1,222,000 Mex. In 1900, students did not seem to want College education, 
but there has been a great change also in their desire. 

Rise in Educational Standards — With this has come an almost 
spectacular rise in the standards of education, particularly of Theological 
education. In 1007, it was said of students in the Wesleyan College at 
Canton that "Theological students must be Christians who show some 
desire to promulgate Christian^ and are recommended." And in 1899 
the Educational Association discussed the question, "Shall we have Eng- 
lish iu Theological Schools?" Now teachers in Theological Schools rank 
with the best from the West, courses are higher sad the inductive met*:: 
better understood and more widely used. There is also a group of College 
students preparing for the Ministry. The entire organization of Theological 
Schools was weak twenty years ago. Now students may get credit towards 
an Arts Degree for Theological studies. This rise of standards has been 
greatly accelerated during the last few years. 

Technical Education — Then there has been a growth in technical 
education. In 1907 it was said that "thus far, aside from Theological 
Schools and Medical Schools, missions have done nothing to develop pro- 
fessional schools or schools of applied science and technology." It is troe 
that in 1907 it was reported that 55 per cent of the girls* schools and 40 per 
cent of the boys' had industrial employment. But practical training for 
its educational value was in trades confined to schools for gir's anl women. 
It was moreover recognized that the industrial development of the Christian 
community constitutes a legitimate element of mission enterprise. Out 
of these small beginnings has come such technical education as 
agricultural work at Nanking and Canton, commercial courses at Shanghai 
College, and leather development at Peking University. It is worti 
noting, also, that the YMCA in its educational work has shifted from the 
ordinary middle school work to commercial education. 

Christian Literature — The development of literature is a chapter in 
itself. Aside from the Peking Gazette the missionaries were the fir-: ;.i 
publish periodicals in the Chinese language. In 1907, the Union Catalogue 
of Christian Literature contained 1,114 books then extant; in 191S a 
volume of 260 pages was required to list Christian literature, including 
hafts, and this list is still growing. Up to 1S90, 76 } ericdicais 
in Chinese had been published • of which 40 were religious, and 
of which one-half were at that time still in existence. In iga 
there were 107 specifically Christian periodicals in China. The 
secular press has made more tapid progress than the Christiau 
press. In 1921, according to the China Year Book, there were 57S seeulir 
publications in Chinese )>eing widely distributed throughout China. Most 
rapid has been the recent gain in the freedom of the press which under 
Yuan Shih-kai was considerably repressed. It is now a real and active 
factor in moulding public opinion. 

As far as general literature is concerned there has been a noticeable 
change k the type demanded of Christian publishers. The production cf 
books on science, history, and geography has gone largely into the hands 
of firms which are in general non-Christian. The outstanding demand >tf 
this pericd has been school books through the production of which the 
great Chinese printing interests have been built up. There has also been 
ten increased desire and demand on the part of Christians for books, which 
shows that the Church is becoming more of a reading Church. 

Bible circulation has also increased. We saw in 1919 the Union Version 
of the Bible completed, which was started by the 1890 Conference. This 
is probably the last effort of foreign translators. Between 1900 and 1021, 
the Bibles and Portions circulated by the British and Foreign Bible Society 
increased over fourfold. 

There has been, however, a retardation in missionary authorship. This 
would seem to be true of books on China in English as well as of Christian 
literature in Chinese. This means that missionary authorship has not 
kept pace with the growth of the Chinese Church or of the missionary 
body. In 1S96, 19.8 per cent of missionaries were engaged in literary 
work ; in 1907, 11.4 per cent, and in 1920 less than 1 per cent. While 
increased native production and greater ease of distribution lessen the 
burden of literary production on the missionaries, yet the percentage now 
engaged in this important task is too small. 

GROWTH IN COOPERATIVE SERVICE 
Has the Church made progress in its corporate life and in cooperative 
service? To this question an affirmative answer is fairly easy. Before 
1900 co-operative efforts were infrequent. Some of the stimulating causes 
for rapid progress in co-operative activities are given below ; the forced 
presence of a large number of missionaries in Shanghai in 1900; later 
summer resorts also promoted a better understanding; freer contacts 
ihrough better communications have also helped; the concentration cf 
workers from a number of societies in large centers has also assisted ra 



38 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OP CHINA 



breaking down barriers and inducing a united facing of common problems. 
Eighty-seven out of 693 missionary residential centers may be classed as 
international through having missionaries of more than one nationality 
stationed there. Union negotiations among the Presbyterians, for instance, 
were started at a conference held in Shanghai in 1901. One form of co- 
operate activity is the city unions of Christian forces in Canton, Nanking, 
and Peking, which are exerting tremendous influence. 

Growth in Comity— There has been a steady growth in comity and 
understanding between denominations. In 1917 the China Continuation 
Committee issued a Statement on Comity which was sent to all missions 
in China. Of 173 "mission bodies" who acknowledged the receipt of this 
document, 108 adopted it. Included in these mission bodies were 4,456 cr 
75 per cent of the missionaries in the mission bodies replying. Here wis 
revealed a vital desire for real comity. There is now somewhat 'ess 
emphasis on creeds and much more on co-operation than in 1007. In 1907 
the common occupation of larger centers was recognized as a profitable use 
of Christian forces, and this principle has been widely applied. The years 
1907-1917 will be known for the union movement in Fukien, and indeed all 
over China. Yet since S3 per cent of mission residential centers still have 
onlv one society working there, it is evident that there remain many 
Christians in China whose task of learning to think and work with others 
is rendered difficult through isolation. 

It is along educational lines that Christian Union has made most signi- 
ficant progress. Union effort was the ideal of the 1907 Conference. Among 
the schemes proposed were a Union University and Union Examinations 
under a Union Board of Examiners for all China. These schemes slipped 
into the limbo of worthy misfit-;. Union effort as accomplished, centers 
mainly in the higher branches of education. Ecclesiastical unity, outside 
of denominational unity movements, has not advanced much since 1907. 
The 1917 China Mission Year Book speaks of 60 union institutions organized 
in the previous 15 years. There are new 7 institutions in which different 
societies have united to teach Theology, five of these are Union Universities. 
The most significant change of this period is the union which has been 
achieved in theological teaching which may be expected to prepare the way 
for more ecclesiastical unity. Eight denominations work together in 
Canton Union Theological Seminary ! Union work is thu> strongest in the 
theological department, next in general education, and third in medical 
work — a situation the reverse of what has been thought possible. 

Denominational cooperation has, however, gone forward in large 
measure. All forms cf union effort were stimulated by the report present- 
ed by Di. J. C. Gibson in the 1907 Conference, but especially that along 
denominational lines, this being looked on as the preliminary step to a 
wider unity. The Anglicans now have one General Synod for China ; the 
Lutherans have a General Assembly in which a large proportion of their 
societies are united ; and the Presbyterians also have a General Assembly 
for China. A plan of provincial federal councils was enthusiastically 
adopted in 1907. Of the seven started, only those in Chekiang, Kiangsu, 
Kwangtung, and Szechwan still function. Two present-day provincial 
federations are the West China Advisory Board (started 1899) and the 
Kwangtung Christian Council, both of which have Chinese members. There 
is also a Federation of Missions and Churches in Kansu. These provincial 
movements are international, as are also the denominational unions of the 
Anglicans. Lutherans, and the proposed closer union of Presbyterians and 
Congregationalists. The Tract Societies also are moving in the direction 
of one society for all China. 

There has also been steady growth in plans to meet the need of the 
Christian forces for centralized service. This period has seen the growth of 
organizations working nationally, which organizations have taken the place 
of somewhat loosely organized national committees. The W.C.T.U., an 
organization of recent growth, is under a Chinese president and is work- 
ing on its particular problem. The Sunday School Union is the outgrowth 
of a Committee appointed by the 1907 Conference. The anti-opium forces 
have also united in an International Anti-Opium Association with various 
branches in different parts of China. But the national Christian organiza- 
tions that stand out are the China Continuation Committee, the China 
Christian Educational Association, and the China Medical Missionary 
Association. All of these organizations have had, during this period, ex- 
perienced workers put into their staff. In consequence of this more 
efficient organization their service on nation-wide lines has grown tremen- 
dously. There is now therefore a national Christian staff, Chinese and 
missionary, and denominational and general, which signifies that Christian 
work in China has passed into an entirely new phase. The Conference of 
1913 did much to promote the setting apart of a general staff for nation il 
service. This national service staff means that the Christian Movement 
in China is measuring its task more and more in national terms. This 
was the note that characterized the China-for-Christ Conference and -he 
special Women's Conference. This national service staff, comprised in 
1920 28 persons and was then supplied about equally by British and Ameri- 
can Boards, so far as personnel was concerned; of the Boards then parti- 
cipating in this naticnal Christian service, six were British and eight 
American. According to the Survey, between the years 1915-1921 there 
were 36 full-time and 6 part-time national workers. Here is an excellent 
example of the working of the corporate Christian spirit. It also demon- 
strates the signiacant advance that has been made in unity of Christian 
effort in China and indicates that the desire for comity is a vital factor and 
not simply a theory. 

While therefore some union schemes as proposed in 1907 have not 
worked out, yet this fourteen years has seen a steady deepening of emphasis 
on the unitv of the Christian Movement as over against its internal varia- 
tions. It also means that the Christian Church in China has entered upon 
the period of its corporate life. This effort in united Christian service to 
China is the oatstanding note of the last two decades. 



CHANGES IN EMPHASIS BY THE CHURCH 
Some other general movements and changes of emphasis must also be- 
pointed out. 

Numerical Gtov-th-- While the growth of the Church numerically has- 
been somewhat irregular, nevertheless it has been continuous. Since 1900* 
communicants have increased above 330 per cent. The following figures are- 
well worth careful study : — 

„ Total Set Ratio of 

ar Communicants Increase Growth 

1889 37,287 

1900 85,000 47,713 127% (11 yra.) 
1906 178,251 93,251 109% (6 yrs.) 
1910 172.942 

1913 207.747 29,496 16%(3jrs.) 

1914 235,303 27,556 13ftf 

1915 268,652 15,652 6% 

1916 293,139 24,487 9% 

1917 312.970 19,831 6% 

1919 345.853 32,883 10% (2 yrs.) 

1920 366,524 21,671 6% 

Dr. Gibson said in "Mission Problems," that the rate of numerical in*- 
crease was rapid from 1S53 to 1900. But it would appear that during the last 
twenty years there has been a decrease in the ratio of growth. In the eleven* 
years between 18S9 and 1900 the number of communicants considerably- 
more than doubled. In the six years between 1900 and 1906 they doubled" 
again ; but it took fourteen years (1906-1920) for the communicant member- 
ship to double 3gain. This is affected partly by the fact that from the 
statistics of 1910 baptized children and infants were omitted. It is possible- 
that the figures from 1913 to 1920 are a truer index of the normal growth- 
of the Chinese Church. This decrease in the ratio of growth is, however,, 
seen elsewhere. Comparing three year periods we find that between 19*3. 
and 1915 communicants increased 29 per cent; between 1915 and 1917 ml 
per cent ; between 1917 and 1919 10 per cent. As the Church increases in 
numbers some decrease in the ratio of growth is to be expected ; we are not 
able to tell whether this decrease has appeared sooner than it should or 
uot. It is interesting to note that there was according to the 1916 census- 
also a decrease in the ratio of growth of Christianity in the United States- 
about this time ; from 1890 to 1906 the increase was 61.6 per cent ; 1906- 
:qi6, 19.6 per cent. In 1920 the ratio of growth among Protestants in the- 
United States was about 1 per cent. This was in spite of the fact that 
according to the Federal Council Bulletin 1920 saw more people received" 
into the Christian Church than in «he same length of time in all its history. 
In China, however, from 1914 to 1920 the average ratio of growth was about: 
6 per cent. It was also 6 per cent in 1920. 

The explanation for the decrease in the ratio of growth in the United"* 
States was given as consolidation. During the last twenty years in Chin* 
we have had expansion and consolidation going on together, but with tbe- 
old centers and institutional work getting the principal benefit of the 
consolidation. Within this period contacts with the Chinese people through 
mission stations have nearly doubled. Furthermore, vast political chang-es, 
internal and international, have competed with the Church for the interesfc- 
of the people. It is possible that the anti-dynastic changes explain in part 
the check in growth which appears to have occurred between J906 and" 
1913. Rationalism has increased in influence also. There is reason to- 
think that this decrease in the ratio of growth is due in part to a deepen- 
ing of the Christian life that makes acceptance of Christianity a less simple 
matter and more meaningful. The rise in standards of church membership*- 
would also affect the growth in numbers; in several cases drastic action- 
was taken whereby large numbers of communicants were eliminated. 
While these were not sufficiently large to affect materially the statistics- 
over a series of years, yet they do indicate a rise in the requirements of* 
church membership. 

From 1S81 to tooo mission stations increased fourfold ; from 1000 to 1912 
thej- increased about twofold : and during the last ten years there has been 
a falling off in the number of mission stations opened, though a decrease 
here in rapidity of growth in numbers is inevitable. There has also been a 
slowing up in the rate of increase of missionaries. 1890-1905 the increase was 
195 per cent, 1905-1920, 49 per cent ; that is, in the latter fifteen years the- 
increase was much Jess rapid than in the previous fifteen years. 

Another noticeable change is that from the necessaiy primacy '-f 
missionary leadership to the self-conscicusness of the Chinese Church and" 
the emergence of Chinese Christian leadership. The relation of mission- 
aries and Chinese workers is that of colleagues much more than formerly 
and of leader and 'helper" much less. The ecclesiastics 1 and administra- 
tive equality of Chinese leaders is now fully recognized. The Chinese 
Church has since 1900 entered into its own experience; it is no longer 
dependent only on the experience of the missionaries. In 1907 no Chinese 
leader was known nationally ; now there are not a few such. The success 
01 the China Continuation Committee and the China-for-Christ Move- 
ment is due in large measure to Chinese leadership. The focus of Christian 
interest has definitely passed from the missionary to the Chinese Church 
and Chinese leaders. 

There is also a change in the attitude of the missionary to indigenous 
religions and ideals. Both Chinese leaders and missionaries are now in- 
terested in preserving the worth-while elements in Ch'nese civilization. In 
1507 it was said that China was a pupil to Christendom, the Christian 
Church a teacher to China ; but the two are now learners and servants 
together. Tiiis means that the Christian Movement in China is laying 
less emphasis on Western forms of Christianity and making a more earnest 
attempt to live first the spirit of Christ. 

The period up to v/jo has been described as the period of planting the 
Church. This twenty years is characterized by a growing attempt to pre- 
pare the Chinese Ch'irch for its task. The missionaries think much less- 
of themselves as doing the work and more of themselves as training the 



GROWTH SINCE 1900 



39 



Church to do it. In the 1907 Conference the problem of a proper attitude 
towards the Chinese Church was prominent in the minds of the mission- 
aries! Then the Chinese Church was just looming np as a potentiality. 
The Christian Movement has passed from the period of pioneer seed plant- 
ing by the missionaries to that of training Chinese sowers; it has moved 
from the problem cf missionaries winning China to that of training the 
Chinese Church to win it. This has been the keynote of Cliristian effort 
in China during these twenty years. Hence the equipment and culture of 
the Chinese Church have absorbed au increasing amount of the energy c.f 
the missionary and his funds. There has also been a tremendons advance 
in the material equipment of the Church. And as a corollary to the task 
of preparing the Church, education has come to be recognized as a legiti- 
mate part of Christian work. In the 1007 Conference there was practi- 
cally no report on educational work. Now a special Educational Com- 
mission has completed the study of Christian education and indicated i*s 
future possibilities. And now there are almost as many educational 
workers as evangelistic. All this training should be followed by a period 
•of indigenous Christian expansion unequalled by any yet seen and which 
will more than overcome the decrease in the ratio of growth. 

The Conference movement has also grown. All kinds of conferences 
are now being held for students and other groups. Here is being formed 
••contacts with future Chinese Christian leadership that will result in 
•further deepening of the spiritual life. And here is a point of contact 
between Chinese and Western Christian leadership of vital importance t» 
the future service of Western Christians to China. 

In 1907 the missionaries turned their minds to the training of the 
Christian Church. It was then recognized that the main work of the 
foreign missionary should tend to the training and teaching of leaders. 
That ideal has been lived up to very largely. Up to 1007 most literature 
had been prepared for non-Christians : since then nurture literature — a tre- 
vaendoos factor in training — lias also come into prominence. 

All this has meant increased emphasis on the winning and training of 
youth. The decrease in the ratio of growth may be in part due also to the 
fact that the results of this training take a little longer to show on roll 
books than former methods. In 1907, of 1779 congregations 12 per tent 
had Sunday Schools with primary departments! 61 per cent had no 
Sunday School work at all. In 1920 the number in "organized Sunday 
Schools" is about 74 per cent as large as the number of communicants, 
in addition there are a large number in expository Bible classes. Litera- 
ture for children lias also appeared. During the years 1914-1920 while the 
number of communicants increased annually about 6 per cent the number 
of Sunday School students grew at the rate of 12 per cent a year. There 
"has been undoubtel growth in Sunday School work, though statistics do not 
permit the figure just quoted being actually compared with similar 
today. This development in religious training shows that not all the 
-Christian energy which has gone into education has gone into institutions ! 
The Church has gre\tiy benefited at first hand. This increased emphasis 
on the training of youth is however seen in the rapid growth of general 
education also. While between 1907 and 1920 communicants increased about 
105 per cent, students in Christian schools increased about 332 per cent, or 
about three times as fast. During the same time teachers in these schools 
increased 374 per cent as over against 200 per cent increase in ordained 
pastors and 37 per cent increase in unordained workers. That the school 
is at least equally successful with the church as an evangelistic agency was 
seen in a study of a well distributed group of 133 schools all reported rc 
the YMCA student statistics for 1920 doing work up to the middle grade 
-and some beyond. There was a gross increase in student church members 
•of about 14 per cent. Between the years 1914-20 the net increase in com- 
municants for the whole church was on the average 6 per cent; the net 
increase for 1920 was also about that. Since there could hardly be half as 
man j- people leave the church by death and other causes as were taken 
into it, the schools seem to have some advantage over the ordinary and 
older methods in promoting church growth. The leaders now moving 
things have come mainly from the generation that has had the benefit cf 
this emphasis on training. Here another observation must be made. As 
a result of the study of above schools it would appear that schools doing 
work up to and through the middle grade probably have about 35 per cent 
of the students in the church. In fourteen institutions, members of the 
Association of Colleges in China, among the students in the grades above 
the middle school about 67 per cent were in the church. We can safely 
estimate that 49 per cent of the students in these mission schools are in the 
church. Add to these a considerable group who have made a profession of 
faith ia Christ but not joined the church and we can estimate a little over 
50 per cent of the students in these schools as progressive Christians. To 
those church members still in school must be added a large number of 
graduates now in the church- It is evident that a large proportion, 
therefore, of the present church membership has come from or is at pre- 
sent in the Christian school. This increased emphasis on winning and 
training youth is bringing about a profound change in the character of 
church membership. The presence of this large student group is most 
felt where middle schools and colleges are situated and in the older centers. 
A new and distinct problem in Christian strategy is appearing in the task 
of holding these educated young church members for Christian service. In 
certain centers this group of educated young people is beginning to 
dominate the policies of the Church. The emphasis on training while it 
has used up much Christian energy has also added to the church member- 
ship a most important clement and proportion. A large proportion of the 
additions to the church since 1000 have come from Christian schools. 
These facts raise the question as to what would have been the progress of 
the Chinese Church if it had ignored education? Another significant 
Tesult of this emphasis on the training of youth is that the Christian 
Church is becoming educated much more rapidly than the country at large. 



While China has about one out of 75 in school, the Christian constituency 
has about 1 in 3 now in school, apart from a large number of graduates 
either in the church or the constituency. Neither does this estimate take 
account of those who are "literate" in the sense of being able to tea 
Bible. This indicates a rapid rise in the potential leadership of the 
Chinese Church. Already these educated church members are a leavening 
factor in Chinese society. The facts, too, that the largest numbers et 
students are found in Kiangsu, Kwangtung, Fukien and Chihli, and that 77 
per cent of students in mission middle schools are found in the seven coast 
provinces has a direct bearing on this phase of the growth of the Church. 
It is suggestive to note also that it is in Fukien, Kwangtuv g and Shantung 
where the Christianization of the people has farthest 1 h tncs ! ; s t ' 
in these same three provinces, in. addition to Chihli, where we find the 
largest nun': "cuts. 

There is a clearer realization that China cannot be Christianized except 
through the Chinese and that to achieve this they must be trained, 
increased self-determination and so guide more and more the pohd 
the Christian Church. The desire to hasten this process also helps la 
explain the increased emphasis on the winning and training of vouth. 

There has also been a change from the placing of emphasis almost 
solely on the direct evangelistic presentation of the Gospel r eater 

inclusion of its social implications and greater effort to applv them. The 
problem of the application of Christianity to the life of China will V 
prominent in the decade after : :;. Twenty years ago saw the a 
the first stage of missionary intensive evaag li tic preachi: 

centers the work is now much more v iition 

to promoting the salvation cf the individual the Chi 
trying to put him to work. There is developing a much more sociological 

- tion of the minister's work as is seen for instance in the subiee'. 
included in the theological curriculum. All this means a widening 
f'uence on the conununitv and the Nitional problems are in the 

focus of the Christian attention. Tlie last do; 

mi the institutional church which is the church at work r.ttemptinir to applv 
Christianity to its commnnity. Tt is a move to make Chr: - :r 

in the life of society as well as in th : :' the inch 

The Chinese Church fa red in the growth of the t 

Christian consciousness which is at the back of all co-operative efforts. 
This corporate consciousness has helped clarity the attitude of the C 

Christian attitude towards marriage and the home, than formerly, 
ouestion of what to do with pxdygamists is not heard so often; it so- 
many sections to hare «e: I. Participation by the Church i:i 
tits has also noticeably decreased. While the Church is still too 
foreign jet its increased indigenous standing is not overlooked. The 
Christians have a deeper appreciation of their responsibility. Q 
standards are also rising which again may help to explain the dear* = .- '■: 
the ratio cf growth and also indicates a desirable deepening of church life. 
Scrutiny of the moral character of aspirants for church membership is more 
prominent than the requirement of intellectual assent to the creedal con- 
tents of Christianity. 

There lias been real advance in- capturing the intelligence of China. 
This is shown by the fact that during this period the highest in the land 
have listened to the Christian message. T'-.e quality rf 

thinkers has been enlisted in the study of Christianity. Xot only do we 
have Chinese thinkers aggressively oppjosing Christianity but sorae of the 
best thinkers have studied it and accord credit to it for the greatness of its 
teachings. In other words the Christian Church is a factor to reckon with 
in public thought. It has not yet won China but during this period it has 
won, in a significant way the attention of China ! 

The main result of this twenty years is the opening of the door of a 
new era of nation-wide opportunity. The Cliristian Movement is not now 
excluded from any province or city though it has far from entered them 
all. The whole country is really- open. The Chinese Church is much better 
understood and has a deeper understand; ng of itself. From the ijs of the 
Boxer movement the Church has been gaining in influence through steady — 
if still incomplete — progress in becoming indigenous. We hope that 1922 
will stamp it for all time as a Chinese Church ! There is also a growing 
consciousness of the supremacy of Christianity. Daring these twenty 
years we hav". been forging public opinions regarding the value and place 
of Christianity. Our contributions in education, medicine and religion 
are wanted more and more. It is true that government recognition of 
Christian schools comes slowly. It was sought by the aid of the United 
States and the British Minister in 1907, but the then Board of Ed.. 
said that schools under foreign management were not to be recognized . yet 
in that same year the Chinese Government recognized the Peking Union 
Medical College and voted it a gift of £10,000. Slowly virion 

is coming though perhaps not as originally wanted. One especially 
encouraging feature of this time is the co-operation with national 
Chinese leaders in education, medicine and in the promotion of the 
phonetic system. This is true even of the National University at Peking; 
it is due in large part to the growing influence of Western trained 
leaders in the Chuich and the nation. Slowly but surely the fear of Western 
expansion, which was at the bottom of the Boxer movement, is changing 
to a desire to share the best that the West has, and to share with the 
world China's own best. There is a growing sense of the necessity «=f 
establishing working relationships with the stranger within and without 
the gates; the old idea of aloofness has been given up. The appreciation 
of the message of Christianity is deepening. The Christian Movement m 
China is entering the day of the "open door" of friendly co-operation 
which door Christ, through His servants, slowly but irresistibly has been 
opening. 



40 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OP CHINA 



PART III 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF THE PROVINCES 



ANHWEI 



In the provincial studies which follow the reader will find the main and basic facts of the 
Surrey. Whatever eise appears in other parts of this volume is supplementary rather than 
essentia! in its character; the material here presented famishes the foundation and the 
framework, go to speak, of all eise. 



In prepariK 
in the p 

: ;;- ■ 

done without ii 
indicates no de 

marks as well 
intentioaalSv in 



PREPARATION OF MAPS AND LETTERPRESS 

which accompanies Map I for each province, so 
d many others have been frequently consulted and freely drawn 
ditor has not hesitated to use the same pb-r 
terfering with the progress of thought. The »• 
ire on his part to lay claim to anything not ins own. The dis 
s all specific references to sources have been omitted from the 
>rder not to encumber the lines or add tmnecessarv words. 



listed 
. In 



The hsien boundaries as these appear in Hap I are taken, with the exception of a few 
corrections supplied by local miss. 
fourth edition, 191", "published b; 

;.■;-■ ;•■.■_•:.; 

■:" the provinces 
potation of hsiens gat] 
Published in 

: v availabl 



aauinou special questionnaire p 
missio:, ial center in 

.. " of their city. Naturally the « 

siioste of one authorit 

case the estimates most commonly quoted 

given in Appendix G represents the late 

In Map II the location of even? hsi 

10,000 inhabitants, even though in "a fe 



maries, from the Hew Atlas of China 
the Commercial Press, Shanghai. 

»p II on the Density of Population deals with the popula- 
>reviously published as well as on more recent estimates 
ered from official sources by the CCC in 1919, and those 
tide tor 1920. Estimates of city populations were 
Bource, iucluding Customs' reports, guide books, 
^.'e business houses, mission publications, 
istcards were sent out to selected 
China, asking them for the "generally . eepted pc 
mates thus brought together varied cons 
jeing more than double that of others. 
r creditable authorities were accepted. 
revised work of the Committee, 
city has been indicated by a dot representing 
cases these cities are not so large. Cities with 



In 



In every 
The list 



mori 
Mai: 



10,000 inhabitants are represented by larger dots proportioned to their size. The 
red on the basis of hsien population estimates as printed in Appendix A. 
Information given on Maps III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX and XI was originally 
supplied to the Committee by mission correspondents or «rai collected later by special corres- 
pondence and research on the part of the office staff. The original provincial base maps 
sent out to the correspondents were taken from the New Atlas of China, third edition, 
1917, published by the Commercial Press, Shanghai. While inaccurate in many respects 
these maps were as good as any procurable by and adaptable to the uses of the Committee. 
Wherever inaccuracies were discovered, the mission correspondents very kindly made the 
necessary corrections before fixing any locations or supplying other information of a 
ical nature on the tracing sheets. 

The place-names of all evangelistic centers located on Map V for each province are kept 
in the Committee files and should be of value to those who desire to know the location of 
places as yet familiar to few outside of the local missionary body. The letterpress in 
connection with these maps (III-IX and XI) is largely based on the information appearing 
on the maps, or in the accompanying statistical Tables I-VI. 

Map X on Government Schools and the accompanying letterpress hare been prepared 
from information furnished by the Ministry of the Interior, on Primary Education for the year 
ending July 1916, and on Secondary Education for the year ending July 1918. 

STATISTICAL, TABLES 

Statistics for Table I are based on the Directory of Protestant Missions in China for 
1919. If the figures for Total Foreign Force are somewhat larger than the annual returns on 
mission statistical sheets sent in to the CCC, it is due to the retention in the Directory of the 
names of those persons who are not regarded as regular members of the mission or who are at 
home on extended furlough, or in a few case* it may be due to duplications, although special 
care has been taken against this. Missionaries allocated to national work or to teaching in 
union institutions have been grouped under the societies with which they are officially 
connected, whenever possible. Statistics given in Tables II, III, IV, VI, (except for columns 
8 to 12, Tables II) are based on figure* sent in to the Committee on special Survey statistical 
sheets. Wherever gaps were manifest in the information supplied, a conscientious attempt was 
made to follow up these omissions or incomplete returns either by correspondence with the 
missions concerned or by reference in the office to previous statistical data, home board and 
field reports, etc., and thus to fill in the missing figures in order that this Survey might, when 
finished, be complete and comprehensive. In Table VI figures for area of mission fields 
in square miles as well as figures on estimated populations must be regarded as approximate, 
even though the utmost care has been taken by the office staff in ,eompoting these. The 
information for columns $ to 12, Table II, and for all the columns of Table V lias been 
gathered from a variety of sources such as (1) CCC statistical blanks for 1919/20; (5$) 
questionnaire returns (1919) on the Scientific Efficiency of Mission Hospitals; (3) home and 
field publications ; and {i ) direct correspondence. 

Following the expressed desire and precedent of the CMMA, all reference to medical 
assistants has been omitted from medical statistics, and only fatly accredited physicians, 
male and female, together with nuraes (graduates as well as those in training), hav# been 
included by the Survey Committee in the total medical force and consequently in the total 
number of salaried Chinese workers. 

Where separate departments for men and women are maintained on the same hospital 
premises, some missions report two hospitals, while others only one. This inconsistency has 
resulted from the old custom of reporting hospital buildings rather than hospital institutions. 

DEFINITIONS 

By field claimed is meant merely the area or areas in which a mission is working 
and/or for the evangelization of which it accepts responsibility. 

An evangelistic center is any place where, either (1) there exists a Christian 
community of not less than ten Christian communicants and/or baptized adults < wli. 
the form of a permanent church organization or not), and a weekly religious service is held ; 
or (2) there permanently resides a Christian Chinese worker recognized by both church and 
mission (whether in the employ of the mission or church or not is immaterial), and a weekly 
religions service is held. 

In addition to evangelistic centers a number of occasional preaching places, 
which may or may not have been previously reported as out-stations, exist in almost every field. 
Since it was necessary for the Survey Committee to draw some limit to the number of 
these ooi-stetions, the stricter definition of evangelistic center was adopted. However, 
when thinking of the extent of evangelistic work in any field, these occasional preaching 
places, frequently far removed from evangelistic centers, need constantly to be borne in mind. 



A missionary residential center 

A mission station w any place where 

U; and where work urn 

ry residential center mi 

that a certain province mav have 20 mission*] 



A hospital 



y place where 
In locating non-mission hospitals tin. 
, ■«! hospitals, omitting 
institutional hospital is meant ai 

A dispensary is a plae - 

The term pastor is not restricted in its w 

Church organizations which are n 
form, whatever the form of administration ma; 
gregations. 

Voluntary workers— It is assumed i 
(e.g. occasional preaching, Sunday School tea- 
visitation, etc), therefore only those who give o 
each week to definite Christian" work are >. . 

Literacy — Any communicant si 
and understanding h 

The term Christian constituency 
church members). (2) ba namuni 

candidates preparing for bap 
in mission or church schools, or irregular 



organized con- 



.,,-'.;;; 



includes (1) baptized communicants (full,; 
ants, both infants and adults ; a- 

It does not include non-Christian student* 
istian church attendants. 



sple, adults 



children, definite 
ud following reg 



organized te 



A Sunday School is any groui 

meet once a week for Bible stud) , 

study*. The definition adopted for the Survey has excluded a good deal of religious education^ 

similar to regular Sunday School work but lacking one or ether of the three requrie43- 

characteristics. For this reason references to Sunday Se! :!,roughout tie 

have been few and guarded. 

Any school pre-supposing four years of Lower I il work (apart from Kinder- 

garten work) for admission into its classes, and offering three -years of work prepare n to- 
Middle School matriculation has been regarded as a Higher Primary School, 

A Middle School is one which presupposes for admission at least seven school 
years of work or its equivalent and requires four year its equivalent for 

graduation. The symbol for Middle Schools in Map IX indicates how many years of work 
are offered, e.g. if only 3 years, one-fourth of the ided. 

. Wherever one school does the work of two Schools, as tar example, Lower and Higher' 
Primary, or Higher Primary and Middle, it has been regarded as two schools and the student*. 
have been divided according to their grade of work. 

GENERAL EXPLANATORY NOTES 

The outline maps are not intended to show rivers, lakes, mountains, the distribution op 
population, or other important geographical features affecting mission work, etc. The simplest! 
outlines consistent with accuracy and the purposesof 'his Survey have sufficed. The ma ; 
been reduced carefully to a nniform scale so that were one to cut them out of these pages, and | 
endeavour to bring them together in a single map of all China, he would find that, except fur 1: 
two or three of the larger provinces, where the reduction has been one-eighteenth of an inch. | 
too much, due to the requirements of the width of these pages, the provinces fit together J 
without difficulty. 

In relatively unoccupied provinces where a mission could give no definite li 
field for which, until other missions enter in, it recognizes itself as responsible 
delimitations shown in Map III have been arbitrarily fixed by a considerati* 
the miteion at present is able to work. In other words, the area e 
30 ii outside of the most distant evangelistic centers hag been mad 
field of such a mission. 

In grouping societies denominationally the Coron 
tion given in the Directory of Protestant Missions i 
that the Basel Mission, for example, which it has clai 
classified as Presbyterian. Moreover, there is diffei 
of the SEMC and 8MF as Lutheran. 

The Bomanization of place-names ( provinces, hsiens, and cit 
the 1919 Postal Guide. 

Although mission correspondents were specially requested to report i 
evangelistic centers in each statios (generally located in the larger cities) 
number of ©barehes or centers of worship, a few failed t* 
or station concerned is credited in the stal 
vitiating comparisons to this extent. On Map III wherevt 
may safely conclude that at least two and perhaps as m 
centers exist. 

Occasionally a mission correspondent reported the number of evangelistic centers in each 
hsien but was unable to fix their exact location, thus compelling the Committee to ioeat* 
them at random in their respective hsiens rather than omit them from Map III altogether. 

In a few cases mission correspondents were unable to divide -communicant 
Christians into male and female. Wherever this was the ease an arbitrary ratio, which 
seems to be the prevailing ratio throughout China, of 5 males to 3 females, was accepted. 

In many cases it was manifestly impossible for correspondents to give accurate figures 
covering literacy among church members, men or women, except for a very limited number. 
For this reason the percentages which appear in Table III for each province, columns 10 and 
11, must not be regarded as applying to the entire church membership, since in almost every 
case they hold only for a varying proportion of the total membership. It may, and 
may not be safe to assume that the percentages of literacy which apply to a limited number 
of church communicants in any mission or province apply equally to the total number. 

Obviously it has been impossible to include all of the societies in many statistical com- 
parisons which have been made in the letterpress, as well as in a number of the graphs. Por 
this reason only the larger am ve been dealt with. 

Figures appearing in columns 9, 10, 12 and 13, Table VI, unless clearly understood 
may prove somewhat misleading. Obviously small or young societies with few communicants 



tat on the number of 
needs of a large are 

ess work but in a vet 



its to the*,- 
the field 
of what 
id by a line drawn 

epresent the Breseoafcfe 

as followed the classifies--, 
i, although it is aware 
i Lutheran might also be 
a regarding the d' 

s) follows that given isj 

number of 
qual to tin* 
and in consequence the city 

angeiistic center only, thus* 
ssion station is located, one 
a score or more evangelistic 



THE PROVINCE OF AXHWE1 



41 



I.— HSIEX Boi'ND.lRlJiS 



KIANGSU 




DENSITY OF POPiT.ATKvy 

Papulati&n Estimates fffr tit Prorituv— The total popula- 
tion of Anhwei has been variously estimated from 14.ooo.oco 
"P f ' The Slinehengpu Estimate, 1910, which is 

generally regarded as conservative, gives 17,300,000. The 
Post Office Census records a total of iq.S^ 1,665. C. C. C. 
Survey returns .sire 20,002,166. The area of the province is 
sq. mi. This makes the average density for Anhwei 
mi., slightly above the density of the State of 
New Jersey. The densest areas are in the center of the pro- 
vince, and along the two main river courses, the Yangtze 
■md the Hwai. 

C. C. C. Survey returns greatly exceed the Post 
Census returns tot the following listens — Snsung, Taihu, Feng- 
tai, Snhsien, Chuyi, and Showbsien. 

Cities — There are two cities with 100,000 inhabitants and 
above; Wnhn, 175,000 and Anking, 100,000 Wuh« is 
only treaty pert, Anking and Tatung being ports of call. 
There are 5 cities each with a population estimated somewhere 
between 50,000 and 100,000 : Pechow, Luchcwfu, Yingchow- 
fn, Ningkwofu and IJttanehow — all mission st-itions. There 
are 12 cities each with a population estimated somewhere 
between 20,000 and $o/xso. Ninety -three per cent of the people 
in Anhwei live in itiral districts or in cities of ro.ooo or under. 

Befcax- the Taiping Rebellion Anhwei *s population was 
reckoned as high as ;- Since then large sections dt 

the province liave been periodical h- decimatetl by severe floods 
and famine. There are innumerable villages of agricultural 
people scattered all over the province. The development of 
Pcngpu as an important railway center is worth}- of recogni- 
tion by mission societies. The low economic status of the 
people, especially in the north, is a constant hindrance to 
development along lines of higher education and self-support. 

Pfipulatten — Of the 20,000 dots on this map five 
dots of the smallest size each representing 1,000 inhabitants, 
indicate the numerical strength of the Christian communicant 
body. 



II. — Density ok Population 



HSIEX BOUNDARIES 

us — Anhwei is slightly greater in area 

n New York State and considerably denser in population. 

it is divided into 3 tao, which are again subdivided 

1 ns, or counties. The capital city is Anking. 

-.1 Characteristics — South of the Yangtze the coun- 

trntainous; north of the Hwai river and scnitb, just 

ore it enters Huogtseh I-ake, the country is a dry plain, 

>jcct to frequent floods and famines. Between the Yangtze 

1 the Hwai the country is mountainous tenvard the west, 

i fiat and marshy, with numerous lakes, toward the center 

the province. Characteristic northern crops are raised 

th of the Yangtze, and the characteristic wet crops south 

Ehe Yangtze. The large majority of people are agriculturists, 

iple, re^ust, ami hard-working. 

th OccupatiCn by fJsiemS—A "lance at the tabte 

in .Occupation by Hsiens (Appends*; A) will reveal 

< ported as totally without any organized Christian 

hsiens report no mission lower primary schools; 

no mission higher primary schools. Government 

srer primary tducattcu is reported fee all the hsiens, and 

vernment higher primary education exists in all hsiens but 

0. Over half the total number of hsiens claimed by Pro- 

tant missionarv societies report two or more missions at 

:k. 

Language— Mandarin, with slight variation, is heard 

rcugbout the province, except in the extreme south, in and 

Hwcichow, where a local dialect is spoken. 

Railroads— The Tientsra-Pukow Railroad enters Anhwei 

Wuyi, south of Chuchow (FCMS), crosses the Hwai River 

;t of Hwaiyuan and again enters Kiangsu north of Nansu- 

. Of the 22 railroad stations along this line only 

missionary resiilential centers. Pengpu, situated 

etween Nansuchow at the northern and Chuchow at 

e fouthen* extremity of the railroad, is an important and 

piclly developing center. Interest in the projected line 

tentliug front Wuyi just north of Pukow, due westward to 

how in Ht«an bids fair to be renewed within the 

years, in which event central Anhwei, ncrth of 

lao I.iike may come in few considerable development. 




42 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



111. — Protestant Mission Fields 




PROTESTANT MISSION FIELDS 

Mission Fields Compared — There are 10 Protestrsnt mis- 
sion Societies at work in Anhwei, working approximately six- 
seventfas of the total area of the province. The two working 
the largest areas are the China Inlaw! Mission, with a field 
equal to 1/4 the area of the province, and the American 
Presbyterian Mission North, with a total area of 1/5 the area 
of the province. The Faith Mission in Wuhn, the Seventh 
Bay Adventist Mission in the same city, and the Christian 
Wbmen's Board of Missions, new affiliated with the Foreign 
Christian Missionary Society in Lnchowfn, are without field 
delimitations. With the exception of the China Inland Mission 
all societies are American. Wuhn being a city of 175,000 is 
shown as common area. Recently missionaries of both the 
Friends* Mission and the China Inland Mission in Kiangsu 
have carried on itinerary work in northeast Anhwei, south 
of the Hwai River. The fields of 6 missions overlap around 
Wuhu. 

Er.ch mission at work in Anhwei, represents a different 
denominational group, or remains unclassified denominational- 
ly- This fact may account for the absence of federation be- 
tween various missions and churches throughout the province. 

Comity Agreements — The American Presbyterian Mission 
reports very definite comity agreements with surrounding 
missions. M^ost other missions have no definite agreements, 
merely tacit understandings. The American Church Mission 
reports an agreement with the China Inland Mission by 
which each agrees not to enter a center already occupied by 
the ether. An agreement atfo exists between the Methodist 
Mission and the China Inland Mission, whereby the latter 
assumes evangelistic responsibilty for the area south of a 
line running due east and west through Ningkwofu, and the 
Methc lists assume responsibility' for the area north of this 
line. Most societies, before entering areas already claimed, 
agree to consult with the missions concerned. 

Certain evangelistic centers of the Presbyterians are shown 
to have betn opened in the fourth period, i.e., 1901-1910, which, 
according to more recent information, were opened in the third 
period. This type of error is due largely to uncertainty in 
the minds of our correspondents as to just when an evangelistic 
center may to regarded as having been opened. 



ACE OF WORK 

Pioneer Period— The China Inland Mission was the first 
Protectant society to begin organized missionary work in 
Anhwei, Mr. Meadows and Mr. Williamson were the pioneer 
missionaries, who after hardship and difficult}' caknin 11:114 
in a riot, finally effected a settlement in Anking, 1869 
sixteen years the China Inland Mission was the only mi 
at work in the province During this time, 1809-1885, four 
stations were opened, Anking, 1869; Ningkwofu, 1874; Chih- 
chowfUj 1S74; and Hweichow, 1S75. Frequent and inevitable 
changes in personnel, together with hardships and opposition, 
made work during this first score of years very difficult and 
progress was slow. 

Later De<velop>ments— The American Church Mission 
the second to enter the province, opaaing a station in Wuha 
in 1S85, and 9 years later in Anking. All missions now at 
work in Anhwei, except the AAM, SBC, FN, FaM, and SUA, 
entered Anhwei during the years 1881-1900. Such mission* 
as American Methodist, Presbyterian, Foreign Christian <md 
Southern Baptist Missions carried forward their pioneer work 
from residential centers in adjoining provinces. 

O dest Field* Compared—In comparing this map with 
maps III and VII one fails to see evidences of proportionate 
increase in areas where the work is oMest. Such increase a*? 
has taken pfoce around Wuhu and Anking is due more to 
the advent of new missions than to any pronounced progress 
within the older churches. 





Missi< 


>n Stations A p 


RANGED 


Chroxoi. 


3-CICAIXY 








j 1807- imi- 


1*U- 


1891- 


1901- j 


!s»U- j 






', 1860 L880 


1890 


: 1900 


1910 


1920 


PE 








1 


1 






AAM 












a 




SBC 












1 




MEFB 










1 




• 


PN 












1 




CIM 




1 




3 


5 


1 




(DMA 










r 






FaM 












1 




FCMS 








2 


I 







Agk Of Work 




Area* beyos'i 30 Is (10 ffiilea) from »»>' known evange 



centre are shown here in black. 



THE PROVINCE OF AKHWEI 
intj Evangelistic Centers 



43 




* mmmtsm aaa 

■ mmum mam mam 



***.«« <%*&*•*: 



FULL-TIME CHRISTIAN WORKERS 
The Fcrctgn Foire — The foreign force r 
Over 40 per cent of this farce resides in Anking 
In terms cf foreign missionaries the PX field aj 
poorly occupied (5 nusstcnaries per i.ooo.oco popul 
C1M and the SBC fields come next Table \ I . I 
cent of the foreign force is ordained and 3a per e 
of single women. The ratio between men and w< 

The employed CM 
four tin the foreign I 1 

this Chinese force resides in centers 
One-fourth of the force is in Asking and Wuhu, 

cent is in the 7 cities of 50,000 inl 
fcrence to Map V shows that the southern scctics 
vince contains the largest number of evangel! 
without resident worker^. 

Workers Classified — Among the employed Chi 
the nnmber of teachers slightly exceeds the 
In the PN and PE missions the nam 
workers is more than doable that of the 

rs. In the China Inland Mission t 
Of the total Chinese force 77 par cent consists of 
is one ordained Chinese worker to ever 
The total employed Chinese force repn 
the communicant membership. Tl 

-is, in percentage cf communicant memb 
among the employed wen from approxii 

■ the IE and !N 



NlXjRER OF Ev. 



w 


xhn. 


s • 


nost 




The 




' , : 




sists 


IS 


two 



iese workers 
nnmber of 




VI. — DlSTRTBrTlOX OF WORKERS 



EXTENT OF EVANGELISM 

Ml — Twentj--six mission residential 
id 189 evangelistic centers (ootstations with at least 10 

jomnranicants) are reported for the province. Two 
ission centers are international in their missionary 
: Wuim and Anking- n are British, 12 American 
sitinentaL Five mission stations have women mis- 
only. There is an average of 6 evangelistic centers 
'ion, each averaging' a Christian community 

Mission Stations — The mission societies are planning 

to open 9 new mission stations during the next five 

is follows: Chekao {A AM), Ctekihsien (CIM), 

1M}, Lufciang fCMA), Showchow (PX), Tai- 

- i>gteh (CIM), Tungcheng fCIM), Wuweichow 

it of I -Relatively speaking, evangelistic 

sely scattered over the province. There is no 

development in any field. Intensive evangelistic 

Je mission is noticeable chiefly around the 

>ete the absence of evangelistic centers around Wuhn 

teg. This may be due to mral evangelistic centers 

eluded in city- returns. Except for small sections 

the Yangtze, areas where mission fields overlap do 

?r to have any more intensive evangelistic work than 

imed by a single mission. Throughout the province, 

ry occupation in terms of evangelistic centers is re- 

backward, although it mnst be remembered that all 

the province is comparatively young. 

on$ for Present Inadequacy"' ■#/ Occupatim— -Three 

•:nds; 5, lack of native workers; 4, 

:, difficulties in communication. 

ty of Population shows the unoccupied 

.ted. The country is. mountainous 




44 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



VII. — Communicant Christians 




nx wmsT**! cwo«ihk*kt oajsTuiii 



Chinese and Foreign Workers Compared 




Foreign W( 

Chinese Evangelistic Worker* 
ucational Workers 
Chinese Medical Woikers 



Number of Chinese Employed Workers 

per ico So. Mi. 




Christian Occupation in terms of Employed Chinese Force — 
The CIM reports the lowest number of employed workers per 
million with the PN second and the CMA third (Table VI). 
As to workers per 1,000 communicants, the A AM reports the 
lowest number (55 per 1,000), with the CIM ranking second. 
The following missions are best supplied with workers per 
1,000 communicant; : PN, PE and SBC (Table VI). The 
PN reports the lowest number of paid male evange'ists per 
evangelistic center. 

Training School Facilities — The following training schools 
for workers have been reported : 1 Bible School for women 
at Nanlinghskn, 1 at Hwaiyiian, and 5 training schools for 
nurses. The CIM report a summer Bible training school at 
Anking and occasional Bible schools at mission stations, 
lasting for several weeks. 



I.— Force at Work— Foreign 



. 






















c 
S3 
i 







ss 




= 


8 


Name of Society 


1 


8 




1 

i * 


to 

5 


H 


M 



S 






3? 






a 




H 


3 


















fH 




1 


2 


3 


1 4 


* 






8 


Grand Total ... 


32 


11 


1 


1 


55 


62 


HO 


172 


Anglican PE 


4 


2 




4 


13 


12 


22 


34 


Baptist AAM 


4 


1 




1 


2 


5 


6 


11 


SBC 


2 










2 


2 


4 


Metbodist MEFB 


3 


3 






1 


7 


1ft 


17 


Presbyterian PN 


5 


2 


1 


1 


g 


8 


13 


21 


China Inland Mission CIM 


1 








13 


14 


27 


41 


Other Societies ... CMA 


i 








8 


g 


14 


19 


... FaM 










2 









FCMS 


9 


3 




1 


g 


9 


14 


23 


SDA 



















COMMUNICANT CHRISTIAN? 

General Survey — The total communicant membership of 
the Protestant churches in Anhwei exceeds 5,000, and that of 
the Roman Catholic Church exceeds 65,000. In 1906 the Pro- 
testant communicants numbered 1,543. Sixty-seven per cent 
of the Protestant membership is composed of men. 

Distribution of Communicants — Note the concentration of 
communicants in the larger cities. Twenty-three per cent o# 
the total reside in 6 cities of 50,000 population and above. The 
SBC and PE Missions report the highest proportion of com- 
municants in cities ever 50,000 (about 50 per cent) and the 
PN the lowest (See Table III). Note that there are as many 
Protestant communicants in Anhwei south of Wuhu as north. 
Note also the lack of communicants in rural districts aroun# 
Anking, Luehowiu, Shucheng, and Taiho. This is impressive 
since reference to Map IV (Age of Work) reveals mission 
activities as beginning in all of these centers before 1910, and 
in one of the cities as early as 1869. 

The PE Mission reports an unusually large Christian con- 
stituency (exceeding 3,000). With 1/6 of the total communi- 
cant membership in the province this mission reports over 
1/4 of the total Christian constituency. 

Membership by Denominations — The Protestant com- 
municant membership may be divided among the various 
denominations approximately as follows : Anglican, 16 pel 
cent: Baptist, 14 per cent; Methodist, 12 per cent; Presby- 
terian, 11 per cent; China Inland Mission, 26 per cent; other 
societies, 21 per cent. There are no Lutheran or CongrL'gt- 
tkmal missions in the province. 

Church Organization— The figures given in Table III 
seem to indicate a difference in policy between different mis- 
sions regarding church organizations. For instance, the PN 
reports only 2 organized churches among 47 evangelistic 
centers. All other missions report a combined total of 125 
organized churches for 142 evangelistic centers. In other 
words, these other societies, with 9 times the communicant 
membership of the PN, report 65 times the number of organized 
churches. There is no federated church organization in the 
province. 

Literacy — The degree of Hterac}' among Protest ant 
churches in Anhwei is relatively high ; 67 per cent of the male 
and 42 per cent of the female communicants being report 
able to read the Gospels in the vernacular. The highest degree 
of literacy is reported by the Methodist Church. 



THE PROVINCE OF A3THWEI 
II.— Force at Work—Chinese 



45 



Name of Society 



Grand Total 



SI ISt 58 240 235 66 



1) 11 12 I 13 



13 56 £2 623 98 



>-raa 
Chiiw Inland Mission 
Other Societies 



PE 

AAM 

SBC 

MEFB 

PH 

CIM 

CMA 

FaM § 

FCMS 

SDA 



66 
11 
10 
38 
BO 
14 
14 

39 
3 



3.6 



*s ! This eotainn includes workers connected with edneationa.1 institutions above Middle School grade 
$ Xo returns 



III.— Extent of Occupation— The Christian Community 



























r 












- 






£ 








a 


B 


9 


| 


S s 


















































































































































































































-;o 


































Name of Society 


§ 


~ 


| 


~ 


2 


5 


C '■§ 


8 | 


g S § 


§ £-3 


= ? — 


3 


2 3 ~ 


































































<= 


g 


> 


s 


— 


z 


O 


— 


s 1 a 


T' S 


= — 


a 


r z 












a 
























































w 


















— 










1 | 





3 


4 


■5 


• 


7 


8 





10 


11 


12 


13 


Grand Total ... 


33 


127 ! 


in 


3.«4 


1.636 


5,070 


11,608 


m% 


23 


67 


42 


6,681 


27 


Anglican 


PE 


2 J 


26 


28 


56-5 


267 




3.023 










1.263 




Baptist 


AAM 


3 


3 


10 


4*4 


lb 


602 


811 
















SBC 


1 


3 


3 


68 


65 


133 


183 














Mr -V '.i -r 


MEFB 


2 1 


i6 ; 


16 


410 


222 


632 


1,981 
















... PS 


s ! 


•) 


47 


379 


123 


- 


1.068 












11 




Mission ... ... C3H 


14 


43 


m 


899 


449 


1.341 


3,261 












28 


Other S 


CMA 

FaMf 


5 
1 


■ 5 


15 


201 


173 


374 


4.^4 












25 




FCMS 


3 


14 


is 


363 


172 


535 


650 










Mil 


311 




SDA 




9 


' 


72 


41 


113 


147 












16 



Koretanw 



IV.— Extent of Occupation— The Christian School 





























_ _ 


a a Si M 




J5 


*s 




*S 


3 


>■ 


3 


- 


>~. 


— 


= 





~~ * 






































.= 


a 


~ 


~ 


1 


5 


- 


= 


■a 


~ 


a 




S | £ ^ ~ -*a 




X 


X- 


x 


K* 


X 


S| 


X 


X 


*1 


x , 


il 


X i 




zllzfl-ii 


Name of Society 


g 


E 


~-z 


; 


s 


— X 


"5 


"= 


5 ^ 


£ 


x 


:*x 


lef 


_ ■■; x S -j - :3 -*- 




> 


Ji 


•8 


g 


£ 


3 


| 


| 


1 


1 


1 


| 


-j 1 


S E £ ~ H = ic 




•3 


« 




,3 


- 




£ 


X 




a 


a 




-i * 


a 2 ji S 




T 


2 


3 


4 
2.998 


1.320 


6 


j 


- 


» 


10 


ii 


12 


,3 


14 15 16 


Grand Total ... 


its 


39 


11 


4J18 


768 


248 


1.016 


251 


19 


270 


5.604 


71 93 23 










see 


261 


s-»" 












114 


1.237 


37% 


AAM 




3 




137 


118 


255 














"J . 2 




SBC 




I 




65 > 


■13 . 


JB 






8 


.... 






96 




Methodist MEFB 




6 


1 


541 


361 


902 


126 


42 


lf8 


SO 










Pres*jt*rian PS 




S 


2 


9*5 . 


239 


1.184 


127 


45 


172 


49 




49 


" 




China Inland Mission CIM 




9 




225 


103 


381 




20 


53 








380 


... ,6 , 


CMA 




5 


1 


188 


106 


989 


• 


44 


<4 




11 


11 


3**4 




FaMf 
























:.■; 


nm -, 




FCMS 




10 


4 


321 




~ 














- 




SDA 








** 












... 











Ko retoras 



46 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



VIiI. — Communicants per 10,000 Population 




CHEKMNG 



SCU.C I,*.«OO.W» 
• " *» *f uaM * 



Only twenty-three per cent of mission lower primary 
students go on to mission higher primary schools, while 37 
per cent of the students of the Anglican mission in lower 
primary schools, continue work in higher primary grade. The 
Northern Presbyterian Mission reports the largest number of 
lower primary students, — almost two students for every com- 
municant member. Out of every 10 mission primary students 
in Anhwei, 7 are boys. 

Middle Sch'jols— There are four full grade Middle Schools 
in the province; 2 in Wuhu, (AAM and FCMS) (PE) ; 1 in 
Ningkwofu, (MEFB) under the supervision of a Chinese: 
pastor; and 1 in Anking, {PEL Of middle schools, 5 for lx>y» 
and 2 for girls, not offering full grade work, are also reported. 
The middle schools for girls are located in Luchowfu (FCMS) 
and Nanlinghsien (CMA). ~ They report 19 student';, i>r 7 per 
cent of the total Middle School enrollment in the province. 
The PE, PX and FCMS missions lead in higher education, v 



Number of Communicants and Mission Primary 
Students Compared 



150 300 450 600 750 900 1,050 1,200 1,350 




Communicants 
I 1 jjission Primary Students 



IX.— Mission Schools 



COMMCXICAXTS PER 10,000 POPULATION 

General Impressions— The province averages 2.5 com- 
municants per 10,000. Wuhu-tao is relatively the best 
evangelized, with an average of 4-5 communicants per 10,000; 
Anking-tao reports 2.3 ; and Hwaisze-tao in the north an 
average of only 1.8. Among hsiens, Wuhu is far in the 
lead, followed by Suancheng and Chuhsien. {See Table- 
Christian Occupation by Hsiens, Appendix A). 

Areas Relatively Untouched— Note the black areas between 
Wuhu and Nanking in Kiangsu, also north of the Yangtze 
between Wuhu and Anking. The CIM fields, both in the 
west and in the east, are relatively black. Note the circle of 
black hsiens around Hwaiyuan in the Hwai River valley. The 
two hsiens between Chao Lake and the Yangtze valley in 
the CMA field show relatively few resident Christians. Note that 
the largest number of Christians per population are southeast 
of Wuhu. The smallest number of Christians per 10,000 are 
found in the fields of the SBC, PN and CIM. 

Christian Constituency—The Protestant Christian con- 
stituency reported is slightly more than double that of the 
church membership. 



MISSION SCHOOLS 

Elementary Education — The province reports 185 lower 
primary schools, 39 higher, and n middle schools. The lower 
primary schools almost equal the evangelistic centers in num- 
ber and appear to be well distributed with one exception. 
Compare this map with Map V on Evangelistic Centers. Note 
the large number of evangelistic centers in the southeastern 
part of the province, without Christian lower primary educa- 
tion. Of the total number of students receiving primary 
school education in Anhwei 10 per cent are in mission schools. 




THE PROVINCE OF AXHWEl 



a 



X. — GOVER.VMF.NT SCHOOLS 




■■".... aw 



Compare this map with Map IX. Note the location, of 
government middle schools in areas where Christian higher 
education of similar grade is not provided; for example, the 
Government Middle Schools in Sosu&g in tie MEFB and 
PE fields; and in Hwekhow in the CIM field. Information 
to hand does not indicate either the teaching quality or the 
moral influence of these Government Schools, and no large 

i I government educational facilities has vet been made 



by 



inent normal schc 
a total enrollment 



e ven govern- 
lower grade reported for Anhwei, with 

(j. Two of these schools are for 

HOSPITALS 



Present Medi 

12 foreign and r 
the 36 foreign m 

total of 345 beds 
average for the province 



igbt mission hospi 

aaas are located is J 
-evidential centers. They report a 
las}- for men as for women), or an 
of 17 beds per million inhabitants. 
Only one foreign woman physician is reported, for Anhwei. 
Two new hospitals are planned to be built within the next 
5 years, one at Pochow by the SBC', and another at Ttsnki 
by the MEFB. Four dispensaries, apart from those located 
on hospital premises, are reported. 

Government or Institutional Hospitals — The hospitals for 
men at Pengpu and Showehcw are tinder railroad or army 
supervision. 

The Protestant mission fields most poorly provided with 
medical, facilities in terms of total population and com- 
municant membership are those of the CIM, CMA and SBC 
(Table VI). Xote specially the absence of hospital facilities 
in the entire western and sonthern sections of the province. 
Map II, however, shows considerable density of population 
in these areas — especially in northwestern Aiihwei and south 
of the Yangtze between Anking and Wnhu. Reference to 
Map VII on distribution of communicants shows relatively a 
large percentage of church members residing beyond the reach 
of medical help. Mission school students south of the Yangtze 
are also apparently beyond convenient reach of hospital 
rtks. [See Map IX). 



XI. — Hospitals 



The middle schools are generally located in centers where 
most Chinese Christian workers reside, and there is a hospital 
in each center having a middle school except at Xanliaghsien 
and Xingkwofu. 

Differences of Emphasis in Education— Differences of 
emphasis in educational work are apparent, (See Table Yli. 
The CIM reports 2S students in its schools per roo church 
communicants; AAM, 45; SBC, 60; CMA, 100; FCMS, 117; 
PE, 136; MEFB, 169; PX, 267. 

Higher Fdinsaiww*— There is no mission education above 
middle school grade in Auhwei, nor do we find any normal 
school or courses in education in the entire province. The 
higher ideational needs of Anhwei are at present met by 
Christian educational institutions in other provinces,— -Xan- 
king University, Shantung Christian University and the 
colleges of the PE Mission in Wuchang and Shanghai. 



GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS 

Prbnjrv School F&eiUties— The most recent estimates of 
eminent education for lower and higher primary schools 
those furnished by the Ministry of the Interior lor the year 
iug Ju'v, 1916. Estimates of middle schools are for the 
r ending Jn'\ ::hwei reports 1,135 lower primary 

higher primary schools each with an average 
slightly less than 40 students. Reference to the map 
-trikingly large number of primary schools in the 
thern section of the province, a section relatively unoccupied 

:e Location oj Government and Mlssfctt Middle 

leven government middle schools are reported, 

h a total enrollment of 1,125 boys and no girls. Xote the 

ence of anv government middle school north of the Hw.»i 




48 



THE CHRISTIAN, OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



Y.- Extent of Occupation - The Christian Hospital 



Mama of Society 


f I 


|| 


Z 


a 


s ■* i 


| 


00 


%~ 


i*JI 




















*** 




~, 


— 


'£ 1 


•g 


- = = ' 


-3 




"c 5 


"o 5 * 












































'— 


•5 




- 








55 


sa 




I 


■i 


231 


I 

114 


2,295 


6 
5 


56 


* \ 


9 


Grand Total ... 


8 


4 


29 j 


49 


Anglican I'E 

Bfcptist AAM 


1 
1 


1 


40 

80 


30 
15 


570 






83 


17 
45 


SBC 




1 












;'» 




Methodist... ... •• MEFB 


1 


I 


30 


10 


418 


1 


* 


13 




Presbyterian I'S 


3 




W 


•n 


608 


1 


11 


31 


98 


China Inland Mission CUM 




1 
















Other Societies... ... CMA 


















... 


FCMS 


% 




t>0 


a 


699 


1 


6 


: 82 


97 



CHINESE EMPLOYED WORKERS AND 
COM M UN I C A NTS COMPARED 



0% iom 20% 30% 40% m% w% 10% m% w% 100% 




Female Wortas 

„ CoiBiaanica»ts 
Mate Workers 
„ Communicant* 



VI. - Degree of Occupation and Table of Urgency 



Name of Society 



Anglican ... 
Baptist 

Methodist 

Presbyterian 

China Inland Mission 

Other Societies 



I'E 

AAM 

SBC 

MEFB 

l'N 

CIM 

CMA 

FaMS 

FCMS 

SDA 

Unclaimed 



A 

A 
A 
A 
A 
Int. 
A 
A 
A 
A 



54.826 a 20,002,166 a > 172 



5.300 
1.600 
1,400 
4,200 
12.2;»0 
18,300 
4,700 

4,800 

7.(0 J 



1,400,000 

800,000 

600,000 

1,000.000 

4,500,000 

6,000,000 

1,250,000 

25,000 

1,800,000 

200,000 

2.127.000 



625 



34 
11 

4 
17 
21 
41 
19 

2 
23 



24 
94 
106 
64 

48 

*78 
19 



5,070 



832 
602 
133 
632 
508 
1341 
374 

585 

113 



24 
14 
7 

17 
5 
7 
15 
80 
18 



112 
41 
40 
94 
24 
11 



34 



123 



185 
149 
209 



146 
173 



2.5 



oo & •? 2. 
12 13 

1,336 1,052 



bo - -i 



&><£ ■ S <S 



0.6 



$ Xo returns 

(a) Total for province not for approximate estimates bj societies as given below 



IT 



1633 


1365 




725 


453 


1.3 


1154 


661 




1951 


1698 


3. 


3250 


2672 


0.7 


220 


284 




1700 


1000 




1706 


1170 
513 


1.7 



THE PROVINCE OF CHEKIANG 



49 



CHEKIANG 



HSIEN" BOUNDARIES 
Political Divisions — Chekiang is the smallest province of 
■China, having an area of 36,680 sq. mi., which is almost twice 
that of Belgium, In density of population Chekiang exceeds 
any American state. It is rich in places of historical interest- 
Its capital city, Hangchow, is situated 00 the shores of West 
Lake — famous for its scenic beauty — and is surrounded bv 
bills with numerous temples and pagodas, the resort of thou- 
sands of pilgrims Politically, Chekiang is divided into four 
tao, which are subdivided into 75 hsiens. 

Physical Characteristics — Mountain ranges traverse the 
center of the province from southwest to northeast. These con- 
tinue into the sea and form the well-known Chnsan Archipelago. 
The island of Pcoteo, just off the northeast coast, is one of tae 
s to Buddhists in Eastern China. Numerous 
1st. The province is rich in industry and 
iltnre. The northern section resemWes the fertile Yangtze 
River valley. Tlic south and west hear a resemblance to the 
mountainous districts of Fukien. The climate is temperate in 
the ncrth and semi-tropical in the south, with the heat in 
summer less intense' than it is in Fukien. There is a well-de- 
veloped network of navigable streams. The low flat region 
southeast of Sienku, down to Taichowfn and Hwangyen, is well 
watered, and during the wet season is subject to floods and 
■consequent famines. 

Language — Chekiang is situated in the Wa dialect region. 
: :'. Hangchow a variation of Mandarin is used. In the 
: Ningpo and the surrounding country the Ningpo dialect 
•res mutely 6,000,000 people. Slight variations 
• if it are in use in the Shaohingfu district. Kinhwafu, Wen- 
chow, Taichowfn and Chuehow have local dialects of their own. 
These dialects differ somewhat from each other. Some of them 
tbJe the dialects of Fukien. In the western sections of the 
ree aboriginal tribes may still be found speaking the 
Miao language. 

Christian Occupation by Hsiens — Protestant missions are 
at work In every listen. The CIM, with its affiliated mission, 
reports Work in four-fifths of the province. Every prefoctural 
as a mission station. Twenty-one out of the 
total 75 hsiens report no Christian lower primary schools, and 
istian higher primary educational facilities. 
The following five hsiens report the largest number of Pro- 
testant Christian communicants : Yungkia (Wenchow), 3,445; 
.Kinhsicn iNingpo), 2,890; Hanghsien (Hangchow), 1,833; 
'Wubing (Hnchowfu), 1,322; Yuyao, 1,187. 



I. — Hsiek BotrxDAJires 



A Nil W Li 




The people of Chekiang are economically well ' 
particularly in the northern section. For this reason one 
naturally expects encouraging reports regarding salaries paid 
to Chinese workers and seM-supporting churches. 

Out of an aggregate of 22,000 dots on this map, 2S of the 
smallest size dots, each representing a thousand inhabitants, 
indicate the numerical strength of the Protestant communicant 
membership. 



II. — Density of Population 



DENSITY OF POPULATION 

Papulation Estimates for the Proxince — The population 
•estimates for Chekiang vary from 11,580,692 (Statesman's Year 
Book, rooal, to 26,300,000 (Customs Report 1S82). The Min- 
ehcngpn estimate of 1910, generally accepted as conservative, 
credits Chekiang with 17,000,000. Official census returns for 
secured by the Survey Committee, give 22,009,822. More 
: Post Office population figures closely approximate the 
above official returns and give 22,043,300. 

The returns sent to the CCC for the following hsiens 
.greatly exceed the recent Post Office estimates : Hashing, 
Pinghn, Wukaug, Siaoshan, Shunau, Lishui, Kingyuan, 
Suanping. On the other hand, the Post Office estimate for Kin- 
hsien (Ningpo*, greatly exceeds the estimate sent to the CCC. 

On the basis of the official returns supplied to the Survey 
Committee for the province, the average density of Chekiang 
reaches the high mark of 627 per square mile. Chinese authori- 
ties claim that the population of the province has doubled 
during the last jo years. 

Areas of Greatest Density — A glance at the map will show 
three specially dense sections. The most conspicuous of these 
is the rich agricultural plain north and northeast of Hangchow, 
The other two sections are the Tsientang River valley and the 
•coastal plain extending southward from Taichowfn to Wenchow. 

Citie.$— Six- cities each with a population exceeding 100,000 
are reported : Hangchow (750,000), Ningpo (450,000), Shao- 
hingfu (400,000), Wenchow (140,000), Huchowfu (100,000), and 
Kashing (100,000'!. Five cities each with a population some- 
where between 50,000 and 100,000, and thirteen cities each with 
a population between 20,000 and 50,000, are also reported. 
Approximately 87 per cent of the total population in Chekiang 
live in cities under 10,000, or in rural districts. 








50 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



111.— I'R'VfESTANT MiSSJOX FlSLDS 




*»«- **»- *♦ 



M PLOYED WORKERS PER ajo SQ. MI. 
133 436789 10 11 12 



PROTESTANT MISSION FIELDS 

S&cieties >H . Work — Fourteen Protestant missioiiist| 
societies ^excepting the AFM and Ind) are at work in Che- 
kiang, representing all denominations except the Luti 
The CIM and its affiliated society, the GCAM, work So per 
cent of the total area of the province. In approximately half of" 
this area they share responsibility with other evangelic d 
missions. The CMS work w per cent of the total area < 
prcvinoe. Most of this field is shared with other missions. 
UMC rank third in area claimed. Slightly over hall of the 

in Chekiang are connected with the Brit:-' 
Contir.ental societies. The fields of the AFM, SDA, and Ind' 
aries are not shewn on the accompanying map. The- 
the CM, and several small disconnected fields of the 
CMS in the northeast, while appearing or 
are difficult to trace. 



■ '■■; . 



Overlapping mid Vnoccuptei Areas— No part of Chek 
is unclaimed. Considerable overlapping exists in the south- 
east between the fields of the CMS, CIM and UMC, and in the 
north and northeast around Hangchow and Ningpo. This over- 
lapping, especially in the north and northeast is largely due- 
to the fact that these sections of the province are the most 
densely populated and were among the first in China to be- 
opened to missionary occupation. Hangchow, Shaohiagfu and' 
Ningpo, being the only cities of 200,000 inhabitants and over,. 
are shown on this map as "common area.** 

Comity Agreements — AH larger missions in Chekiang 
port both oral and written comity agreerneatSi The 
reports a definite understanding in each station regarding 
delimitation of field. A special agreement exists between the- 
CMS and the CIM regarding the field around Taichowi 
similar agreement exists between the CMS and the PN missions-, 
with reference to the town of Iwu. The CMC reports 
agreements with both the CIM and the PN missions-. 
by which each society agrees not to establish preaching 
places within five li of those established by the 
ether. An exception exists in the eise of Wenelww, 
Printed agreements are also reported between the CIM and the* 
CMS affecting field delimitation around Taichowfu, Tientai, 
Hwangyen, and Taiping. Both the PN and the UMC report. 
agreements to open no new work within jo li of a station 
already occupied, and not within 20 li of such occupied plaoesr- 
until after consultation. The ABF, and several other missiosr 
societies, report agreements of a more general nature, regird- 
ing the division both of their city and country fields. The* 
CM and SDA report no comity agreements, oral or written. $ 



IV.— Ace of Work 




AGE OF WORK 

Pioneer Feri&4~ Chekiang is one of the first province 
China to be entered by Protestant missionaries. Before i860* 
missionaries resided in five centers in Kwangtnng, in three w 
Fnkien and in two in Chekiang. The ABF and PN missions- 
entered Ningpo in 1S44. Pom years later the CMS missionaries 
arrived. Six years later, in 1S54, Hudson Taylor began work 
in Chekiang as the first representative of the China Evangel- 
istic Society. He left this society in 1856, began work around' 
Ningpo in 1857, laboring independently until i860, when he- 
was invalided home. The CIM was officially founded in 1*65, 
and, during the following year, began "work in Hangchow. 
There was little open opposition in pioneer days, but to u«e 
the words of another, "plenty of quiet, often courteous, and 
always determined opposition on the part of many influential' 
people." This was a larger hindrance to the spread of the 
Gospel than that which frequently comes from open violence. 

The missions reporting overlapping or disconnected field* 
are frequently the older societies. This is as one might expect. 

Centers where foreigners could safely reside Ware few in early, 
days, and fields for itinerary work greatly restricted. Recent- - 
ly several efforts have been made by these older societies to- ' 
ward lessening the number of these disconnected areas, ia tbe- 
interests of greater economy and efficiency. 

The southwestern section of the province, while opened 
fairly early, is not well developed, due to unfavourable physical 
characteristics. Cornpue this map with Maps II, V and VII. 
The section north and northeast of H'-.ngcbow is 
dense in population, and the work there was begun fairlv t 
However, in the numbti both of c» t-nters and com- 



THE PROVINCE OF CHEKIANG 



51 



lRRAXGED CH RONOLOGICAI.l.V 



V. — Stations axd F.\ anc.fj istic D 



Audi 


*fto . 


; 







fresbyterian 



CMS 
ABF 
UBS 
OMC 
IN 



1891- 

1900 


. 1901- 

1010 


1911- 
1920 


8 

1 




8 







rs 


1 ... 1 




China fatan 
Otber Socie 


i M's-u 


>a CIM 
GC.VM 

.. AFM 
CM 

CMC 

sru 

YMCA 
YWCA 


1 11 1 , " 
1 ... 4 

1 

1 


•> 1 

1 

1 
1 

1 



Note the marked development in the opening of new 
stations before i§co, as well as the small number of stations 
shed by the larger and older societies after 1900. 

EXTENT OF EVANGELISM 

Missionary Residential Centers— The missionaries of Che- 
kiang are located in 34 residential centers. A total of 55 mission 
stations is reported in these cities. Over 900 evangelistic cen- 
ters or outstations, each having 10 commudkrnts or over, are 
scattered over the province. Among the cities, Hangchow re- 
ports the largest number of societies with resident missionaries 
Ne new stations are reported as likely to be opened during th? 
next five years. 

Centers of Evangelism — Unfortunately, crosses to represent 
the evangelistic centers in the large cities do not appear on 
this map. Xingpo and Hangchow, for example, report over 
a score of church organizations, but since these are within the 
city confines their location on the map has been impossible. 
Wherever, therefore, the symbol of a station is shown, it 
generally may be assumed that it has more than one 
evangelistic center, the number varying with the size of the 
city and the strength of the mission or missions there at work. 
In a few cases the head churches only of a district in the UMC 
and MES fields have been located, owing to incomplete in 
formation. For the same reason about a dozen evangelistic 
centers of the CM around Xingpo have not been located. 

Degree of Christian Occupation — In comparison with other 
provinces Chekiang appears to be well supplied with evangelis- 
tic centers, especially in the UMC, CIM and CMS fields. On 
the otber band, in spite of this intensive development is 
evangelistic centers, it may still be said that the task is just 
begun, for statistics show that as yet only one out of every 
S20 persons in Chekiang is a communicant Christian. {Table 
VI}. 

Reasons /or Present Inadequacy of Occupation— In stating 
the reasons for the present inadequacy of Christian occupation, 
four mission societies mention as their first reason, inadequacy 
©f foreign and Chinese staff. All societies refer to the need 
of more Chinese workers. Three societies mention as the 
second reason inadequacy of funds. The UMC reports their 
greatest lack as being that of foreign workers. The prospects 
«f evangelism in the province are regarded by all correspondents 
as most encouraging. 

FULL-TIME CHRISTIAN WORKERS 

Distribution oj Missionaries— The foreign missionary body, 
numbering 344, resides in 34 cities. Xinety-one, or over 25 per 
•cent, reside in Hangchow. One hundred and fifty seven, or 45 
per cent of the total foreign force reside in Hangchow and 
Xingpo. Seventy-three per cent are in the six cities of over 
100,000. It is interesting to note by way of contrast that only 
20 per cent of the Chinese force and approximately 14 per cent 
of the communicant body reside in these six cities. Foreign 
single women in Chekiang (109} comprise one-third of the total 
missionary body. Only one woman physician is reported. 

The Christian Occupation of Chekiang in Terms of Foreign 
• Fore*; — The societies occupy their fields in terms of foreign 
force per unit of population as follows : — 

CMS 24 missionaries per million inhabitants 

MES 2 i 

ABF 21 „ 

PS 10 ,] 

CIM 

CMC 

It is striking to note that the two missions having the 
fewest missionaries in the field per million inhabitants {CIM, 
CMC) report the largest number of evangelistic workers aud 
-communicants. 



9 




Foreign and Chinese Emfi.<>yei> Workers 
40 80 20 40 ISO 80 100 190 110 



CTM+GCAM 

CMS 



MES 
YMCA 



1 



l l lll l ll l illi ! - ■■". ■ ■■ ;■" ' ■■ ■ ' .. ' ■ : ■:■■ : 



mzzzm 



■ , -i' "T.". ■ ;■ ", :i r,r: : 






iiimiiiuiiHW^v: i 



uinult- 1 1 



=— : 



111111111 iiiimalnnrgea 



F< 

Workers 
Chinese Education d Workeis 
Chinese Medical Workers 



VI. — Distribution of Workers 



AHHWO 




THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



Nationality of Foreign Workers — Except for 5 per cent 
which is German, the missionary body is about equally divided 
between British and American. 

Location— The MES reports the highest average of mis- 
sionaries per station {2U followed by the PS (17). The CIM 
and its affiliated mission the GCAM report the lowest average 
of missionaries per station (3 and 3.6). 

The Chinese Force and its Distribution — There are five 
employed Chinese workers for even' foreign worker. Twenty 
per cent of the Chinese force resides in cities over 100,000 and 
37 per tent of the forte in missionary residential centers. Com- 
parison of this map with Map V reveals many evangelistic 
centers without resident workers. Note in which mission 
fields the Chinese force appears to be best scattered. 

Classification 0} the Chinese Workers—Out of a total of 
1788 employed Chinese workers, 977 or 54 per cent are in 
evangelistic, 596 or 33 per cent in educational, 215 or 13 per 
cent in medical work. The MES, SDA, CIM and UMC report 
the highest percentages of their total Chinese employed force as 
evangelists (each exceeding 70 per cent). The CMS, PS and 
ABF missions report the lowest percentages (each under 35 per 
cent). The ABF is the only mission in the province reporting 
more educational workers than evangelistic — the proportion 
exceeding two to one. 

Eighty-two per cent of the total Chinese force is men; 
the UMC, MES and CIM employing the highest percentages 
Less than 10 per cent of the evangelists reported is ordained. 
There is an average of one ordained Chinese worker in Che- 
kiang for every 266 communicants. This in comparison with 
other provinces is surprisingly good. Note in Table II Col. 
j 4 the large number of voluntary workers reported by the 
UMC and CIM. 

Christian Occupation in Terms of Chinese Workers — 

Workers per 1,000.000 Workers per 1,000 

inhabitants communicants 

UMC 164 

MES 132 

ABF 112 

CMS 93 

PS 77 

PN 65 

CIM 39 

I.MS 36 

Note that the UMC, ABF and CMS are among the first 
four missions in both columns. 

There is an average of 5 to 6 employed Chinese workers 
per foreign worker throughout the province. The UMC re- 
ports the highest average, (23 Chinese workers to each 
foreign worker). The SDA ranks next with an average of 13 
Chinese workers for each foreigner and the MES ranks third 
with U. 



I— Force at Work— Foreign 



ABF 


135 


CMS 


117 


PS 


92 


UMC 


79 


LMS 


51 


PN 


47 


MES 


45 


CIM 


34 



Name of Society 


1 


8 


| 

.1 '?• 
3 | 4 


i 
5 | 6 j 7 


Grand Total ... 


63 19 1 


12 109 116 228 344 


Anglican ... ... CMS 

Baptist ABF 

Congregational ... LMS 

Methodist MES 

... LMC 

Presbyterian ... IN 

... PS 
China Inland Mission CIM 

... GCAM (CIM) 
Other Societies ... AFM 

CM 

«MC 
Ind. 
SDA 
YMCA 

YWCA 


9 

4 
6 

12 
6 

1 

1 
1 


1 

1 
2 
1 


1 


') 17 1") 

9 14 

1 12 1 1 

19 22 

4 7 

f I 

1 

1 

I 


00 

1 5 21 

- 

23 37 
2 4 33 
42 64 
11 18 
6 7 

2 3 

1 1 

1 a 

t 8 



Ratio of Employed Workers tc Communicants— The ABF 
reports one Chinese employed worker out of every 7.5 com- 
municants; the CMS, one out of every 8.6; the PS, one out of 
every 11 ; the UMC, one out of every 13.8; the PN, one out of 
every 2r.6; the MES, one out of every 22.5; and the CIM, one 
out of every 28.2. 

Training Centers for Chinese Workers — Information at 
hand, shows training centers for workers to be well distributed 
over the province. The CIM have a training school for 
workers in Hangchow and Bible training schools in three or 
four other centers. Their last report shows an enrollment 
of 147 students in these schools. The CMS have a Bible train- 
ing school at Ningpo, the ABF at Shaohingfu, Huchowfu, and 
Ningpo; the UMC, a Bible training school at Wenchow and 
training facilities as well at Ningpo. Most of the workers in 
the MES field arc sent to Sttngkiangfu, Ku. for preparatory 
work. No information regarding training centers conducted 
by Presbyterian missions has been received. 



II— Force at Work— Chinese 



L2 



Name of Society 



I s £, -8 



Angiican 
Baptist 

Congregational 
Methodist ... 



Presbyterian 

China Inland Mission 

Other Societies 



Grand Total 



103 1 735 139 



10 11 I 12 



■i* '11 



13 14 



977 



423 i 173 596 



1 | 48 135 215 1,788 526 



CMS 
ABF 
LMS 
MES * 
UMC 

PN 

PS 

CIM 

GCAM (CM) 

AFM 

CM ' 

OMC * 
Ind * 

SDA 
YMCA 

YWCA * 
HOC 



4(5 27 

91 14 

7 1 

87 \ 7 
235 } 9 

88 1 5 
29 13 

152 39 

40 7 

1 1 



105 
283 

61 

44 

197 

47 

2 



84 

154 

1 

20 

77 

70 
62 
56 
23 



'553 
I O 



15 I 16 



82 



287 




66% 


270 




69% 


127 


6 


B8% 


375 


117 


96 % 


142 


6 


n% 


138 




ih % 


268 


330 


78% ■ 


72 


40 


84% ; 


* 




•■".<• , 




27 


74 % ' 


14 
1 " 




IQ&% 



5.3 



4 

4 
0.3 



(a) This column includes educational workers in institutions above Middle School grade 

(b) Union with ABF at Huchowfu 
* Incomplete returns 



THE PBOYIXCE OF CHEKIANG. 



53 



V i I. — C'OMU CXICVXT CH RISTMN'S 



COMMUNICANT CHRISTIANS 

G&icral Survey — The total Prolestmt communicant 
snembership for Chekiang is 57,002. Archdeacon Moule, in an 
-article written some years ago. gives the number of Protestant 
Christians a * *^ a * time as somewhere between 12,000 and 15,000. 
The Roman Catholic Church reports 56,051 Christians as church 
members. Sixty-two per cent of the Protestant membership 
consists of men. 

Distribution ol Protestant Chursh Membership — Note the 
Btration of communicants, first in the Wenchow district, 
then around Ningpo, Hangchow and Huchowfu. The area 
en Hangchow and Ningpo also appears relatively dense. 
Th«; PS and ABF missions report having the highest per- 
centages of communicants in cities over 50,000, 

Compare this map with Map III. The fields best occupied 

rras of connr.unxxnt membership are the MES, sg per 

population, the CMC, 21 per 10,000; the PN» 14 per 

th-. CIM, 11 per 10,000. Note the drop between 

the CMC and the PN returns. 

Dpnrc this map with Map II. The density of popula- 
tion will be seen to be relatively gTcat in the northeastern 
n of the province, and in the eastern plain. The dis- 
tribution of communicants appears, however, to be relatively 
in these regions. Certainly it is not proportionate to 
the density of population. The larger cities in the west and 
in the eastern central plain do not report many communicants. 
Kinhwa-tao, in the west, averages only 4 communicants per 
population, while the other three tac exceed 10 com- 
municants per 10,000. 

Membership by Denominations— The CIM reports 9,595 
-communicants. The Methodists follow with 8,004. The 
'Presbyterians report 4,580, or slightly more than half the num- 
ber of the Methodists; the Anglicans, 2,445; and t he Baptists, 
2,002. The CIM and Methodist missions claim over half the 
communicant membership of the province. The Methodists 
alone have a'anost as many church members as the Anglicans, 
Baptists, and Presbyterians combined. 

Compare this map with Map IV. In the areas southwest 
-of Ningpo and northwest of Taichowfu, where work was begun 
between if 60 and i££o, converts are still few and the work 
relatively undeveloped. 

Illiteracy — Sixty per cent of the male church members and 
45 per cent of the female members are reported as literate. 
There is little variation in the percentages of literary between 
various societies. 

Development in Church Organization— The number of 
organised churches very nearly approximates the number of 
gelistic centers. The CMC reports the smallest number 
•of communicants per evangelistic center. 



COMMUNICANTS PER 10,000 POPULATION 

General Impressions — In terms of communicants per 10,000, 
<Thekiang ranks among the first five best occupied provinces ot 
China. A glance at the map reveals the more poorly occupied 
sections to be those of the extreme northeast (LMS and PS 
fields;, the extreme" west (CIM field), and the central section 
-cf the province (PN and CIM fields). The spiritual needs of 
the island group (AP.F field) also appear relatively still im- 
-cared for. A revision erf statistics since the accompanying map 
was drawn changes the shading of Ankihsien in the north- 
western section of the province from that which represents 
eommunkants per 10,000, to that representing 1-5 per 

Mack Areas— Note the three black hsiens in the west. 
Kinhwa-tao is noticeably below the average, dae to sparsity of 
population, the mountainous nature of the district, and the 
oonseouent difficulty in itineration. Moreover, this section of 
the province- has never fully recovered from the massacre of 




Chinese Employed Workers and Communicants 
Compareo 

0% 20% e&% ioof- 




■■i Female workers. 

am „ . caaxmanicict?. 

a Male workers. 

TOHlUlUBSCiMi. 



VIII. — COMMCNICAXTS PER 10,000 POPCLATION 




54 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 
III — Extent of Occupation — The Christian Community 



Name of Society 



Anglican 
Baptist 

-dtioaal 
Metbodist ... 



Presbyterian 

China Inland Mission 
Other Societies ... 



Grand Total 



CMS 

ABF 

LMS 

MES* 

CMC 

IX 

J'S 

CIM 

GCAM (CM) 

AFM 

CM* 

GMC* 

iiwi | 

8DA 

YMCA 

YWCA 



55 



859 



109 

37 

S 

28 

321 

31 

29 

215 

-54 

1 



918 



17,412 10,490 27.902 48,079 



62% ; 16% 



104 

42 

9 

28 

321 

42 

30 

245 

-54 

1 



1.412 


1,033 


1,308 


696 


117 


68 i 


1,814 


1,044 


3,452 


1,694 ! 


1,637 


1,436 


998 


818 s 


4,945 


2,955 


1,075 


620 




30 1 


480 


320 ! 


90 


60 


86 


26 j 



2,445 
2,002 
175 
2,858 
S,146 

3,0"3 

1,516 

7,900 

1,693 

30 

800 
150 



5,238 

2,912 

385 

7,554 

12,490 

3,528 
1,932 
9,589 
1,833 
30 

800 
150 

112 
1,526 



97% 26% 

65% 42% 

0% 

64% > 9% 

68% i 



54% 
62% 



60% 






31% 

52% 

8% 

0% 

100% 



68% 



61% 
60% 

■ ~ 



64% 
61% 
59% 
45% 



6'"% 
30% 
4:5% 
40% 



45% 
43% 
30% 



3,931 

25 

1.441 

1,611 

3,233 
1,629 
3,453 

105 



610 

479 






43 16,618 3d 



19 

102 

16 



% No returns 

* Incomplete returns 



IX. — Mission .Schools 



(1ANGSU 




g^oxti scam <a~.»«c?-*r , #» * 

o «sb mutt stma. tGMtfi&f- <Sric 
- torn muxt sowotifc $■ fkM 



XUMBER OF COMMtNIGlXTS AND MISSION PRIMARY 
^ril'FNTS COWERED 
1G00 9003 3000 1000 5000 COOO 7000 8000 SOOO 



y^vjv,'.y.Y 1 '.y.T;,r l ,-; -. 




MISSION SCHOOLS 

Elementary Eduestitin—In comparison with other pro- 
vinces, especially those having an equal amount of missionaiy- 
work, and opened approximately during the same £• nernl- 
period, Chekiang is relatively poorly supplied with Christian 
lower primary schools. Out of 2S3 lower primary schools re- 
ported, 74 are in cities of over 100,000. This leaves only 209 
lower primary schools for a total of giS evangelistic centers. 
A comparison between this map and Map V shows how Isrge- 
a number of evangelistic centers is without primary educa- 
tional facilities. 

The CIM, MES and CMC together report 61S organized 
churches, and only 96 lower primary schools. Incomplete 
educational returns may account for as striking a contrast as 
the above, although it is not likely to alter one's general im- 
pression regarding :he lack of emphasis on mission primary 
school education throughout the province. 

Higher Primary Schools— A total of 53 higher primary 
schools (ii of which are for girls) is reported, or one 
more Christian higher primary school than the number 
of mission stations. The varying emphasis between* 
missions on higher primary education is evident from the J 
lollowing summary. The ABF mission reports more higher 
primary schools for its 2,000 communicants than the MES 
£,nd CMC missions combined report for their. 8,000 communi- 
cents. On the other hand, the PX, with half again as many 
communicants as the ABF, reports only half the number of 
higher primary schools. For every 100 communicants irr. 
Chekiang there are 35 students reported in mission lower 
and higher primary schools. 

The following table shows the relative emphasis placed: 
on education by the larger mission societies :— 

ABF 96 primary students per 100 communicants 

CMS 02 „'-■„-', 

FS 59 . „ „ " " 

PX 42 „ „ „ „ 

° f C 23 

MES 16 

C1M *S » .. M » 

Mission MUdle Schools— There are 19 mission middle- 
schools in Chekiang, 7 of which are for girls. Of this total, 
12 reported full-grade work when the survey data was returned. 
Two of these are union middle schools, one for girls and one 
for boys, both located in Hangchow. Eighty-one per cent ot 
the total number of mission middle school students in Chekiang 
is boys. Comparison of th : s map with Map V shows mission 
middle schools to be well scattered and conveniently located. 
Tieutai district, however, shows no middle school within con- 
venient distance of the 7 higher primary schools located in it* 
vicinity. The same may be said of the southwestern section of 



'J HE PROVINCE OF CHEKIANG 



IY— Extent of Occupation— The Christian School 



Name of Society 



Grand Total ... 283 53 19 5,579 235 7£72 



Baptist 

Cooperations} 
Method i i ... 



Pnestiyteriaii 

China Inland Mission 

-Other Societies 



CMS 

ABF 

LMS 

HKS* 

UMC* 

rx 

PS 
CIM 

GCAM H'fM'i 
AFM 

CM" 
<BMC* 

Ii»dS 
SDA 

YMCA 

ywca 

HCC 



I Xa returns 

* Incomplete returns 

the province. Comparison of this map with Maps V and VII 
impresses one again with the need of better educational facili- 
ties in the Wenehow district. 

Of the total primary students for Chekiang (Government 
and Mission) only 3 per cent is reported to be enrolled in 
Christian mission schools. Tsientang-tao reports the highest 
proportion, 5 per cent of the total being mission schools. Only 
28 per cent of tkt students in mission lower primary schools 
advances to higher primary schools if may safely be assumed 
that less than 40 per cent advances into Christian middle 
schools, The difference of emphasis in educational work for 
boys and girls is shown by the fact that ;i per cent «»j Ui. 
students enrolled ia mission schools is boys. 

H-.giier Education and Teacher Training Facilities— The 
tJMC maintains jnnior colleges both at Ningpo and Wenehow. 
The only senior college is Hangchow Christian College, which 
offers work to boys from middle school grade on, through four 
years of junior and senior college. There is no Christian 
normal teacher training work reported by Protestant missions 
ior the entire province. 

GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS 

General Summary— The total number of government 
primary students in Chekiang (Report of the Ministry of 
Education, 1916) is 319,72a, or one and a half per cent of the total 
population. When contrasted with educational conditions in 
such a country as the United States, where 17 per cent of the 
population is in elementary schools, this percentage is very 
low. 

Government Middle and Normal Schools— There are twenty- 
•five government middle schools in the province located in 20 
•cities. None of these middle schools is for girls. Seventeen 
normal schools (lower grade), with an average of 120 students 
each are ate© reported : Hangchow, 2 ; Kingpo, 2 ; 
JShaohingfu, 3; Kashing, 2; Taichowfa, 2; Kinhwafu, 1; 
Wenehow, 1; Chucbww, sj Huehowfu 1; Chuchowfu, 1; 
Yeaehow, 1. Six of these are for girls; Hangchow, Kasbing, 
Ningpo, Shaohingfu, Taichowfa and Chuchow. 

Higher Educational Institutions — There is a government 
law college in Hangchow. Also a medical school (part 
.government and part private) in the same city. 



x m *> 00 



1,147 599 1,746 792 182 974 



10^92 7(P 81 22 



270 
899 

810 J 

523 : 
666 

393 



417 


1,340 


573 


1.427 


25 


25 


7^ 


$43 


161 


1,060 


315 


1,125 


•257 


rra 


263 


929 


89 


488 


22 


22 


63 


250 


30 


85 



113 


63 : 


97 


12 


81 


46 


90 


12 




i 



159 


50 


26 


76 




-V 'H 


219 


69 


888 




96 


60 


63 


123 




n 


1 85 




183 




176 


S3 


24 


- 




109 


182 




162 




127 










B 










35 










10 










317 


64 




64 





1 .05') 

1.056 

5*4 

30 

285 



X. — Government Schools 




5G 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



XL— Hospitals 




Areas :n Need — If this map be compared with Map V it 
becomes evident at once that a large number of missionary 
residential centers are without hospital facilities, twenty-thtec 
residential centers reporting no hospitals. If this map be 
compared with Map VII, it will be seen that half the cow. 
munieants reside in hsiens where no mission hospitals exist. 
The area which appears incst neglected is the southeaster.". 
section of the province, north and south of Wenehow. Her« 
there is a large evangelistic work, and a wide scattering 
of communicants. In the same connection note the 
district between Ningpo and Taichowfh ; also that south of 
Hangehcw around Chukihsien. Compare this map with Map 
IX. Wherever there is a mission middle school we find a 
mission hospital. 

Missionary Occupatiyn in terms of Doctors and Beds pet 
Million Inhabitants— The CIM, PN and UMC missions report 
less than ore doctor for every million inhabitants in their field* 
(Table VI, Col. 14). The PN, CIM and MES report the smallest 
number of hospital beds per million. (Table VI, Col. 15). 

Y— Extent of Occupation— The Christian Hospital 



HOSPITALS 

General Survey — Nineteen mission hospitals with an 
average of 65 patients each are reported for Chekiang. Twenty 
foreign physicians and 12 foreign nurses supervise this medical 
work. Approximately twice as many beds exist for men as 
for women patients. No new hospitals are being planned for 
the next five years. Nine dispensaries, located at centera 
where no hospital facilities exist, are also reported. The Komnti 
Catholic Church reports two hospitals and four dispensaries. 
Seven hospitals are under Chinese boards of directcas. 



























a 


































if 














































is 


■? 


. *J 


Z 3 


1 




§J 


: - 














7. 






_ 3 . 




















« m 


Name of Society 


| 


■ § s 


~ 


« 


S5 -2 


"I 


X 


i|J| 


~'t 














































0. 


►S 





,5 


X 




■ w 


' 






g- 




n 








Y, 


25 




1 


; 2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


Grand Total ... 


19 


i ' 


811 


422 


13,216 


10 


135 


61 


100 


Anglican ... CMS* 


7 




378 


193 


3,97*2 


4 


59 


95 


95 


Baptist ABF (a) 


4 




«6 


58 


2,440 


3 


32 


24 


29 


Congregational LMS 




















Methodist ... MES (a) 


1 




35 


10 


700 






m 




UMC 


2 




122 


42 


2,123 


1 


6 


164 




Presbyterian... PN 


1 


1 


15 


5 


800 






20 




PS 


1 




83 


X0 


2,254 


1 


26 


80 


160* 


China Inland 




















Mission... CIM 


1 


:s 


45 


15 


477 


1 


12 


30 




GCAM (cur) 


2 


:: 


50 


20 


430 










Other Societies 





















* Incomplete returns 

(a) Union medical work — Hnehowfu (ABF 4- MES) 



YI— Degree of Occupation and Table of Urgency 



Name of Society 



Anglican ... 
Baptist 

Congregational 
Methodist ... 



Presbyterian 

China Inland Mission 

Other Societies 



CO 



Grand Total. 



36,680 | a. 22,909,822 ai 



CMS 
ABF 
LMS 
MES 
UMC 

PN 

PS 

CIM 

GCAM (cim) 

AFM 

CM 

«MC 

Ind 

SDA 

YMCA 

YWCA 
HCC 



B 
A 
B 
A 
B 

A 
A 

Int 

Cent 

A 

B 
A 

B 
A 

Int 

Int 
A 



7,400 
2,275 
475 
1,500 
4,500 

3,225 

1,350 

24,800 

5,300 



150 
275 



3,100,000 

2,400,000 

260,000 

960,000 

2,400,000 

2,200,000 
1,800,000 

J 8,650,000 



150,000 
100,000 



344 1,788 j 27,902 

! 



i g -£_Sg .go ~ s 



so 

MO I -8 O 

"- © S3 2 



so 

& © 

** © 

00 



79 



12 



65 



•3 J •fje 



IS 

s ° 

S e 



12.5 



287 
270 
9 
127 
394 



2,445 

2,002 

175 

2,858 
5.149 



37 142 j 3,073 

35 138 1 1,516 

64 - 268 7,900 

18 72 I 1,695 

7 I a 30 



32 



800 
150 



93 


30 


112 


25 


36 




132 


7 


164 


3 


65 


12 


77 


24 


39 


( 8 



117 
135 
51 
45 
79 

47 
92 
34 
1 11 1 42 
220 233 I 66 



SO 



20 ; 

... I 
18 j 






8 




8 


1,966 | 


6 


143 ! 


29 


506 


21 


316 


14 


1,097 


8 ' 


1,086 i 


[ 11 

53 


j 437 
1 02 


IS 


333 

5.545 



593 345 0.9 



624 I 2.0 

137 j ... 

156 J 2.0 
227 0.4 

420 : 0.4 
592 1.0 

134 1 

344 . 
1.000 



0.: 



(a) Total for Province not for approximate estimates by societies as given below 



THE PROVINCE OF CHIHLI 



CHIHLI 



HSIEN BOUNDARIES 
Recent Changes in Boundary — Chihli, 
as the name "Direct Rule" implies, is the 
?eat of the snpreme government of the 
Chinese Republic, and therefore the most 
important of all the provinces of China. 
Previous to the Third Year of the Republic, 
e'hihli extended considerably north of its 
present boundary into the administrative 
districts now called Jehol and Chahar. Us 
total area then exceeded 115,000 sq. mi. 
Since 1014, tlse northern boundary of the 
province has been moved southward to con- 
form with the Great Wall. A special ad- 
ministrative district around Peking also has 
been formed, and the new Chihli has been 
-hvided politically into four tao, with 139 
hsiens. The area of Chihli as now con- 
stituted is approximately 60,000 sq. mi., 
somewhat larger in size than England and 
Wales combined. The capital of the pro- 
vince is Paotingfu. When comparing old 
population estimates and mission statistics 
with present estimates and figures for 
Chihli, this change in boundary must con- 
stantly be kept in mind. 

Physical Character istks — Mountains 
extend across the northern portion of the 
province. The land around the coast is 
level and fertile, rising gradually to form 
a large alluvial plain, hot and very pro- 
ductive in summer, but ee'd and afflicted 
with dnst storms in winter. The waters 
of the old and new Yellow River 
traverse this plain. Floods and inequality 
of rain^M! make harvests questionable. 
Tn many peaces the kind is low, swampy 
and scantily inhibited by an impoverished 
population. In these sections little mission 
work is attempted, {See Map II and 
Map V). 

Climate — Chihli is frequently spoken 
of as the healthiest province in east 
China. Extremes of hot and cold prevail. 
The air is exceptionally dry. People are 
lirget and more robust than in the south, 
due to the invigorating climate and their 
Tartar blood. 

North China is essentially aft agricul- 
tural region. The Peiho is the most mi- 
nt river. This does not end at 
<m, as the accompanying map might 
seen to indicate, but extends on north- 
westward being navigable as far as Tung- 
chow, where the Grand Canal ends. Tung- 
chow, until the Tientsin-Peking Railway 
was established, was the chief port of 
entry for Peking. 

Language — Mandarin is universally spoken throughout Chihli. 

Railroads, Rivers, and Roads— The Tientsin-Pukow, Peking-Moukden, 
Petctag-Kalgan, Peking-Hankow, and Peking-Mentowkow Railways 
traverse Chihli in all directions. In addition, the Grand Canal and the 
Peiho provide splendid water communications for small boats, while five 
«ncicni and important highways, extending from Peking as a center, con- 
stitute the main thoroughfares of travel by cart or chair, <r afoot. Of these 
five highways one runs eastward from Peking beyond Tungchow and 
Yungpingfn on to Shanhaikwan The second runs northward from Peking 
to Tolunncerh, via Fenguing. The third runs northwestward following 
the Pekirg-Ka'lgan Railway to Kalgan and on to Urga. A fourth runs 
south westward, front Peking via Paotingfu to Taiyuanfu, Sianfu and Lan- 
chowfu in faraway Kansn. A fifth runs southward from Peking to Tsinan, 
via Hokieufu and Tsangcfacw. It is interesting to note that 25 out of the 
39 missionary residential centers in Chihli are located along one or more 
of the main railway lines. «ta!y 5 residential centers are removed from 
railway communication further than 25 miles. 

Post Office and Telegraph Communications— No province in China 
is tetter supplied with postal and telegraph facilities than Chihli south 
of *,he Great Wall. A total of 198 post effiee stations of various grades 
and 845 postal agencies are reported. Out of 135 hsfen cities in Chihli, 
109 are post oflfce centers. Improvements and extensions in the mail 
service are being made constantly. These have much to do with the 
development of trade in the interior and should greatly promote evangeliza- 
tion through the press. 



I. — Hsien Boundaries 




SCALE I.O JWMM 



A be nt a hundred telegraph stations are reported for the province. 
Over 25 separate telegraph lines go out from Peking. By means of 
these, every part of the Chinese Republic can be reached at short notice. 

Economic Conditions— Chihli is essentially an agricultural province. 
"In the great plain the land is cultivable, and divided into small fields 
for intensive farming. Meadowland and pasture crops exist, and live- 
stock are reared not only as beasts of burden but also for meat products. 
Wheat is sown in the late fall and harvested in early summer, after which 
the other crops are planted, corn aud beans being planted in the same 
fields." At present the one necessity before better economic conditions 
can prevail is agricultural education. Changes like the following are 
most needed : rotation of crops, anima! husbandry, improved methods of 
tillage, and more general aforestation. This kind of modern agricultural 
training presupposes an elementary education which unfortunately not 
one Chihli farmer in 10,000 nvAv possesses. Inequality of rainfall renders 
harvests precarious, and the province frequently suffers from scarcity of 
crops and occasionally from severe famine. 

Chihli is rich in minerals, iron and coal being of the greatest com- 
mercial valne. Chinwangtao now ranks as the first port in the Orient 
for the shipment of coal, the amount exported being larger than that from 
any port in Japan. Tientsin is the great import and export center for the 
province. 

Transportation within the province is Largely by railroad. Chinese 
authorities report that 68 per cent of all transportation is by railways, 28 
per cent by waterways, and 4 per cent by coolie carriage along the roads. 



58 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



II.— Density ok Popcutiox 




/#■--:• s 



*V 




"'•■. ■ • 4 



1 








SCAlt •• *.09MW» 



generally considered as conservative and 
which reports 32,570,000. Xote that |$ie' 
Minchengpu figure for ioio and the B^j 
Office Census figure for 1919 are within 
2,000,000 of each other. If we accept the 
CCC estimate, the population den 
Chihli becomes 455 individuals per sq.njj. 
This is slightly above the population 
density of Massachusetts, The CCC popola- 
tion estimates exceed the Post Office est}* 
mates for the following hsiens : Hofcieh, 
Tungkwang, Shnlu, Laiyuan, Clungan, 
Suanhwa, and Hwaian. They are e^p. 
siderably lower than the Post Office e^ 
mates for the following hsiens : T-unhwa, 
Puyang, Changyuan, Yihsien, and Sinho. 

Densest A reas->— The most densely 
populated areas in Chihli are the centra! 
and extreme southern sections. In the 
north, near and beyond the Great Wall, ex- 
cept in the few fertile valleys the popula- 
tion is very sparse. 

Cities— Chihli has two cities above 
100,000, namely Peking, &»,ooo and Tien- 
tsin, 750,000; 4 cities between 50,000 and 
100,000, Shanhaikwan, 90,000; Tungehow, 
Ss.ooo; Paotingfu 70,000; and Kalgan, 
60,000; and 11 cities with populations 
between 20,000 and 50,000. Of these only 
5 are not missionary residential centers. 
Approximately 86 per cent of the to^i 
population in Chihli lives in cities of lefe 
than 10,000, or in rural districts. Tientsin, 
Kalgan, and Chinwangtao are treaty ottt- 
ports. 

9~he Christian Community — Twenty- 
two small dots out of a total of 27,000 flp 
the map represent the I"rotestant church 
membership in Chihli. An additional 57S 
dots represent the Christians reported by 
the Roman Catholic church. The Greek 
Orthodox church has been in Chihli oyer 
200 years, and reports about 6,000 Christians 
for all China. 



I.— Force at Work— Foreign 



Name of Society 



DENSITY OF POPULATION 

..Pffptrfaii&n Estimates — All population -^estimates for Chihli, ex- 
cept those received by the Survey 'tTommittee (igrS) and those of the 
recent Post Office Census (toiq) are for Chihli as delimited before the 
Fourth Year of the Republic. They cannot, therefore, be compared 
with the estimates available for this survey. Government official 
figures of population by hsiens supplied to the CCC place the popula- 
tion of Chihli as now delimited at 27,285,673. The recent Post 
Office Census estimate is somewhat higher, 28,017,339. If the Post 
Office figures for the hsiens north of the present boundary be added, 
ive have a total Post Office Census estimate for Chihli as formerly 
delimited of 34,186,711. The lowest estimate ever given for the 
province is that of the Board of Revenue (1885) 17,937.005- Tie 
highest estimate is that of the Minchengpu Censns 1910, which is 



Chinese and Foreign Workers Comparer 

120 80 40 40 80 120 1C0 200 240 280 320 360 400 440 40) «20 560 SCO 




•'\tmH!!!(>IKII!i!fll)«iilA 



Foreign? Workers 
Chinese Evangelistic Workers 
Chinese Educational Workers 
Chinese Medical Workers 



Grand Total ... 


100 


41 


14 22 186 


256 


408 


664 


Anglican SPG 

Congregational ...ABCFM 
LMS 
MP 
Methodist MEFB 


13 
15 

1 
17 




1 11 


18 

34 


15 

56 

1 


33 

81 

48 
103 


UMC 
Presbyterian PCC 

FN 
China Inland Mission CIM 
Other Societies ...AG 


4 


1 


10 


5 


10 

1*> 


7 ! 

IS 

23 


Ind 
MGC 
If CM 

XFEM 
SA 






■■■ •'• * 






li 

M 


SCM 

SDA 

Vn Med Coll 

YMCA 

IWCA 


1 

1 15 

8 


13 14 


•J 


15 


39 


I'ib.'e and Religions ( ABS, BFBS. 
Tract Societies 1KBSS, BTS 

Societies without organized 
evangelistic work or church 
constituency ... ... ... ... 


11 


1 


10 


16 




49 



THE PROVINCE OF CHIHLI 



59 



MISSION FIELDS 

General Summary — The entire province 

-except for a small district in the Western 

Hills is claimed by iS missionary societies. 

The SDA, SA, Itid, AG, YMCA, and 

YWCA,'S$ well as' educational, Bible, or 

religious tract societies are without field 

delimitations. In amount of area claimed 

the larger missions rank as follows : 

MEFB, fi3,500 sq.mi.); ABCFM, (10,650 

525 sq.mi.) ; LMS, (5,050 

: 5 sq.mi.) ; and UMC 

sq.mi.). /Table VI). Formerly the 

was included among 1 the mission 

s working in Chihli. Irt this Survey 

rlt of this Society is reported under 

' cj.s — Work is carried on 
1 e than one mission in about one- 
sixth of the province. The overlapping 
areas which arc most noticeable are those 
where the fields of the 
MEFB, UMC and LMS overlap; around 
Peking where the MEFB field overlaps on 
A field; in the northers stern 
of the province, where the MEFB 
g tin cross; and north of 
Shuntehfu, where the fields of the LMS and 
M overlap. Note the four discon- 
s of the SPG, also the fields 
of the ABCFM, which seem to hang 
led from Peking as from, a peg. 
n and Peking, being cities of over 
200,000 are indicated as "common area." 

—About two-thirds of the 
total area of the province is being worked 
a societies. 

Comity ■ Agreements — The missionary 

is unique in many ways 

because of the large number of small 

unclassified denominationally 

which have started work since the Boxer 

ar. The presence of these small 

- ;iot, however made eo-opera- 

Cordial relationships 

■'. most societies. 

Soon after. 1000 the representatives of 

all larger missions at work in Chihli met 

ia Pehtaifao to confer regarding field 

boundaries. At that time a list of the 

listens comprising tlie CIM field in the 

west, as well as the fields of several other 

missions, was made and agreed to. About 

me time an agreement was reached 

the LMS, the ABCFM, the PN, 

fEFB missions, affecting the 

of work in the 



III.— Protestant Mission Fields 




Xo official records cf this agreement have been reported. 
ts agreements made in conference with representa- 
dssions, partly verbal and partly embodied in minutes and 
whereby the fields around Peking, Paotir.srfu and Shunteh- 
?finitely delimited with practically no overlapping. The 
in old understanding between missions -.- Fecting 

■f the Grand Canal Other agreements by the MEFB are 

: less general in character, and boundaries r. 

d nor strictly observed. The LMS reports no written agree* 

the Siaochang or the Tsangchow fields, although fairly 

t. Around Siaochang a scheme of joint 

CFM is bang tried. The ABCFM reports mutual 

ith all neighboring missions. A t 
ling the delimitation of the MGC field is reported. 
tine the extension ct the field of this mission into the field 
1 1 stioH. The XFEM reports no definite agree- 
' Missies, whereby the northern bound 
•: the NFEM and the MP. Some understand: •. 
NCM. The delimitation of the MP Mission is def 
with the XEFM on the south, the Swedish II 

he north. This 1? hosen 



ivileges, and in part to the pu 

e time all reasonable 1 
s direction of establishing indepeu 
acting many who shunned the C 
sn, have been most sympathet 
e province, who have gladly made 
k and accepted service on their at 
eh organizations both in Peking 

nsefuiness and have att 
ional and political circles." 



force has increased met. 



in the 



eo 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



IV.— Age op Work 




AGE OF WORK 
Dr. Gutzlaff of the Netherlands Missionary Society, reached Tientsin 
in 1831, bnt established no permanent evangelistic work. The ABCFM 
was the first Protestant missionary society to establish permanent work in 
Cbihli (Tientsin i860 and Peking 1861). This society was followed by 
the UMC (Tientsin, 1S61), the LMS (Tientsin and Peking, 1861), the 



Mission Stat 


ions Arranged Chronologically 






1807- 
1860 


1861- j 1881- \ 1891- 
1880 ; 1890 1900 


1901- 
1910 


1911- 
1920 


Anglican SPG 

Congregational ... ...ABCFM 

LMS 
MP 
Methodist MEFB 


i 


3 1 

3 ... 

2 1 1 

"2 | "i I '.'.'. 


I 

1 




UMC 
PS 
China Inland Mission.. C1M 
Other Societies ... ...AG 

Ind 


-' 


1 \ ..' : i 

::: .! ~; 

... j ... ! 1 


1 
1 


2 
1 


MGC 
XCM 
NFEM 

SA 
SCM 




... j 
... j ... 

... j ... I 




2 
3 
2 
7 


SDA 

YMCA 

YWCA 




Z I "'. 1 "i 


"l ! 


1 
1 

■2 



CMS (Peking, 1861), the PN (PeJdag, 
1863), and the MEFB (Peking, 1870). Br* 
Blodget, Dr. Edkins, and Rev. J. Innocent 
were pioneers in Tientsin. The first 
Protestant missionaries to reside within 
the walls of Peking were Dr. Lcekliaxt 
(LMS) and Dr. Burdon (CMS). Dr. Martin 
(PN) and Dr. Lowry (MEFB) were the 
first to enter Cbihli for their respective 
missions. In 1880 the CMS withdrew from 
the province and passed its work over info 
the hands of the SPG. Before 18S0 the 
number of ABCFM mission stations in 
Chihli was more than double that of any 
other mission. 

Note the large number of stations 
opened during the last ten years. 
these were started by smaller societies un- 
classified denominationally. The ABCFM 
have reported no new mission stations in 
Chihli since 1S73; the LMS none since 
j?SS. More stations were opened by the 
larger societies before 1880 than was the 
case in the 40 years since. 

Compare this map with Map V. The 
older fields do not show a proportionately 
greater number of evangelistic centers. 
The big period of extensive evangelistic 
work appears to have been from 1881 to 
1900. Compare this map with Map VII. 
Again the oldest fields do not show a pro- 
portionately larger number of communi- 
cants. Commenting on the work of his 
mission one Chihli correspondent writes, 
"Strange to say the work around Peking 
is our oldest and poorest." This may be 
due to a variety of causes — depleted 
foreign or Chinese force, frequent changes 
in missionary personnel, differences of 
emphasis on various branches of mission- 
ary work. In Paotingfu the ABCFM 
preceded the PN by 20 years, yet reports 
only half as many communicants. Here 
again smaller working forces and frequent 
changes may account for the difference in 
the present numerical strength of these 
two missions. The American Board pre- 
ceded the Methodists in Tientsin, yet 
reports less than half as many communi- 
cants and one-fifth as many students. On 
the other hand, the LMS preceded both the 
American Board and the PN missions in 
Peking, yet claims the smallest number 
among these missions both of communi- 
cants and students. 

Effect of Boxer Uprising — Practically all mission property in churches, 
schools, hospitals, and foreign residences was completely destroyed in 
the year icco. In addition the ABCFM lost 3 missionaries, the PN 5 
missionaries and 3 children, and the CIM 3 missionaries and one child, 
all in Paotingfa. Several hundred missionaries and hundreds more 
Chinese Christians were besieged in Peking from June 20th till August 
14th. Hundreds of Chinese Christians in the interior were massacred, 
and scores more were lost to the church rolls through desertion. As late 
as 1906 the Kalgan station (ABCFM) reported only one half of "to 
membership previous to 1900 (500), although only 30 of this number hid 
been massacred. The Tungchow station of the American Board was c(>m- 
pletely demolished and 140 Chinese Christians martyred. The 
Tsunhwacbow station was lost to the MEFB. The PN mission houses in 
Paotingfu were burned and the Chinese Christians practically annihilated- 
Nine-tenths of the Chinese constituency belonging to the PN mission in 
Peking suffered martyrdom. The Tsangchow and Siaochang stations 
of the LMS were razed to the ground, the foreign missionaries having 
escaped to the coast. Thus from the view point of figures and material 
equipment the missions of Chihli suffered severe Joss during the spring 
and summer months ef 1900. 

On the other hand, the Boxer year could only bring a temporary set 
back. The progress of Christianity in China was assured. Larger and 
more mcdern plants were erected within a very few years after the 
Uprising, seme on the very ruins of former buildings. The Uprising re- 
sulted also in closer relationships between missions, and increased parti- 
cipation by Chinese Christians in the leadership and government of the 
church. The ABCFM states that one of the results oil the Boxer year 
in the Pcotingfu station was that Chinese Christians were thereafter given 
full responsibility in the management of the church work in that region. 

The college at Tungchow became thereafter the North China Union 
College, the PN and LMS sharing responsibilities with the ABCFM. In 
Paotingfu, federation between the PN and ABCFM n 5 effected. 



THE PROVINCE OF CHIHLI 



61 



STATIONS AND EVANGELISTIC 
CENTERS 



V. — Stations and Evangelistic Centers 



Stations and Residential Centers — 
Sixty-seven mission stations are reported 
for Chihli. These stations are located in 
39 centers. Around these missionary re- 
s'. kntM centers are located 471 evangel- 
istic centers, or an average of 7 evangel- 
istic centers for each of the 67 mission 
stations. Twenty-three out of the 39 re- 
sidential centers are non-denominational in 
their missionary personnel — that is to say, 
they can not be classified under anv of 
the large denominational groups. Seven 
of the 50 residential centers have repre- 
tives of more than one mission 
society. Eight have foreign women 
missionaries only. If classified according 
to the nationality of the resident mission- 
aries, 6 of these centers are international, 
17 American, 10 British, and 6 Continental. 
No plans for opening new mission stations 
in Chihli dating the next five years have 
beea reported. 

Centers of Evangelism — When com- 
pared with Chekiang, Kwangtung or other 
;;ees, where missionary work was 
begun fairly early, Chihli has relatively 
few evangelistic centers. This is account- 
ed for in part by the fact that sixteen of 
the 39 foreign residential centers {or 41 
per cent) have been opened since 1910. 
The highest number of evangelistic cen- 
ters appears in the northeast in the MEFB 
and CMC fields; in the triangular area 
rited by a line enclosing Peking, 
Tientsin;, and Paolingfa; and in the CMC 
and EMS fields which border " on Shan- 
tung. Note the scarcity of evangelistic 
centers north of Peking, south of Tien- 
tsin, and in the extreme western district. * 
All three of these sections are either 
mountainous, swampy, or sandy, offering 
meager sustenance to a scant population. 
The extreme southern section of the pro- 
vince reports a dense population, and the 
nee of few evangelistic centers is due 
here more to the inability of the missions 
adequately to occupy the field than to un- 
favorable physical characteristics. 

If this map be compared with Map II, 
the scarcity of evangelistic centers in the 
central and southern sections of the pro- 
vince where the population is relatively 
dense will be very noticeable. 

Degree of Christian Occupation — The 
MS3/B and CMC missions report over \i 
the total number of evangelistic centers 
in the province. These missions average 

appr<minately one evangelistic center for every 175 square miles of 
territory claimed. 

In this matter of number of square miles per evangelistic center, the 
larger missions of Chihli 'rank as follows : 




crwcBsnt awt* 
IMR9 m mssm saimm 

m itvm *» V wm 



?*<*%***#:*. 



cue 

SPG 
LMS 

PN ... 
MEFB 
ABCFM 
NCM 

saw 

CIM 
MGC 
NFEM 



me evangelistic center to every 



46 sq. 
59 » 

143 .» 

170 s. 

174 » 



620 
1 200 



Reasons for Present Inadequacy of Occupation— The older and larger 
societies mention 'int-siineiettey of staff, first Chinese, then foreign, as 
the main reason for their present inadequacy of occupation. The need for 
strong intensive work is keenly felt by members of the older missions. 
Most of the smaller missions in giving reasons for the inadequate occupa- 
tion of their fields, refer to their recent entrance upon missionary work, 
the inexperience of their foreign workers, and the lack of efficient Chinese 
Christian workers Considerable time Is given by some of the CIM 
missionaries to work of a business nature. 

Roman Catholic Mhst&n Work — The first attempt of the Roman 
Catholic Church to establish mission watk. ot a permanent character, 
according to S. Wells Williams in his book entitled "The Middle King- 
dom," (vol. II, p.287), was made by John of Montecorvino in the last 
decade of the 13th century. About 1393 this papal missionary joined a 
n gt.ir.g from India to Cathay, where he was kindly received by 
jvublai Khan. He settled in Cambaluc (Peking) where he built a church 
and bapti?ed nearly 6,ooo communicants. In 1307 he was appointed Arcfe 



bishop by Pope Clement V, who sent him seven suffragan bishops as 
assistants. During the 14th century, the Franciscans laboured throughout 
the province against much opposition from the Nestorians. Little is 
heard of these Franciscans or their converts after the expulsion of Kublai 
Khan end the Morgols. 

In 1599 Matthew Ricci, of the Society of Jesus, reached Peking. The 
war with Japan interfered with his work at the Court and he soon left 
for Nanking, returning again to Peking in 1601. Here his work was 
attended with marked success. Many well-known scholars were won to 
Christianity. Besides his own particular work in the capital, Ricci had 
the general management of all the work of the Jesuits in China. During 
the 17th century the jurisdiction of the Jesuit Bishop at Peking extended 
from Shensi eastward to Korea, and from southern Chihli northward to 
the northern borders cf Mongolia. By the end of the 18th century the 
rule of the Jesuits had passed into the hands of the Lazarists. Chihli 
was detached from the other provinces and made a separate "Vicariat 
Apostolicne de Tehely." Since then, as the work has extended and the 
communicant body of the Church increased, Chihli as a Vicariat Aposto- 
lique has been subdivided again and again, until to^lay there exist 6 
Vicariats Apostoliques de Tehely, five Lazarist, and one Jesuit, the latter 
being confined to the far eastern section of the province. 

One hundred thirty-six foreign priests and 50 foreign nuns are 
reported for the province; also 234 Chinese priests and 63 Chinese nuns. 
Roman Catholic priests, foreign and Chinesej reside in 147 centers. One 
thousand six hundred and nineteen churches or chapels are reported, and 
5157 evangelistic centers where annual missions are held. The total 
church membership for the province reaches the amazing figure of 57S»573» 
and the church constituency numbers 608,327. In other words, 
the Roman Catholic constituency reported for Chihli is almost as great 
as the entire Protestant church constituency reported for the whole of 
China. During the year .1918-19, 42,587 adults received the sacrament of 
baptism. 



69 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



II.— Force at Work— Chinese 



Name of Society 



Grand Total ... 62 567 124 783 



53 I O S'a 

si i a 1 



Anglican ... 
Coagregat'onal 



Methodist 



Presbyterian 



China Inland Mission 
Other Societies 



SPG 

ABCFM 

EMS 

MP 

MEFB 

CMC* 

PCC 

PN 

CIM 

AG* 

lad* 

MGC 
NCM 
NFEM 
PU* 

SA 

SCM 

SUA 

En Med Coll 

TMCA 



YWCA 

BMe and Beligioos Tract Societies! < jjgg'g jjc' 

Societies without organized evangelistic 

work or eharch constituency § 



48 
13 

194 



29 
109 
61 
13 
265 



51 

... | S 

20 m 
i n 



28 
47 
60 
4 
149 

28 

1 

54 



13 

79 



(a) This column includes educational workers in institutions above Middle School grade 
* Incomplete return 
i No retains 



11 12 



485 228 713 53 2 44 161 260 1726 181 



47 
97 
84 
6 
225 

32 
1 

93 
3 



59 

132 



•-z. ■- # .3? 



3 S"? 



8 


84 


21 


4 


210 


40 


3-5 


180 
19 


5 


95 


685 


98 


1 


84 




71 


247 






14 


2 



2 


! i 




100% 




100% I 




n% 




75% : 


i ... 


100% j 




100% | 



1,9 

2.0 



0.4 
1.3 
0.5 
0.9 
2.3 



III.— Extent of Occupation— The Christian Community 













a 












1 i 
































































1 

1 




c 
O 


i 

c 


o 


a 

| a 

S 


1 ° 

! f 

i ~'& 




o|g 


: -3 2 


! -S 3 

1 B ° 
! 1*1 


m 

i 


ill 


Name of Society 


1 
1 


"9 


3 

- 

S 


3 
S 

5 
O 


s 


s 

o 
S 


£ 3 
1 O 


J s 

11 ' 

go 


1 gS § * 


1 §ja 

! « g 

' B.g 
i g 


o c*^ 

— aim 

11 

1 If* 3 


! 1 
* 


5 *** ° 






- 






o 










! C« 


j g 


T. 


<£ 




1 


; 2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


Grand Total ... 


87 


1 365 


471 


14,585 


7,698 


j 22,283 


! 37,089 


65% 


j 34% 


«% 


«% 

S 


i 13,432 


46 


Anglican SPG 


5 


17 ! 


17 


459 


345 


804 


1,620 


57% 


39% 


60% 


37% 


247 


47 


Congregational ... ABCFM 


4 


67 


48 


2,920 


1,512 


4,432 


5,321 


66% 


35% 


55% 


40% 


690 


92 


LMS 


4 


i 70 J 


63 


2,096 


821 


2,917 


4,055 


71% 


29% 


44% 


30% 


682 


48 


MP 


X 


J 3 


7 


331 


79 


410 


652 


80% 


20% 


70% 


47% 


90 


58 


Methodist MEFB 


4 


\m | 


111 


5,542 


3,094 


j 8,636 


14,087 


64% 


35% 


68% 


55% 


6,365 


77 


OIC* 


4 


i 33 ! 


137 


1,017 


638 


1,655 


2,188 


61% 


13% 






268 




Presbyterian PCC 




i ... j 


6 


265 


175 


440 


493 


60% 


0% 


34% 


12% 






PN 


3 


4 I 


34 


1,207 


687 


1,894 


2,440 


64% 


60% 


74% 


34% 






China Inland Mission ... ... ... CIM 


3 


12 f 


10 


244 


50 


'294 


394 


84% 


0% 


40% 


30% 




%i 


Other Societies ... AG* 


10 


2 


4 


23 


14 


37 


37 


62% 










9 


Ind | 


4 




3 












... 










MGCS 


2 


2 


3 


52 


20 


72 


132 


72% 


0^ 






250 


24 


NCM 


3 


6 


8 


89 


30 


119 


119 


75% 






3 j'- 




15 


KFEMf 


2 




2 


... 




















SA 


7 


14 


6 


51 


43 


94 


565 


«4% 








910 ' 


16 


SCM 


5 


10 


11 


286 


187 


473 


473 


60% 








185 


43 


SDA 


1 




1 


3 


3 


6 


18 


50% 






100% 


27 




TMCA 














4,496 










2 078 




YvYCA 












. 

















A nnmbar of missions report more organised congregations th*n evangelistic centers. This is dae to the fast that ia large citie3 like Pekiaa, missions haxinsr more than one 
organized congregation, nevertheless reported these cities in each case as bat one evangelistic center 



| No retains 



* Incomplete returns 



THE PROVINCE OF CHIHLI 



63 



FULL-TIME CHRISTIAN WORKERS 
Distribution of ilfiss mwms— Over two 
thirds of all the foreign missionaries in 
ChihK reside in Peking' and Tientsin. 
This results in an average of six mission- 
aries in each of the remaining missionary 
residential centers. Women missionaries 
only are in 8 of these centers. Peking has 
almost five times as main- missionaries as 
Tientsin. Thirty-nine mission stations out 
of the total 07 in Chihli are reported by 
societies which can not be classified under 
any of the well-known denominational 
groups. Moreover, these nnclassified 
societies ocrapy 23 oat of the total 39 re- 
sidential centers. In other words, with 
than 4 per cent of the total eommnni- 
s in the province and 17 per cent of 
the foreign force, they report 60 per cent 
of the residential centers and 58 per cent 
<.£ the mission stations. 

When considering Christian occupation 
in terms of missionaries per million in- 
habitants, the larger societies rank as 
follows : SPG, 33 missionaries per million 
inhabitants; PN, 34; MEFB, 10; ABCFM, 
I.MS, 10; EMC, 4. In terms of 
its per 1,000 communicants these 
nk as follows : SPG, 41 mission- 
1 ,000 communicants ; PN, 36 ; 
ABCFM, iS; I.MS, 16; MEFB, 12; EMC, 

Twenty-eight per cent of the total 
foreign missionary force consists of single 
women, the largest number being reported 
by tl»e ABCFM. About 15 per cent of the 
foreign force is ordained. 

Chinese Foff-c and its Distribution — 
The Chinese workers total 1726, outnumber- 
ing the foreign workers almost three to 
one. This proportion is low when com- 
rared with other provinces. A glance at 
this Map VI gives two impressions among 
others : first, how few Christian Chinese 
workers are residing among Chihlt's 
twenty-seven millions outside the mission 
ad second, how large is the con- 
of Chinese workers in Peking, 
Tientsin, and Plaottingfu. Forty-one per 
cent of the total Chinese force in Chihli 

les in Peking and Tientsin. Fifty- 
per cent resides in missionary re- 
■ .1! centers. 

Classification of the Chinese Workers — 
Forty-four per cent of the total Chinese 
force is evangelistic, 4r per cent educa- 
tional, and 15 per cent medical (See Table 
II). The total number of full-time evangel- 
istic workers exceeds the total number erf 

educational workers in all missions except the SPG, LMS, and PN 
Sweaty-seven pes cent of the entire employed Chinese force consists of 
men. The EMC mission reports the highest percentage of Chinese male 
workers. 

Chwrch Supervision — Chihli, relatively speaking, has not a large 
number of ordained Chinese workers. The MEFB, with approximately 
one-third the total number of organized churches and communicants in 
the province, reports 66 per cent of the ordained pastors. All other 
missions together report a total of only 21 ordained workers, or an average 
of one ordained man for every 20 organized churches and approximately 
every 650 communicants. Differences in policy regarding church ad- 
ministration are evident in the following returns : — The ABCFM reports 
three ordained Chinese workers among 4,432 communicants, and the LMS 
one ordained worker among 3,917 communicants. On the other hand, 
the SPG reports 5 ordained workers among 804 communicants, an average 
of one ordained man for every 160 church members. In this connection 
it will be noticed that a number of missions report more organized churches 
than evangelistic centers. This is doe to the fact that, in large cities 
like Peking, a number of missions having more than one organized con- 
gregation nevertheless reported the city as one evangelistic center. 

Ratio {>f Employed Workers to Total Communicants— The PN employs 
13 out of every reo communicants, the SPG 10, MEFB 7, LMS 6, and the 
ABCFM, CMC and C1M each approximately 5 out of every hundred eom- 
mnni \ VI, Column 10). The total employed Chinese force for 

Chihli represents 7.7 per cent of the total communicant membership. The 

upied in terms of employed Chinese work*: 
million inhabitants are the MEFB 106, SPG 84, and CMC and ABCFM 
e drop between the SPG and the CMC The fields most 
poorly occupied are those of the PN and CIM, each with only 9 employed 
workers for every million inhabitants (Table VI, Column 8). 

rs— The following Bible Training School 
taciV: rs have been reported. Doubtless more facili- 

ties exist of which no information has been received by the Committee : — 



VI. — DlSTRIBtTIOS OF WORKJERS 




Institute (MEFB, 

I ABCFM, LMS, 



Peking University School of Theology; The Peking Bible 
CMC) ; North China Union Bible Institute, Peking 
PN; ; Training School for Preachers, Tientsin (CMC] ; Union Bible Train- 
ing School for Women, Peking (ABCFM, LMS I N . Women's Bible 
Training School, Paotingfu (ABCFM); Thompson Menu rial Women's 
Bible Training School, Changli (MEFB); Workers' Training inl- 
and Conferences, Pehtaiho. 

COMMUNICANT CHRISTIANS 

General Swrvey — The Protestant churches of Chihli report 22,283 com- 
municant members. This represents about one-twentyfifth of the reported 
strength of the Roman Catholic Church within the province 
Numerically at least the Roman Catholics are three times stronger in 
Chihli than in any of the other provinces of China. In the Peking district 
alone the Roman Catholic Church reports a membership of about a quarter 
of a million Christians. Sixty-five per cent of the Protestant membership 
consists of men. 

Distribution of the Protestant Membership — Compare this map with 
Map V. Note the concentration of communicants in and around Peking, 
Tientsin, and the districts of Paotingfu and Siaochang. The northeastern 
section of the province also reveals a healthy degree of evangelism. Com- 
pare this map with Map II. Unfavorable physical characteristics and 
sparseness of population account largely for the rick of cvmrnanleauts in 
such areas as those east of Paotingfu, south of Tsangchow, north and 
south of Tientsin, south of Tangshan, and the extreme west and north- 
west sections around the Great Wall. No reason has been given by 
missions in extreme southern Chihli for the smaH number of communicant 
Christians in their populous fields. Approximately 34 per cent of the total 
number of communicants in the province live in cities over 30,000. The 
PN reports the highest percentage (60 per cent). 

Membership by Denominations— The Protestant communicant church 
membership in Chihli may be classified into denominational groups as 
follows : Methodist, 46 per cent ; Congregational, 35 per cent ; Presby- 



fM 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



VII.— Communicant Christians 



- m hotbtmit cammuxi ammu&li- ft 



COMMUNICANTS PER 10,000 
POPULATION 
General Impressions—The Methodist 
fields appear to be best occupied in terms 
of communicants per 10,000 inhabitants. 
Hsiens reporting the smallest proportion of 
Pro';estaut Christians to populf>ti<>j> 
those in the PN and ABCFM fields 
of Peking, the ABCFM and CIM fields 
south and east of Faotingfu, and the fields 
of the MGC and SCM missions in the ex- 
treme southern part of the province. The 
hsiens which border on the Canal south of 
Tientsin also appear to be poorly occupied. 

Hsiens Relatively Unoccupied — The 
average number of communicants per 1 
for the whole province is 8.3. Twentv- 
ntne hsiens, or 21 per cent of the entire 
number, report one or less than one com- 
municant per io,ooo. One hundred and 
ten hsiens, or 79 per cent of the entire 
number, report fewer Christians pet 10,000 
than the average for the province. This 
indicates the presence of much unworked 
territory and reveals great need for more 
adequate occupation and more intensive 
work. The societies rank as follows in 
terms of communicants per io,o< 
MRFB, 16 communicants per 10,000; FCC,' 
12; UMC and ABCFM, 9 each; SPG, 8. 

Proportion of Communicants to Popula- 
tion— The Peking Administrative District 

VIII. — Communicants per 10,000 Popvlatjon 



terian, 11 per cent; Anglican, 4 per cent, 
Other Societies, 3 per cent ; CIM, 1 per cent. 
Note the absence of Baptists and Lutherans. 
Note also that 81 per cent of the communi- 
cant body is Congregational and Methodist. 

Degree of Literacy Among Com- 
municants— Sixty per cent of the men and 
43 per cent of the women communicants are 
reported as literate. The FN reports the 
highest litetacy among men, and the 
MEFB among women. (Table III, Columns 
10 and 11). 

Sunday School Work— The number of 
Sunday School scholars (13,43a) and the 
total number of students of all grades in 
mission schools are about equal. ChihH 
has 9,000 more communicants than Sunday 
School scholars. In ord<jr to show the 
differences of emphasis on Sunday School 
work between missions in the "different 
provinces, compare Chihli with Hupeh. 
This province, for example, with 7,000 
fewer communicants, reports almost 3,000 
more Sunda3' School scholars than Chihli. 
The Salvation Army reports 910 Sunday 
School scholars and 94 communicants, or 
almost 10 Sunday School scholars for every 
church member. 




&CAIE 


1 . 4 MiO.OOy 
'♦ft M MltXS 


t ■*! ** 


***- *»*- w4 



resn»Mc) ammmt n* urn reroute* 

jm» «* an 



THE PROVINCE OF CHIHLI 



65 



<Kittgcbao) repeats the hrgest proportion 
of communicants to population. Tsinhai- 
■tao follows, while the three renrnining tao 
(Kowpefc-tao in the extreme northwest, 
Tamiag-iao in the extreme south, and 
Paoring-tao in the middle west) claim a 
much Smaller proportion — or less than ©ne- 
tbird as many communicants as the first 
two districts fsee statistical table for 
Chihli on Christian Occupation by Hsiens, 
Appendix A). 



MISSION SCHOOLS 

Ulementwy Edtteaiiott — Only 316 
mission lower primary schools are reported 
lor Chihli. Reference to Map V reveals 
the fact that these lower primary schools 

are fceated in less than half of the total 
471 evangelistic centers. The total number 
of lower primary students for the province 
(8,554) is slightly more than one-third of 
the total number of communicants {22,283). 
This indicates little development in some 

ions in primary school education. The 
reports the fewest nnmber of 

jgefisttc centers having mission lower 

primary : schools. Incomplete returns may 

v aeeonnt for this nnfavorable show- 

II shows that the southern half 

province is relatively populous, and 
VII reveals a moderate nnmber and 
fairly wide distribution of Christian com- 
municants. However, from the accompany- 
ing map, one is led to question seriously 
the adequacy of mission primary educa- 
I facilities. Practically no Christian 
educational facilities exist west of the rail- 
way line extending south from Peking to 
Shantehfu. 

Higher Primary Schools — Approxi- 

mately 37 per cent of all mission lower 

pripafif grade students advance to higher 

est percentages 

are repeated by the LMS and MEFB 

missions, and the lowest by the T^MC. 

The total nnmber of mission higher 

primary Schools in Chihli is 44, with a 

repeated average of 72 students each. 

Fifteen of these higher primary schools, or 

approximately one-third of the total 

■ car, are for girls. Sixty-eight per 

cent of all mission primary students iff 

• are boys. Note the small number of 

" primary schools which are located 

le of the larger cities. Compare this 

map with Map V. Note the large number 

of mission stations between Paofcingfu and 

Shuntehfn. Then observe the absence of both lower and higher primary 
schools. Note a similar situation in the mission fields northwest of the 
•Great Wall, 

Compare this map with Map VII. Observe the large nnmber of 
communicants west and southwest of Changli. Then note the relatively 
few centers of Christian education. Again the question arises in the 
interest of fair "representation, may this not be accounted for by ineom- 
pleteness in returns. The absence of higher primary school work south 
•of Paotingfu and Tientsin is dne largely to the physical aspect of the 
country and the sparseness of population. Information regarding a higher 
primary school in the FCC field came too late for representation on "the 
accompanying map. 

* Schools — Chihli reports 24 Christian middle schools, with an 

ideate each. Six of these were not doing full-grade middle 

•school work when the Survey returns were received. Eight of the 24 

ane middle' schools for girls. Note the concentration of these middle 

ry residential centers. Does this place Christian 

educational facilities within convenient reach of the entire communicant 

body scattered over Chihli ? Eighty-five per cent of the mission middle 

All higher primary schools, except 6, and all 

middle schools, are located in centers where Christian hospitals are found. 

rences of Emphasis between Missions on Edumtiotud Work — 

The MGC reports 122 primary students for every 100 communicant 

•mem'' ger societies, the PN reports 60 primary students 

© communicants: the MEFB, 50; the CMC, 4S; the LMS, 40; the 

12 See Table VI, Column 13}. 

■}— Peking University (Union) in Peking ffor men), 

N\/rth China Woman's College (Union), offer the only 

education of a Christian character in Chihli. 

■College Ci ducatkm are offered by both institutions and 



IX. — Mission Schools 




a kindergarten tiainirg school Is 
The Mary Porter GatueweH School for 
training work. 



ter institution. 



GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS 

Statistical Svmm-ary—In July, 1916, Chihli reported over h. 
million primary students, or 1 student to every 54 inhabitants. 
(In the United States the prevailing average is 
student for every 6 inhabitants). This, therefore, is low for Chihli. 
However, when considered in terms of the number of its students per 
unit of population, Chihli ranks among the first if not the first among 
the provinces of China. Much credit for this is due Dr. C. D. Teuney, 
who was appointed by the central government as Supervisor of Education 
for Chihli Province, and who, under Yuan Shih Kai's leadership, travelled 
extensively over the province establishing and supervising government 
schools. "Chihli, of all the provinces of China, reports the largest 
number of lower primary schools and students. In the number of higher 
primary schools Kwangtung exceeds Chihli, reporting almost doable the 
nnmber. Forty-foar government middle schools are reported for Chihli, 
of which 14 are in Peking, 4 in Paotingfu, and 3 in Tientsin. As late as 
1918, 'only one out of all these .44 .middle schools was for girls. 

Comparison with Map III shows all mission fields equally favoured 
with government opportunities. If any neglected area needs to be 
pointed oat, it is the 3 hsiens just northeast of the railroad, line between 
Peking and Tientsin in the CMC and ABCFM fields. 

Areas Best Prozided aifcfc Ehmentwry F ateraflf 

the great educational center of the province. Tientsin, Tungcbow, and 
PaoBngfo lank next in their importance :<s educational centers. 
The district around Peking, called Kingehao, with the .exMptkm 
of fcwn hsiens cut el Its ' total of 20, is far below the average 



66 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OP CHINA 



X, — Government Schools 



W — "7 



SHANSI 



wwywi u\ 



♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 




^ ,M «^^Bff ,, - , 



HOSPITALS 

Present Medical Facilities— Cblhli ranks 
among the first five provinces of China 
In the number of its mission hospitals 
(24). When the number of hospital beds, 
per million inhabitants is considered, the 
general impression is not so favorable. 
Chihli reports only 43 hospital beds per 
million inhabitants, while returns froo* 
Fnkien show approximately 150. Com- 
plete and accurate statistics of missioa 
medical work have been difficult to secure. 
The following comparisons are interesting 
if we keep in mind the incomplete returns- 
of the UMC and the LMS :— 



1,000,00®' 



58 



Mission Hospital Beds per 
Inhabitants 
MP & NCM ... 

PN 

SPG 

MEFB ... ... 

LMS 

UMC 

ABCFM 

Number op Communicants per Missiose 
Hospital Bed 

PN ... 

LMS 

SPG 

MEFB 

UMC 

ABCFM 



14 
37 

55 



XL— Hospitals 



reported for the rest of the province. This 
is offset by the relatively large number 
of students in private schools. 

Relative Location of Government and 
Mission Middle Schools — All missionary 
residential centers, except ChangM, Shan- 
haikwan, and Siaochang, report govern- 
ment middle schools. In 21 of these 
missionary residential centers no mission 
middle schools exist. It is not known how 
much use, if any, is made by Christian 
forces of the government middle schools. 

Government Normal Schools — Seven 
normal schools of lower grade for men, 
and 4 for women, are reported for the 
province. Higher normal schools for men 
exist in Peking and Paotingfu, and for 
girls in Peking and Tientsin. 

Higher Education — Non-mission educa- 
tional institutions of high grade are 
reported as follows : 8 universities and 
colleges (6 in Peking and 2 in Tientsin), 
4 'aw colleges {3 in Peking and 1 in Tien- 
tsin), 4 medical colleges (2 in Peking," 1 in 
Tientsin, and 1 in Paotingfu), 3 technical 
colleges (1 in Peking, 1 in Tientsin, and 1 
in Tangshan). Peiyang University, es- 
tabHshed at Tientsin in 1887 by Dr. Tenney 
for the central government, was the first 
to take students through a university 
coarse of Western grade. 




HSKKtfT 

ftftS 

Bosmu («• 



Hh ""rasw « wmvnoMt msmtt aw 

4» .f%Mfr*Mr 



THE PROVINCE OF CHIHLI 



67 



IV — Extent of Occupation— The Christian School 



Name of Society 


1 ; I 

1 2 


o 

5 
M 

at 
S3 

3 


"^ 1 § 

Ǥ 1 "*S 

5 : -3 
55 { 31 

P j |s 

| ; I 

4 -5 


1 

s 

** so 

Ji 

6 


X X 


>» 

9 


! * 

"2 "5 J= 
X „ j X » ; » x 

■ ■ s x 
10 11 u 


13 


ft f' 1 '--"1 

14 15 16 


Grand Total... 316 44 24 


5,418 5,156 | 8,554 


2,480 708 5,188 


1,660 233 1.353 


15,635 


68\ 85';-, 37'-. 


AB#ean ... ... SPG 

»CoagrepatH»&l ... ... ... ABCFM 

LMS 
Ml 1 
MsUbodis* ... MEFB 

UMC* 

fresbjteriaB ... PCC 

PX 

China Island Mission CXM 

Other Societies ... AG § 

lad $ 
MGC 
KCM 
KFEM £ 
PU(b) 

SA 

SCM 

SDAS 

Un Med Coll (b) 

YMCA 

TWCA 


22 

47 

34 

4 

12-5 

33 
1 

35 
2 

2 
2 

1 

6 

2 


4 
9 
6 
1 
10 

1 

1 

1 

1 

4 


3 
4 
5 

6 

(a) 
3 

3 


460 ! 260 720 

549 779 1,328 

660 1 151 811 

65 ; 22 I 87 

2,019 ; 1,281 [ 3,300 

655 110 j 765 

14 ... 14 

559 ' 367 ' 926 

... 38 38 

j .„ ' 

54 21 75 
64 ... 64 

29 36 65 

213 • 71 289 

— 

"?t Z 72 


95 < 134 
217 133 
326 ; 38 

10 ! 6 
841 ; 309 

«| - 

5a s9 

16 ... 

::: ; i 


219 

350 

364 

16 

1,150 

45 

217 

16 

-9 

... 

802 


60 n 

121 ; no 

258 ; 14 

726 1 83 

« \ - 
72 4 

432 




ta 
m 

ITS 
M9 

73 
423 


1,081 
1,909 
1.417 

im 

5,259 

810 
14 

1 .213 

91 
64 

BS 


- 

- 

Sfift 

... 

:■■ 

... 
459£ ... ! 



* Incomplete retaras 
§ No returns 



(a) Union with MEFB in Peking 

(b) No work of Middle School grade wad below reported 



Seven mission dispensaries, apart from those located on hospital 
premises, are reported. 

Hospitals to he Built— Four new mission hospitals are to be 
-buiH within the next 5 years : Kaichow (MGC), Chichow (SPG), 
"Tamingfu (SCM), Yungtsing (SPG). 

Areas in Need— Mission hospitals are found in 15 out of 39 
-mission residential centers. One hospital only is reported for the 
33 missionary residential centers occupied by societies which are 
-not classified denominationally. This is significant when one re- 
-calls that aS per cent of the foreign workers live in these 23 centers. 

Compare '.this map with Map II. In the area south of Paotingfu, 
-which is relatively dense in popuMion, only six mission hospitals 
jaad one dispensary (not on hospital premises) are reported. Hospital 
•facilities are also noticeably lacking in the western section of the 
province, as well as in the triangular area included within lines 
■drawn between Peking, Paotingfu, and Tientsin. 

Compare this map with Map VII in order to observe how con- 
veniently situated mission hospitals are in relation to the Protest- 
„ant communicant body. Note the absence of convenient hospital 
facilities in the fields of the PN, MEFB, and TJMC missions west 
■of Yungpingfu. Note also the large number of communicants re- 
sident between Peking and Tientsin and south of Paotingfu who are 
-without medical facilities. 

Government end Institutional Hospitals— Government and in- 
stitutional hospitals of modern medicine in ChiMi are reported as 
follows: — 8 government hospitals (generally under the supervision 
■of the army or navy), one railroad hospital, one institutional (educa- 
tional), 3 Roman Catholic, and 20 private. Of these 30 private 
liospitals six are under foreign, six under Japanese, and 8 under 
<3linese supervision. Except for those under foreign supervision, 
private hospitals have not been shown on this map. Most of these 
private hospitals are located in Peking or Tientsin, They frequently 
report a small number of beds. The combined total of government 
and institutional hospitals of modern medicine for Chihli is 59. In 
Table V note the extraordinary number of beds *eported per Soreiga 
-nurse by some of the missions. 

Union Medical Work— The LMS, MEFB, and PN are united 
T»ith the China Medical Board of the Rockefeller Foundation in union 
medical work of high grade in Peking (See statistical returns). 



V.— Extent of Occupation— The Christian Hospital 



Name of Society 



x -8 



12 3 4 5 6 






Grand Total ... 


* 


6 


est 


534 


9.548 


10 


161 


21 


53 


Anglican 

Congregational 


SPG 

ABCFM 
LMS* 

MP (a) 
MEFB 


2 
1 
6 


::: 


48 
34 

148 


10 

6 

46 


j 
386! 
350 
1,332 : 


1 

i 


i 
10 


29 

32 


58 
194 


Methodist — ... ... 


1 


... 


130 


138 


2,448 I 


3 


65 


17 


51 




UMC* 


1 


4 


to 


10 


190 






30 





Presbyterian 

China Inland Mission . 
Other Societies 


PCC 
PS 
CIM 
AG* 


6 




100 


155 


... S 
3,119 ! 


* 


52 


25 

... 


85 

... 




Ind* 
MGC 

KCM* (a) 

KFEM 

SA 


1 


... 


ao 


"» 


300 

... 

... : 






40 


I 


SCM 
SDA 

Tin Med Coll 


'l 


1 


154 


149 


1,473; 


i 


30 


30 


... 
25 



* Incomplete retains 

(a) MP and KCM figures combined under KCM 



68 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



YL— Degree of Occupation and Table of Urgency 



Name of Society 



Anglican 
Congregational 



Methodist 



Presbyterian 

China Inland Mission 
Other Societies 



Grand Total... 



60.000 27.312,673 66* 1 1,7% 22,283 



H o 


I| 


.So 


o - 


se © 
























CO k 


a s 






*s 


11 


12 


13 



63 



30 



77 



SPG B 

ABCFM A 

LMS B 

MP A 

MEFB A 

UMC B 

PCC B 

PX A 

CIM Int 

AG A 

Ind Int 

MGC A 

XCM Cont 

XFEM Cont 
SA » Int 



SCM A 

SDA A 

Un Med Coll j Int 

YMCA lot 

YWCA hit 

Bible and Religions Tract Societies ^gec p-r's 

Societies without organized evangelistic work or 1 
ehuxeh constituency 



1,000 
10,650 
8,500 
2,375 
19,300 

6,200 

700 

5,700 

0,200 



1,000,000 
4,750,000 
4,730,000 
700,000 
5,552,000 

1,900,000 

350,000 

2,900,000 

1,500,000 

250,000 



1,900 



1 

1,5-00 | 
2,400 \ 



850,000 
450,000 
400,000 



1,900,000 
60,000 



2 

102 



57 
16 



84 
210 

180 

19 

585 

84 

6 

247 

14 
2 



18 

16 

4 

14 

28 

2 

59 

132 

10 



804 1 33 
4,432 I 17 



2.917 

410 

8,636 

1,655 
440 

1,894 

294 

37 



72 
119 



473 



49 



84 
44 
38 

27 
106 

44 

17 

9 



15 
333 



36 

50 

622 



166 
75 



47 
666 



105 
48 
62 
46 

68 

50 

14 

130 

48 



mi 

133 



60 
333 



8.2 



60S f 527 



309 
157 
235 
225 
740 



3.472 
167 



394 
4,500 



115 
377 
405 
257 
$05 

480 
32 

601 

127 



1.220 I 
533 f 



7C0 
634 



a 



Z0 43 



(a) Tolal for Province, not for approximate estimates by Societies as given below 



Number of Evangelistic Centers to each Mission Station 
S 10 15 20 25 30 35 




Number ok Communicants and Mission Primary Student* 
Compared 

1CO0 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 800© 




Communicants 

Mission Primary Students 



Pebcextage op Communicants who are Women 



era 

MP 

XCM 

MGC 

LMS 

ABCFM 

PS 

MEFB 

UMC 

SCM 

PCC 

SPG 

SA 



Pbbcextmje or Bjnto*Ei> 
Carnage XVoewgb* who 

A1SE WttSBS 



CIM 


30% 


MP 


10% 


XCM 


0% 


mgi; 


28% 


LMS 


23% 


ABCFM 


40"* 


PS 


32% 


MEFB 


21% 


UMC 


7% 


SCM 


25% 


PCC 


0% 


SP6 


40% 


SA 


29% 


SDA 


0% 



Number of Chinese Employed Workers per ioo Sq. Mi. 
1 8 3 45 6 7 8 




10% 



20% 



50% 



THE PROVINCE OP FUKIEN 



69 



FUKIEN 



L — Hs'E* BotmBARIES 




■S Pxi.-trl 



One meed not travel a gTeat disl 
hearing a new dialect spoken, which n 
not be intelligible 

historical significance and takes one -back I 
when a number of petty and isolated sta 
throughout southeastern and southern C 
Amoy dialect is spoken by approximate! 
people ; the Foochow dialect by S,coo,o<x 
Hingfawa dialect by .-approximately 2,000, 
yang, Kienning, Tingchow, and Sbaown 
lia! variations of their own. 



DENSITY OF POIT 

General Estimates — The popti 
been variously estimated 1 1 
(lOTO Census estimate', to ::. ; 
Census Board of Reven:: 
Estimate for rojro, which is genei 
servative, credits Fukien with a p< 
The hsien estimates received froi 
by the Survey Comtr.:: 
is undoubtedly high, as 
gives 13,157,791, tlnis closely 
chengpu estimate C1910). On the other hand, - 
thing may be said in support of the fa 
mate, when the generally accepted rate of i 
population for ten years is taken into consider 
Certainly 14,000,000 would be a cons. 
for the province. 

Lirge Citks — Fukien reports 3 cities 1 ch with a 
population exceeding 100,000: Foochow, •';- 
Chuanehowfu, 130,000, and Amoy, 1 14,0c©. 7 
are reported between 50,000 aad 
Changchcswfu, and Ningtch. There are 23 citk 
ported with populations between 20,000 and 50,000. 

Eighty-eight per cent of the people of Fukien live 
in towns of 10,000 and less, or in rural 

cstruction of property and loss of life occurred 
during the Taiping Rebellion. Foochow reach-; 
highest prosperity as a business port 
then, owing to the competition of India and Hankow in 
tea production, the business of the port has slowly de- 
clined. 



• - 



HSIEN BOUNDARIES 
Area and Political Dtvisicns — Chekiang and Kiangsu 
are the only provinces of China smaller in extent than 
:i which has an area of 46,332 sq. mi. This is 
■t equal to the area of Pennsylvania. The 
ty of population is 36S inhabitants per sq. mi., or 
more than doable the density of Pennsylvania. Politi- 
cally the province is divided into four tao, which are 
subdivided into 63 hsiens. The capital city is Foechow, 
miles from the mouth of the Min River. 
Foochow and Amoy are the only treaty ports. 

'ill Charetterhtics — Fukien is mountainous*, 

ts people consequently enjoy an isolation not 

known to inhabitants of other provinces. The watershed 

between the Kan River in Kiangsi and the Min River 

in Fukien forms the western border of the province. 

The mountain, ranges run almost parallel with the 

coast, varying in altitude from 1,000 feet in the west 

to 6,000 feet in the north, near Chekiang. There are 

numerous islands along the coast, which is broken with 

many bays too open for shelter. The Min River drains 

about three-quarters of the province. It exceeds 300 

in length and is renowned for its beautiful 

scenery. - The Kinlnng River,' which reaches the sea 

near Amoy, is the next river of importance. The 

climate is semi-tropical in the east and temperate in 

the west. Sixty per cent of the people of Fukien are 

cd in agriculture. Commercially the province is 

known for its tea., rice, sugqr cane, lacquer, lumber, 

fishing industries. Emigration to the Philippines 

ments is extensive. At its height it 

Ckrisiian Occupation by HsKns — Fukien is general- 
.1, so far as missionary work is concerned, 
occupied province of China. Protestant mis- 
deties are at work in every hsien. One- 
third of the b sit ns report mission activities by more 
• y. Only six hsiens report 
no organised tburches. Twenty report less than 



II. — Density of Popclatios 



tngnage — Because of its isolation Fnkien has had 

difficulty in retaining local dialects which difier 

ndarin and the local dialects of neigh- 




70 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



III — Protestant Mission Fields 



KIANGSI 




;?*-«£* 



necessary when studying both the maps and letterpress 
of Fukien to remember 'that the work of the CEZ3I$ 
is- always included with that of the CMS. 

Unfortunately, the delimitation of fields in aaf 
around Amoy, while aecorately traced on the large* 
original map cannot be satisfactorily . followed here. 
Fooehow being the only city with a population exceeding 
200,000 appears on this map as "common area." 

Overlapping Arms — : Note the following areas where 
missions overlap in their work : (a) north and south 
of Foochow, CMS and MEFB; (b) Yungchnn district, 
MEFB and EPM; (e> Tnngan and Changehowf' 
triers, north and northwest of Amoy, EMS and RCA; 
(d) Sharighang district, in the extreme southwest, EP3I 
and MBM ; (el northwest of Yenpingfa and southeast 
of Shaowu, ABCF3I and MEFB. 

Comity Agreements — The LMS reports definite sgreif 
meats with both the RCA and the EPM concerning the 
bt Ids of these three 'missions wherever they ' overlap; 
The Chinese Church, however, has not always respected 
these agreements. The ABCFM reports that south ol 
Foochow its field delimitations coincide with nsfea 
boundaries and are agreeable to all missions conce 
In its northwestern field the ABCFM reports a d< ■ - i 
understanding with the MEFR whereby both mi 
agree to keep a 10 li belt between them, and therein 
ue«thcr to bnild a chape! nor to open a school wii 
the consent of the other. The same mission (ABCFitjj 
imports a special agreement with the CMS regard ii 
eastern bonndary line. An agreement also 
the I.MS whereby the ABCFM reserves the liber 
expansion in a southeastward!} 7 direction. 

The RCA and the CMS report comity agi«n«.nts 
t-loug lines covered by the Report on Comity submitted 
to and adopted by the CCC at its annual meeting in 
ic.iS. The EPM reports written agreements made frost' 



th-; 



Economic Con 
province 1 
of inhabitants arc 

■-.:-'•. 



I'tions — The rich mineral resources of 

cly untouched. The majority 

agriculturists. The fishing industry 

the coast. The economic welfare of 

enhanced by large sums of 

es in the province 

ted and prospered in business 

test Density — There is considerable 

dation in the southwest. Here also 
;t developed. The sections along the 
around Kienningfu and north of the 
to be most densely populated. 

ilatir.n — One small dot in etc 



true to time 

respondence. 

with both tl 

the boundary 

A mutual agreement 

the MEFB whereby 1 

work within 10 li cf i 

mission. The SDA 1 

;:ny kind, and if the 

province be true, refu 

existing. 



IV. — Age ok Woek 



generally in the form of 1 
The MEFB reports definite 
■ CMS ami the ABCF1 
and the work of their Yenpi 



>rts no comity agreements of: 
irge of other missions in the 
to observe agreements already 



the Lnthi 
and they 




THE PROVINCE OF FEKTEX 



V. — Extent of Evangelism 




AGE OF WORK 

Pfeneer Work — The Treaty of Nanking, 1S42, officially opened Amov 
■and Foeehow to foreign residence. Even before peace was signed, in that 
-same year. Dr. ISavid Abeel and William J. Bcene of the ABCFM and 
RCA, entered Amoj-. Two years later Messrs. A. and J. Stronach of the 
I.MS arrived. F r \ 1 1 first missionaries of the Americ in 

Methodist Churcri and White, reached Fooebow, and were 

welcomed by representative s of the ABCFM who arrived in the same 
year (Mr. and Mrs; Feet and Mr. Johnson). In" T850"Re\~. D. Jackson and 
Uev. W. Witton. representatives of the CMS, entered Fooehew where 
-was restricted to city limits for 34 years. In the next yeir, 1S51, the 
HPM- began- work-in. Amoy. ThiiSpJby- the close cf the first half- of the 
19th eentnry five large societies {3 British and 3 American) had repre- 
.-■cntatives residing either in Foocb<!w or Amcy. Evangelistic work at first 
[ifficnlt and required great patience. The CMS,, for example, reported 
no converts for 11 years. Cooperation between the RCA and the ABCFM 
in China was discontinued in 1S57, and the Congregational Board with- 
•drew frcm Amcy," turning ■ ire field to-.lhe Reformed Church 

in America. "Fnkien, next to Kwanginng, reports the largest number of 
-missionary residential centers opened before i860. -A glance at the table 



EXTENT OF EVANGELISM 
Stations end Missionary Residentiil Centers — Four 
provinces exceed Fnkien in the mimber of mission 
stations .- CMhli, Kiangsu, Kwangtung, and Szechwan. 
The missionaries in Fukien's 63 mission stations reside 
in 4T residential centers. In only S of these centers 
hive we more than one society represe::: 
classified according to the nationality of the:': 
onel, 2i missii narv res 



than the Congregation dists and M 

There are < : 

ctnnot be classified among the we 

ExaHgeistu Ct ntt rs — Although 
provinces tcth in area and populs 
second in the number of its e 
Kwangtung, the first province to 
sionary propaganda, having an a 
Fukien, and a larger cemtn 1 
reports fewea 

communicant members is reported f 
!,:'.: ( enters. Each mis 

10 of these evangelistic cec 
MEFB repeats Uh 



the ABCFM nd RC 
Lira) 

River district, and 1 
to the RCA by the i 

Dtsi 
nun iter 1 
fields around 
vince averages one 1 
mi. This repa- 
rian than that repeat 
-npare the fit-Ids of the larjrci 
square miles to each evar 
follows in the degree of their Chri 

center to every zf sq. mi. ; CMS, one to every 40 sq. 1 
every 72 ; ABCFM, one to every 74 ; EPM, one to every 
every 105. Compare this map with Map II. It v 

a report the greater name 
- at light on the poti Is of chui 

and oversight among the various mi.-sions is obtained h 
comparisons : the MEFB reports 42 evangelistic 1 
EI'M 18; ABCFM, 16; RCA, 14: CMS, 14: LMS, vt. ' 



it w< 



iter we find the 1 
1 occupation : ME 



I. — Force at Work — Foreign 



Name of Society 



of mission stations, chronologically arranged-, will show 

■of largest extension was that of 1S91-1900. "Areas appearing ii 

*bis map lie a distance of 30 li .beyond any evangelistic center rej 

Mission Stations Arranged CBRokoLOGiCAU.* 



1 Bfi 



pen 
ack 



1911- 
19-20 



. -itional 



Asglieati... ., ... 

Us|siist 

<kwg*egatk>iial. 



ABCFM 
LMS 



Methodist 
T*i»sbyterian .... 

"Other Societies 


..."'MEFB 
... EPM 
RCA 
.. Tnd 


1 t 

1 


1 


3 lis 

1 ... i 

"! "... 

1 1 




YMCA 

TWCA 






t j - 1 

.... i 



Methodist . 
■rjerian. 



MEFB 

EPM 

RCA 

China Inland, Mission CIM 

Other Societies Ind 

SDA 

YMCA 

TWCA 



1 

3 


6 


1 


11 



Mote that the ABCFM and RCA opened no new stations during an 
interval of" about 40 years. At the present time, however, both societies 
ore breaking new ground, the ABCFM at Kkuninghsien, and the RCA 
at Lungyenehow in the old field cf the LMS. Note the large namber 
<H CMS stations. -Cempare this map with Map V. Note that the develop- 
ment in evangelistic centers is greatest where the work is oldest, except 
in mountainous districts. Compare this map with Map VIII. The dis- 
tricts just outside of Amoy-hsien, and those nearest Foochow, are shaded 
dark, even though these districts were opened to missionary propaganda 
I «caapataiively early. 



Grand Total ...' 


to 


26 


IS 


22 


198 


135 


319 


4Sf 


Anglican ... CMS t + CEZMS> 


17 
1 


- 


7 


16 


93 


1 


116 


142 

•2 



122 
39 

58 



NCMBER Of SgrjAKt Mtt.ES PER EVANGELISTIC CENTER 

ft 25 SO 75 ISO 

RCA >^ f— — — Sf— i^—— i I 

CMS ■■■■issssssssssssss** 



MEFB * 



72 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



VI. — Fuix-Timb Christian Workers 




Reason, for Inadequacy of Occupation— Ml missions 
when accounting for the present inadequacy of the 
Christian occupation of their fields, refer first to the 
lack of workers, especially Chinese workers, and second 
to financial restriction occasioned largely by the war 
and unfavourable exchange. It is difficult to know, 
after a perusal of the reports, whether or not this lack 
of Chinese workers is due to any one cause more than 
another. The need of more intensive work is emphasized 
by several correspondents. 



FULL-TIME CHRISTIAN WORKERS 

Fcreign Fcrce— Fukien ranks sixth among the pro- 
vinces in the number of its foreign missionaries, 454. 
Of this number, 70, or 15 per cent, are ordained ; 63, or 
14 per cent, are engaged in medical work. The per cent 
in educational work is unknown. About 43 per cent 
are single women. This large number of foreign single 
women is significant when one considers the emphasis 
it ought to bring on evangelistic work among women. 
Eighteen out of the 63 mission stations in Fukien are 
staffed by foreign women mission?! les only. 

The Distributicn cf the Foreign Force — Approxi- 
mately 33 per cent of the entire missionary body resides 
in Fcochow {154) ; 48 per cent, or almost half the total 
liuniber of missionaries, live in the three cities of over 
100,000 inhabitants, namely Foochow, Amoy, and 
Chuanehowfu. Outside of these cities the average num- 
ber of foreigners per foreign residential center is slightly 
over six. 

Sat tonality — There are no continental missionaries in 
Fukien. British missionaries number 205 and reside 
in 29 centers. American missionaries number 249 and 
reside in 20 centers. This smaller number of residential 
centers for American missionaries reveals greater con- 
centration of force, recessitated undoubtedly by the 
larger educational programs of American mission 
societies. 

The Chinese Employed Force— Fukien reports a 
higher proportion of employed Chinese workers to 
foreign workers than any other province, about eight 
to one. Shantung and Chekiang follow with about 5 
Chinese workers to every foreign worker. When classi- 



fied according to forms of work, the Chinese employed 
force is divided as follows ; 43 per cent evangelistic; 47 
per cent educational ; and 10 per cent medical. Foar 
out of the 6 leading missions report a larger educ atiemt 
than evangelistic Chinese force. These missions are the 
CMS, ABCFM, LMS, and RCA. 

Ordained Chinese Workers — Fukien ranks first 
among the provinces in the number of its ordained 
Chinese workers, reporting twice as many ordained 
workers as Chekiang. This large number is dne in part 
to the age of mission work throughout the province, 
end in part to the policy of the Methodist Church re- 
garding ordination. 

Wide differences in administration are made evi- 
dent by the degree of pastoral oveisight which exi . t> 
among the churches of various missions. The 
for instance, reports one ordained worker for every 13 
organized churches, and the CMS one for every 11 
organized churches. The RCA and MKFB report « 
every four organized churches while the EPM reports 
one ordained worker for one organized congregation. 
Sixty-seven per cent of the Chinese employed force con- 
sists of men. 

Distribution 5/ Chinese Workers— Compare this map. 
with Map V and Map VII. Relatively few evangelistic- 
centers or large groups of communicants appear to be 
without resident Chinese workers. It k significant to 
note further that while over 48 per cent of the mission- 
ary body resides in the three largest cities of the pro- 
vince, scarcely 20 per cent of the employed Chinese force- 
is found in these centers. May not this wide distribu- 
tion of Chinese workers over country areas aceeier«te 
evangelism? Fifty-eight per cent of the Chinese em- 
ployed staff resides in rural districts, beyond any mis- 
sion station. 

The missions employ a relatively high percentage 
of their communicant body: CMS, 15 per tent; EI'M, 
13 per cent; ABCFM, n per cent; RCA, 10 per cent; 
MEFB, 7 per cent ; and LMS, 6 per cent. 

Training Schools for Workers— {Information not 
complete)— The Methodists report Bible training schools 
for women in Hinghwafii, Kutienhsien, Lungtien, 
Mintsinghsien, Sienyu, Yenpingfu and Foochow; also 
Bible training schoo.'s for men in Hinghwafu, Yenping- 
fu, and Yungchun. 



VII.— Distribution of Communicants 




THE PROVINCE OF FUKIEN 
II. — Force at Work — Chinese 



73 



c * m 



g la x — 



Name of Society 



2 3 4 



Grand Total 



948 403 1,57! 



gut 



5 6 7 



1,023 648 1,699 



8 9 10 i 11 12 



54 



78 



173 320 



3490 589 



■ 


*t3 2 

1L - -2 


\ 


~ '- 3 

•^ 3 a 
~ ^ ■-: 

~z -'- - -' 
S5 2 



67 



7.9 



Anglican ... 

Baptist 

Congregational 



:a Inland Mission 

* Societies ... 



CMS( + CEZMS) 

ABP 

MBM 

ABCFM 

LMS 

MEFB 

EPM' 

BCA 

CIM 

Ind 

SDA 
YMCA 
YWCA 
Chinese Cbarch 



3 

70 
50 

S80 

150 

5? 
3 



109 
1 
9 

a 

20 

198 
16 
8 



293 
1 

21 
128 

76 

708 

192 

79 

3 

5 

45 
21 



1 



133 


188 


327 


132 


75 


213 


71 


30 


101 


418 


229 


659 


112 


59 


171 


104 


66 


174 


19 




19 


32 




32 


8 




2 



56 


108 


72~ 
1 


9 


IS 


21 ; 


5 


11 


HM 


70 


137 


1504 


20 


88 


391 


13 


; 


271 



(a) This column includes educational workers in institutions above Middle School grade 
Nt'MBER OF F,MFLOYED CHINESE WORKERS TER 1,000 COMMUNICANTS 
25 50 75 100 125 150 

3 



• CMS 
EFM-..- 
ASCFMt 

MEFB 
JLMS 



( i " i i i ; 

to^Miaiwfai'Mwy.'.y.'.'.wi ' '.' " ' ■ •}'■•>.■».>■■■'< •>,'.', »■■'.;■• •■■■ 



-=3 



HA\,WMA.WA 



uimuimiijinmmiinnAniimi 

The ABCFM reports a Bible training school for men in Sbaowu. The 
CMS reports Bible training schools for women in Hinghwafu, Nir.gteh, 
IJenkong, and Funingfu. The RCA reports Bible training schools ior 
men. and women in Amoy. The LMS reports a Union Bible women's 
I raining school in Amoy. The EFM reports a Bible training school for 
men in ChSanchowfu. A Union Theological School (ABCFM, CMS, and 
MEFB) exists in Foochow, affiliated with the Fukien Christian University. 
VHL — Communicants per 10,000 Population 



MEFB 

EPM 

CMS 

BCA 

ABCFM 

LMS 



Number of Employed Chinese Worker 
50 100 150 808 

r 









k N; 




it of any 
tant com- 



iii!i.ii)njiii;iiri 

COMMUNICANT CHRISTI 

General Summary — Fukien ranks thii 
provinces of China in the number of its ( 
municants, and first in the number of 
scholars. The Protestant societies report 
municant chnrch members. The Roman Cr 
reports a membership of 61,712. Of the tc 
emm ': membership approximately 20 per 
cities of over 50,000. The membership of 
church in Fukien is 4 times larger 
other mission. Sixty per cent of the Pi 
municants are men. 

Distribution of Communicants — Fukien 
the number of its church comnnmfc 
habitants, the average proportion bei ri- 
per xo,ooo inhabitants. This is almost 
ber reported by any other province. Comj 
with Map II. The communi 
numerous where the density of populatioj 
Compare this map with Map III. The over 
peem to have the larger number of church 
the distribution of communicants be consid 
of population, the MEFB fields are by 
evangelized, reporting 55 commui 
population. The ABF field in the 9 
province ranks second, and the RCA field third with re- 
ports of 19 and 16 communicants per 10,000 inhabitants 
respectively. 

Membership by Denominations — Tb 
body in Fukien may be classified denomination 
follows: Anglican, 5,136; Baptist, 255; Co 
tienal. 6,217; Methodist, 20,672; Presbyterian, 
Note that over half the communicant mem r t 
are Methodists. 

Literacy — Fukien ranks second or next to SI' 
the degree of literacy among Christian ec-mmunicr 
per cent of the men and 49 per cent of the women 
CMS and ABCFM report the highest degree of Hi 
Scholars — Sunday School sch< 
Fukien 133,022) exceed the total number of stud 
mission schools of all grades by almost three 
Moreover Fukien reports 3 times the number of 
School scholars reported bv any other pro-. 
3 Sundav School scl 



ants 
them 



communicant 



The 



tl< 



These cl 
Chinese 



74 



THE CHBISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 
III. — Extent of Occupation— The Christian Community 



Name of Society 



X S 



Grand Total 



63 965 ; i- 1,164 | 23,133 I 15,451 j 38,584 86,094 60% 



28% 



70%. 



49% 33,022 ■ 33.0 



Anglican 
Baptist 

Congregational 



Methodist .. 

terian 



China Inland Mission 
Other Societies 



CMS( + CEZMS) 

ABF 

MBM 

ABCFM 

LMS 

MEFB 
EPM* 
RCA 
CIM 

Ind 

SDA 
YMCA 
YWCA 
Chinese Church 



221 
4 



342 

4 

8 

82 

50 

506 

SO 

71 

1 



3,175 

52 

130 

2,085 

1,750 

12,280 
1.912 
1,389 



\ 1,961 


5,136 : 


3 


55 : 


50 


180 ! 


J 1,110 


3,195 I 


| 1,272 


3,022 i 


! 8,392 


20,672 • 


1,189 


3,101 1 


1 1,238 


2,627 ! 


2 


8 | 


48 


120 


136 


340 j 


50 


128 j 



13,431 

83 

480 

6,07? 

4,903 

45,571 

6,812 

5,693 

8 

120 

540 
2,072 



61% 
94% 

72% 
65% 



69% 
62% 

53*, 
75% 
60% 

60% 



29% 



80% 
78% 



48% 4,55 

II 



54% 35% 

60% 48% 



Incomplete reteras. (a) This total differs from the total for organized congregations given on the Hsien Table, Appendix A, due to additions for the El? M 

IY.— Extent of Occupation — The Christian School 





Name of Society 


1 | 
1 m 

1 - 


o 

•8 

OB 


6 

33 


33 x 


x 


1 




3G 


{SJOB 


X> . r 

X : 


X ., 

99 ' 


X j; 

•^ X 


■ J ■*• — — = 


:|i 


"E £ 5 

Hi 






E 


j§ 


^ 


~ 


~ 


: -3 


X 


g 


-*s 


■o 


— 


2 


^ - — 


*r — 


- :. 








































H 


a 




3 


•3 


tri 




a 


^* 


a 


a 




H ■ £! 


£ 








; 1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


s 


9 


10 i 


ii 


12 


19 ; 14 


15 


16 




Grand Total . 


■ 852 


96 


20 


17,526 


8,042 


25,568 


3,284 


1,328 


4,612 


1,291 


219 


1,510 


31,690 69% 


88% 


18 


Anglican ... 


CMS( + CEZMS) 


160 


19 


3 


2 262 


1,375 


] 3.637 


415 


306 


721 


96 ! 


16 


112 


£1 <L< 




Baptist 


ABF 

MBM 


























;*." I z 






Congregational 


ABCFM 


BB 


11 


4 


- '.'• 




■2M1 


482 


192 


674 


1«6 


3? 


218 


3,786 76% 








LMS 


63 


' 




1,488 


333 


, 1,821 


149 


SI 


236 








2.057 80% 






Methodist ... 


MEFB 


408 


24 


5 


6.741 


3.634 


10,375 


943 


499 


1,444 


22'') 




376 


12.195 65% 






Fresbvterian 


EPM 


72 


14 


3 


2.532 


912 


3,444 


410 


115 


523 


153 




155 


4.124 74%1 








RCA 


54 


14 


2 


2,067 


1,0*0 


3,147 


365 


129 


494 


136 


21 


157 


3,798 67% 






China Inland Mis 


sion CIM 
































Other Societies 


Ind 

SDA 
YMCA 
VWCA 
Chinese Chorch 


1 

4 

2 


2 
5 


2 


180 

B0 


40 


40 
180 

80 


135 
383 




... 

... j 


153 




153 

339 


40 ... 

468 100% 
722 100% 

80 100% 


100* 





Y.— Extent of Occupation- 


-The Christian Hospital 




Name of Society J £ -5 2 


1 


* 


x 5 




X 


'^. — 


& M 


| a 


£ 


r 


H =* 






~ i. 





















-"= 












K 


Y. 


1 2 


3 


4 


s 


6 


T 


8 


9 



Grand Total ... 41 9 1,242 1,188 21,125 13 132 



59 110 



Anglican ... CMS f-fCEZMSi 16 
Baptist ABF 

MBM 
Congregational ABCFM 5 

LMS 8 

Methodist ... MEFB 10 

Presbyterian... EPM 

China Inland Mission CIM j ... 



U '■ 662 . 8,401 ; (5 ' $ 



COMMUNICANTS PER ro.oco 

General Impressfons — By comparing" this map with similar maps 
for the other provinces, one is convinced by the graphical presentation 
alone that Fufcien is the best evangelized province of China. On the 
other hand, lest this fact lead to any hasty conclusions, it in 
well to add that the needs of Fnkien are for this very reason more 
pressing than those of other provinces, and that there is still only 
one Christian communicant in Fnkien among 444 non-Chrtsti: 1 

Btick Areas — The aTeas which appear to be least touched by 
Christian influence are those in the extreme north, in the west 
between the ABCFM and LMS fields, and the North River district 
of the RCA field, recently relinquished by the LMS. Minh< 
(Foochow), and Amoy-tao are the best occupied in terms of com- 
municants per 10,000. Tingchang-tao in the southwest reports the 
lowest degree of Christian occupation. Haitang, together with some 
neighboring islands which have received the name of pingtais: 
is perhaps the best occupied hsien in China when consider 
terms of Christian communicants per 10,000, This one hsien reports 
approximately 1,300 crmrch, members, and a Christian constituency 
of almost 4,000. The population estimate for Pingtanhsaen is , c 
This means that one person in every 63 inhabitants in this hsien U % 
cdmaimnicaiit church; member, and that one in every 25 is in some 
way interested in and related to Christian church activit 



THE PROVINCE OP PUETEN 



75 



IX. — Mission School 




COHMTXICANTS USD MlSSIONT PRISLUIV STCBEXTS COMPARED 
3,000 4.000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12.000 14,000 16,000 18,000 30,000 33,000 




yyyj CcHjmaulaujte 



MISSION SCHOOLS 

Although Fukien has femes church eoamuraicaaSs 

a either Kwasgtang or Shantung, it reports a larger 

ober both of higher and tower primary school students 

■ -; of this man with 



note especially the EPM field in the southwestern section 
kien, the MEFB field around Yulrihsien in the 
central part of the province and the populous district 
around Fnan in the northeast. Approximately 25 per 
cent of the evangelistic centers, one may safely conclude, 
are without mission lower primary schools. 

There are 96 mission higher primary schools in 

Faifca, 39 of which, are for girls. Mote the relatively 

I number of higher primary schools in the Hfog- 

hwafn district, which is densely popa'Sated and which 

reports a large number of communicants. 

Compare this map with Map V. Eleven missionary 
residential centers, or about 25 per cent, are without 
educational facilities above lower primary school grade. 
Only five mission higher primary schools are located 
in centers where no missionaries reside. 

?cls — Twenty mission middle schools, 
six of which are for girls, are reported for Fukien. 
These are located in 5 out of a total of 41 missionary 
residential centers. Fourteen are located in Foochow and 



schools. The RCA reports r.40 primary stndents for 
every 100 commnnkant members; EPM, 128; ABCFM, 
Cio; CMS, 85; LMS, 69; MEFB, 57. Much of the 
Christian lower primary education in Fukien is in the 
hands of the Chinese Church and there are many setf- 
smpporting schools connected with self-supporting 
churches which may not be included in 1 -.vims. 

Sixty-nine per cent of the students in mission lower 
and ligher primary schools and 85 per cent of 
stndents in mission middle schools throughout F . 
are boys. 

Higher Education — Facilities in Fukien for 
education of r. Christian character are 

• *r : the Fakien. Christian V- CMS, 

ABCFM, MEFB), the Women's College of & 
(MEFB), Trinity Coll.:. - ^lo-Chinese 

College' fME I 

—The following teacher 
training facilities are ofiered 
Wonv Foochow, where normal 



b trains teachers 

for lower primary and occasionally for higher primary 
school work. Trinity College (CMS), Foochow, - 
a higher normal training coarse for middle school 
graduates, and trains its students both for lower and 
higher Trimary school work. The Guthrie Memorial 
Middle School (MEFB), Hmgfawafa; Tannage College 
(RCA), Amoy; and the Jesse Johnston Memorial School 
map, offer normal courses as a special depart- 
ment of their curricula. Two kindergarten training 
schools exist in Fakien, the Knlangsu Kindergarten 
School at Amoy ET1 a Kinder^ 

nsr School* in Foochow CMS, MEFB and ABC 



'of th 
education reported for Fakien is given in mi 

schools. .(Appendix A — Christian Occupatioi 
Fukien, Column 20)- The total number o 
primary gta " : 

government primary students per 10,000 
compared with 290 per 10,000, which is th 
Shansi. This Msn prepares the n 

fallowing. In statistical tables of govermn 
of Education 
Fukien ranks next to the poorest among 
o: China in its elementary educational fa 
kiang with one-third more inhabit 
ports 6 mber of prin 

2C— -GovnoofSNT Schools 



Lien re- 



1 were report* 
when the Sa 



.eg .fofl grade 
lms were re- 
s north of the 
asee to Maps 
!Ct-Iistk work 



this district, 
missions in 



the 



relative 
is well 




76 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



XI. — Hospitals 




Chinese officials estimate that only 7 to 10 per cent of the inhabitants 
in the rural districts of Fukien are •able to read or write in the vernacular, 
and that not more than 25 per cent of the people in the capital city of 
Feochow are Sterate- During the past decade the attendance of girls in 
government schools increased 50 per cent, while the increase in the enroll- 
ment of boys reached only 20 per cent. Schools for girls are still largely 
nnder mission auspices. 

Missionaries per 1,000 Commoticaxts 
5 10 15 



Middle Schools — Twenty-one government m44 ! » 

schools are reported. Only one of these, situated la 
Foochcwyis far girls. Half the goif»ntteM'mMd%:seh<s 6 l s 
are located in centers where mission middle schools also 
are found. Poor government normal schools for mca 
and one for women are reported. Little is known of 
the grade of these schools or the quality of their -watfc, 1 
A girls' higher normal school is reported in Amoy , two 
non-mission law colleges, and one higher te> " 
college, are located in Booehow. A large Chinese uni- 1 
versity is now being planned for Amoy and funds 
already been subscribed for adequate buildings, 
maintenance, and endowment. 

HOSPITALS 
Occupation — Fukien is well provided with Chri- 
medical facilities. All six of the large mission societies 
report successful medical work, The C31S and MEFB 
do the largest smount. There is a total of ibrtj-oee 
mission hospitals, almost twice the number reported bv 
my other province. These hospitals have a t 
a PP rr beds. Forty-one foreign doctors-' 

•*• are in charge, a 
diiate nurses. 



Tune 



■9 Chinese physicians 
n and 78 Chinese gr; 
kree new hospitals ai 
an fRCA). one at Lun 



now being bt 
renchow 

i. Nine 
hospital premis 



They sp- 

cwnmasi- 



Dhinhntim — Compare this map with Maps Ii, HI, 
V, YI, and VII. The hospitals are located in areas 
where the density of population is greatest, 
pear to be within convenient reach both of 
cants and of mission students. Compare this m 
Map IX. Wherever there is a mission middle schocx 
we also find a mission hospital. 

Relative Need — The CMS ranks first among missies 
societies in Fukien in meeting the medical needs of a! >; 
people in its field m well as <rf its communicant member- 
ship. The LMS r-nd A.BCFM rank last in this respect. 
{Table VI, Column 12). The RCA and the ABCFM re- 
port the fewest number of foreign nnrses. The number 
of hospital beds per foreign physician is 50, per foreign 
nurse is no. In the RCA and ABCFM it runs as high as 
24a beds per foreign nurse (Table V, Columns 8 - 

Government HospttaJs— Two Japanese hos] 
reported, one in Amoy and another in Fooehow ; also one 
Roman Catholic hospital in Changchowfu, one govern- 
ment hospital in Foochow, and one community hospital 
in Amoy. 

MlSSIOXARlES PER 1,000,000 POPtTJlTIOX 
5 10 15 30 25 30 




,.,.;,..,„, ,,...,,.,.■ 



- . ■ ■ 



\S.^^VVS\\\kkVk^^S.V^<^^kV^VSV^ 



ABCFM P 

LMS piii!iu!jiiin;rififn 





YL- 


-Degree of Occupation 


and Table of Urgency 


















>* 


3 "o 

to tt 
— S~. 


6" 

a 
■2 1 




8 
8 

S 


c 

Co 


%\ 


J 


*2 .3 


fi 


x 3 


x 5 


— 5 


c 

3 

"32 

"S.S 


Name 


of Society 


ft 


§3 1 || 


S 


aim 
O 


c 
O 

"5 


— 2 


«| 


l§ 


«i 


ii 


x — 


Z§ 


|| 


sc 5 








c — 


l£ 


"d 




"— 


■ — ■ 


— 


~ 


& 


- "* 


& — 


tb *"" 


*■* 








J I 


** 


i 


f* 


| 


o 


- 


|i 


- 


X 5. 


a & 


& 


- 






1 


2 3 


* \ 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


ii 


12 


13 


14 


IS 




Grand Total-. 




(a) M 
46,330 17,067,277 


454 


MM 


38,564 


27 


XII • 


12 


93 


22.6 


at 


782 


24 


m 


Aajflicaa 


... CMS (+ GEZMS) 


B 


13.750 3,594,000 


143 ! 




6,136 


39 


202 ' 


2d 


146 


14 












... ABF 


A 


650 287,000 






6$ 




3 


... 


18 


19 












MBM 


A 


1,375 


■•■ 


21 


180 






11 


117 












Congregational ... 


... ABCFM 


A 


6,075 2,530.000 


m 


357 


2,195 


22 


143 | 


18 


112 


13 












LMS 


B 


5,275 2,112,000 


24 


188 


3,032 


11 


90 1 


8 


63 


14 










Me$ho4»t •-. 


... MEFB 


A 


- 13,225 ; 3,763,000 


122 


1,504 


20,672 


32 






78 


35 


nil 


570 






Presbvteriaa 


... EPM 


B 


7,550 1,935,000 


39 


391 


3,101 


20 






136 


16 




1,2*M 


2.6 . 






BCA 


A 


5,150 1,606.000 


M i 


271 


2,627 


23 






104 


16 


193 


1,390 


2.S 1 




Chin* Inlaw! M 


... CIM 


fat 


125 212,000 


... f 


3 


8 


... 






375 












Other Societies 


... lad 


A 




5 


6 


120 








50 






333 








SDA 


A 




10 


64 


240 






29 


:-- 




1,177 


523 








YMCA 


lot 




15 | 


53 
























YWCA 


Int 






























Chinese Church 










128 










1 






... 





"3 * 



fki Total lot Province, not for 8oei«lj> figures beiow 



THE PROVINCE OF HONAX 



HONAN 



I. — Hsom Boundaries 





III tu IX 








#** \*&l 






a 


shansi (^lJE&S/U 








— a J~~Jr* * \ "** .) 














* f * 




**.*. r~ 










\ 1 «i7^4-(7r *?* * v * Ty-v^i AHKW£I 


1 




i i J *i / ^^ / Y^' ^ f **^ ^"""V-***C 






B.,.. 


HUPEH J ". 


/a* ; •\j — w | 


.. . _rt 












J I 




S / \ ** i 






Waie i -i.ooo.fao 

T 1 Tl 1 *" ** ~ M HHJES 






• BSSOTT 
IK • 1 




' ' 





HSIEN BOUNDARIES 

Area and Political Divisions— Honan, because of its central position, 
and its consequent railroad and industrial development in the near 
future, ranks among the most important provinces of China. Its area 
is 67,940 sq. mi., which is slightly more than that of England and \\a?es 
oombined. It is divided politically into 4 tao. These are subdivided 
into 10S hsiens. The capital citj- is Kaifeng. 

Physical Cltaratteris tics— Ear convenience of study, Honan may be 
divided into 3 large river basins; the Yellow River in the north, the 
Hwai River in the southeast, and tributaries of the Han River in the 
southwest. These 3 river basins form the famous yellow earth districts 
of China, upon which the forefathers of the Chinese descended from the 
mountainous and less fertile regions in the west, and founded the 
"Middle Kingdom." From the legendary days of Fn Hsi, 2953 B.C., 
Honan has been the seat of the imperial government more frequently 
than any other province. At the tomb of Fu Hsi in Chenchowfu, a great 
festival "is held every spring in Fu Hsi's honor, when thousands of people 
come from long distances to worship at his shrine. Between the Hot 
and the Hwai river basins, and especially in the western and southwestern 
sections of Honan, the country is quite mountainous. The central plain 
slopes gradually toward the east. 

The following paragraph from "The Chinese Empire," edited by 
Mas shall Broomhal, aptly describes southern Honan : "Conceive a 
vast plain, bordered by mountains on its western side, and crossed by 
streams running at right angles to those mountain ranges— a plain, un- 
relieved by undulating hills, green in the season of growing and harvest, 
but brown for the test of the year, the central part baried in sand and 
loess deposit brought down b3 T the Yellow River. Conceive this plain 
dotted over with cities, towns and villages, and crossed in every direc- 
tion with brown earth roads, wide in the northern and central sections. 



and narrow and paved in the south, teeming with the hardy farming 
population, and you have a picture of Honan south of the Yellow River." 

North of the Yellow River the country is level and fertile, except 
toward the west, where a range of mountains known as the Taihangshan 
extends in a northeasterly direction. Owing to the lack of natural 
banks the Yellow River frequently overflows in flood season, 
and for this reason has been a source of sorrow more than once to the 
millions along its shores. 

Climate — Honan is a healthy province, having a temperate and 
invigorating climate. The cold winds from the north, however, make the 
winters rather severe, the thermometer occasionally dropping several 
degrees below zero on the plains. In summer the temperature rises 
sometimes to 110 degrees F. Kikmigshan, situated at a distance of 3 
hours by rail from Hankow, in the extreme southern part of the province, 
provides a delightful mountain resort where several hundred missionaries 
gather every summer from all sections of Honan, as well as from Hupeh, 
Sh-ansi, Southern Cfaihli, and elsewhere. 

Language — Mandarin is spoken throughout the province. 

Communications — The Peking-Hankow Railway crosses Honan from 
north to south via Sinyangchow, Weihwei, and Changte. A branch line 
extends from Weihwei to the rich coal mines in northwtst Honan. The 
I.ung-Hai Railway crosses the province from east to west, intersecting the 
Tientsin-Pukow Railway at SQchowfu, Ku., and the Peking-Hankow 
Hue at Chengehew, Ho. This line now extends westward beyond 
Horsanfu, and eventually it Is proposed to extend it further to Sianfu, 
Shensi, end on to Lanchowfn, Kansu. Another line is proposed which 
will also cross the province from east to west, but further south and 



78 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION Ci" CHINA 
1 1. — Density or Potolatioi* 




passing through Sinyangchow, connecting with the Tientsin-Pukow line 
in the east just a few miles north of Pukow, and extending westward to 
Chungking and Chengtn in Szechwan- 

Water Communications — Honan possesses good water communica- 
tions, although the Yellow River is navigable only in places. By means 
of the native junks, for example, it is possible to go from Chowkiakow, 
via the Sha and the Hwai Rivers, the Hangtseh Lake and the Grand. 
Canal, all the way to Chinkiang on the Yangtze. Water connections are 
also possible with Hankow and Tientsin. Several important highways 
cross the province. In some places these are broad enough to accom- 
modate carts. Were these roads improved, especially the old imperial 
road from Peking to Hankow, which passes through Chengtingfu (Chi.) 
and Kaifeng, the industrial and agricultural development of the province 
would be immeasurably accelerated. 

Post and Telegraph Offices — Government post offices were first opened 
in Honan about 1898. These have been surprisingly well patronized 
ever since and have multiplied rapidly. Over 650 post offices of <*11 
grades were reported for 1919, showing an increase of 140, or 3© per cent, 
during the last two years. The telegraph service leaves much to be 
desired in efficiency, though it is greater in extent than one might expect. 

Christian Occupation b'v Hsiens — A glance at the table 00 Christian 
occupation by hsiens (Appendix A) reveals that out of 108 hsiens, only 
two are without Protestant Church commnnieants. Sixty-three hsiens, 
or 58 per cent, report a Christian constituency of less then 100 each, and 
33 hsiens report fewer than two paid workers each. Approximately one- 
fouxth of all the hsiens of Honan are occupied bj- more th-:n one Protestant 
mission society. 



DENSITY OF POPULATION 
Population Estimates for the Province— Honan is one of the detistly 
populated provinces of China, having more inhabitants than Sinkiang, 
Mongolia, Kansu, Stoensi, ami Shansi combined. The population esti- 
mates have varied all the way from 35,310,000 (Statesman's Year Book, 
1902} down to 32,100-4000 {Board of Revenue, 1885). As early as 1S42 
the population was estimated at 29,069,771. The low estimate for 1S85 
is accounted for bv the severe famine of 1877-78, when Chinese authorities 



estimate that at least 9,000,000 people in Honan perished. In 1910 the 
Minchengpu Census, which was computed from an estimate by families 
and not by individuals, reported 5,120,000 families, or a total population 
of 25,6co,cco (5 individuals being reckoned to the family}. This esti- 
mate of 5 individuals per family has since been regarded both by Chi®- 
ese officials and experienced missionaries as being too low, and 6.6 in- 
dividuals per femily is suggested as being more nearly correct. Had 
this multiple (6.6) been used instead of 5, the total population of Honan, 
according to the Minchengpu Census (1910), woald hav-s been increased 
to 33,792,000. This is interesting in view of the more recent census 
returns. The official hsien estimates secured by the CCC Survey Cow* 
mittee (1918) report a total population for Honan of 32,547,366. The Post 
Office Censes (T919) records a total of 30,831,909. Note that all 3 
mates (the revised Minchengpu, the CCC and the Post Office estimate*) 
are approximately the same. If we accept the CCC estimate as being a 
happy mean, then the density of population in Honan amounts to 479 in* 
habitants per sq. mi. Even this is lower than the density figure given 
by Marshall Brcomhall in his work entitled "The Chinese Empire," in 
which he reports 520 people per sq. mi. This almost equals the density 
of Belgium (560 per sq. mi.), and is doubtless too high. 

Cities — There are 3 cities in Honan, each with 100,000 inhabitants or 
above : Kaifeng, 280,000 ; Chowkiakow, 200,000 ; Kwangchow, 100,000. 
Four other cities are reported, each with a population ranging somewhere 
between 50,000 and 100,000 : Changte, 6ojOOo; Kusbihsien, 60,000; 
Kweiteh, 50,000; and Nanyangfu, 50,000. Thirty-five cities are reported, 
each with a population estimated somewhere between 20,000 and 50,000. 
All city population estimates have been received from missionary cor- 
respondents and compared with all other available estimates, and 
best approximate. Practically 91 per cent of the people in Hon;; - 
in rural districts or in towns of 10,000 or tinder. 

Christian Population—- Twenty-one dots of the"smalkst size out of a 
total of 32,000 on the accompanying map represent the numerical strength 
of the Protestant church constituency in Honan. Fifty-two dots 
sent the number of Christians reported for the province by the Roman 
Catholic Church. 

Economic Conditions — The inhabitants of Honan, like those of north 
Anhwet, south Chihii, and Shantung are not ecoaomkaUy well-fa' 



THE PKOVINCE OF HONAN 
III.— PRorSstAsrr" Missiox -Fiilds 



79 




O. Wj, Guinness writes : "Poverty and squalor prevail everywhere. 
The inhabitants are indifferent to discomfort or dirt and apparently lack 
the enterprise necessary to ameliorate their own condition. Houses, 
roads, animals, people — all suffer from neglect. The land is well tilled, 
however, and the harvests are good. The majority of the inhabitants are 
farmers, somewhat uncouth in manner, and of an independent turn of 
mind. They are distinctly intelligent and are often marked by strong 
individuality." 

Honan produces an abundance of food of all kinds, grains, fruits, 
and vegetables. Some years rain is scarce or unevenly distributed, and 
this results in scant harvests, followed occasionally by severe famine and 
destitution such as now prevail over north Honan during this winter 
{1920-21). Salt is plentiful in the neighborhood of the Yellow River, and 
valuable coal fields are found between the valleys of the Sha and Ju Rivers. 
Many modern industries are being started throughout the province, some 
on a large scale. These are usually situated near railway centers and 
operated under Chinese management. Because, then, of its strategic 
position, its fertile soil, and the future industrial development which i< 
almost certain to follow the improvements in roads and the extension 
of railways, Honan is destined sooner or later to rank among the most 
important provinces of China. 

PROTESTANT MISSION FIELDS 
Mission Fields Compared — No part of Honan is unclaimed by Pro- 
wstant missions. Sixteen societies, representing all denominational 
groups except the Congregational, are reported. Of these there are only 
three societies which cannot be classified under anv of the well-known 
denominational groups : EbM, SDA, YMCA. The CIM and its affiliated 
mission (SMC) claim approximately one-third of the total area of the 
prwince. The PCC and the IXM rank next in the extent of areas 
claimed, each attempting to work slightly less than one-fifth of the total 
area of the province. The ILM, SDA," and YMCA are without field 
delimitations on the accompanying map. Both Kaifeng and Chowkiakow, 
being centers of 2co,coo inhabitants and over, should be indicated on the 
accompanying map as city areas common to all missions. The population 
estimate for Chowkiakow arrived too late for oar purposes. 



Ten of the 16 societies are American, 2 British, 2 Continental, and 2 
International $C1M and YMCA), in the nationality of their home con- 
stituencies. Note the approximate populations of different mission fields 
(Table VI, Column 3). 

Overlapping Areas— -The province presents no overlapping fields 
except immediately south of the Yellow River, around Honanfu in the 
Vest, and from Chengcbow eastward to the border of the province. 
Honanfu, Kaifeng, Kwangchow, Kweiteh, Tengchow, Suichow, and Yen- 
cheng are the only cities where more than one mission society has foreign 
resident workers. Moreover, reference to statistical returns soon con- 
vinces one that the overlapping east of Kaifeng is more apparent than 
real. The missions whose fields overlap report few stations. Much of 
the work is in its initial stages. Evangelistic centers are somewhat 
distant one from another. Only about 1,000 communicants are reported 
for overlapping areas. Yet these areas are located in the most densely 
populated sections of Honan as well as of all China. 

Comity Agreements— At the Shanghai Missionary Conference (rSoo) 
it was agreed among mission representatives that the territory in Honan 
north of the Yellow River should henceforth be Tegardtd as the special 
field of the PCC, on condition that said mission adequately occupy it. 
•Agreements have since been made by the PCC with the ABCFM in Shan- 
tung, delimiting the PCC field of responsibility in that province. The 
LUM reports definite understandings with the CIM regarding the de- 
limitation of its fields, and each mission is confining its efforts accord- 
ingly. The NLK reports written agreements with the ELAug covering 
certain sections of its field. A definite understanding concerning field 
limits exists between the NLK and CIM as well. As a result missionaries 
of one society have refrained from opening work in districts already 
occupied by missionaries of the other society. The SMC (era) reports 
an agreement with the ELAug which concerns especially the overlapping 
areas around Honanfu. The ELAug reports written agreements with all 
neighboring missions, whereby no chapels are to be built or work en- 
couraged beyond the territory now marked out as the special responsi- 
bility of these missives. Christian converts residing on or within 10 li 
of the boundary lines may attach themselves to whichever of the neigh- 
toring missions they prefer. The ChMMS reports definite agreements 



&$ 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 
IV.— AG* a* Work 



SHANTUNG 




with missions working to the north of their present field, bat none with 
missions working to the south where overlapping occurs. Certain hsiens 
sooth of Kaifeng are recognized as the special responsibility of certain 
missions, and this recognition virtually amounts to a formal agreement. 
Throughout the south the CIM reports a definite understanding regard- 
ing field delimitation and responsibility. Most of these understandings 
are verbal, and field limitations are expressed in terms of hsien bound- 
aries. Although no agreements affecting the boundaries of the Shekiehen 
district have yet been made, they are likely to mature after work is 
more developed. The boundaries of the CIM Kwangchow field have been 
fixed in consultation with representatives of the LUM. The UBM, SBC, 
MSCC, FMA, and SDA report no definite agreements regarding field 
delimitations. 

AGE OF WORK 

Picntir Period, — Missionary work of a permanent character was not 
begun in Honan until 1884, when the CIM secured premises in Chowkia- 
kow, an important trading center connected by water with the Yangtze 
River. For ten years representatives of this mission were the only Pro- 
testant workers in the province. 

"The Honanese farmer is conservative, independent, easily roused 
to anger, indifferent to discomfort or dirt, and in many districts, until 
recently, anti-foreign/* For this and other reasons, it. was very difficult 
for foreign missionaries to secure any foothold, especially in the larger 
fa cities. They were forced to settle in smaller places, to face opposi- 
tion and suspicion on every hand, and patiently to wait till more 
favorable opportunities came. 

In JS04 the Canadian Presbyterian Mission began work in Changte. 
Four years later the American Norwegian Lutheran Mission, now a part 
of the IXM, entered southern Honan and opened stations in Srayang- 
chow and Kioshau. In 1899 the Swedish Mission in. China, associated 
•with the China Inland Mission, commenced work in Sinanhsien, a city 
in the northwest of the province, one day's journey west of Hoaanfu. 
When the Baser Uprising occurred in 190©, four missionary societies were 
at work in the province: LUM, 2 stations; PCC, 3; CM, 8; SMC, J. 
Two cities occupied as stations by the PCC before the Boxer Uprising 
have since been abandoned for more favorable locations. 



Mission Stations Arrange© Chronologicaiiy 



1807- 
1860 



18*1- 
1880 



1881- 
1890 



1891- 
1900 



1901- 
1910 



1911- 
19% 



Anglican 


...MSCC 


Bapteft ... ... 


...ChMMS 




SBC 


Lutheran 


...ELAug 




ILM 




LB 




LBM 




LUM 




KLK 


Methodist 


...FMA 


Presbyterian ... 


...PCC 


Chin* Inland Mission.CIl 




SMC 


Other Societies... 


...EbM 




SDA 




TMCA 



Total... 



Note that approximately four-fifths of the mission stations in Houanr 
have been opened since the Boxer Uprising. Note also that the first 
decade of the twentieth century was the period of greatest expansion, j 
WW societies entering Honan between 1900-10, and 5 since 1910. 

Occupation of Kaifeng— Kaifeng was the last provincial capital itt 
China to be opened to Protestant missionaries. Until within the last 
15 years this city was notoriously anti-foreign, la .1898, Mr. Powell of 
theCIM spent his first night in Kaifeng, bat not until 1903 was he able- , 
to rent premises and formally establish a mission station. About the; 
middle of that' year he was Joined' by Br. ■©. -Whitfield Oainness. The 
following year better premises were secured in a more favorable qaarter. 
On the arrival of Mr. and Mrs. Ford work was begun among women. 
In 1907 Rev. and Mrs, C. F. Appleton, representing the AFM, reached 
Kaifeng. The following year the SBC sea* . Rev. and Mrs. Sallee. In 
1910, two years later, Bishop W. C. White, representing the Episcopal 
Church of Canada, began laying foundations for the work of this mission. 
At that time, ten years ago, Kaifeng reported bet » missionaries, 7 



THE PKOVINCE OF HONAN 
V. — Extent of Evangelism 




employed Chinese workers and 34 communicants. To-day the capital city 
reports 46 foreign workers, 57 employed Chinese workers and 520 church 
counts iinicants. 

Ages of Various Fields Compared — The areas shaded black and 
distant therefore 30 li or more from any evangelistic center, adjoin 
sections in neighboring provinces which either are unclaimed by any 
Protestant mission at the present time or are very inadequately worked. 
Compare this map with Maps V and VII. The main impression received 
is that the degree of Christian occupation in terms of evangelistic centers 
and communicant numbers is more or less proportional to the age of 
•work, Compare this map with Map IX. It does not follow that the 
longer any mission has worked in a field the greater its Christian educa- 
tional facilities. The educational policies of missions at work in Honan 
vary too greatly to justify this more or less hasty conclusion. 

EXTENT OF EVANGELISM 

Misswnary Residential Centers — Sixteen mission societies with a 
total of 67 stations are now at work in Honan. Their missionaries ^re 
located in 56 residential centers. Only 7 of these have representatives of 
more than one mission, There is an average of 7 evangelistic centers to 

each station, each averaging 27 communicants. Kaifeng reports the largest 
number of societies. Seven residential centers in Honan are International 
in the personnel of their missionary body, 27 are American, r6 British, and 
6 Continental. One center in Honan reports women missionaries only. 

A r €sr Mission Stations — Plans are being made to open eleven new 
mission stations during the next five years, 5 of these are to be opened 
by Lutheran societies, 3 by the Canadian Presbyterians, and 3 by the 
CIM. The proposed locations of these new mission stations, with the 
initials of the society opening each, are as follows : Kushihsien {LUM) ; 
Siatsai ILTJM} ; Waldatien (LUM) ; Lnyi (LBM) ; Yenshih*ien (ELAugl ; 
Yehsien (CIM).; Shaagehenghsiea (CIM) ; Shaaehow (SMC-CIM) ; Linhsien 
(PCC) ; Sinsiang (PCC) ; and Tsiyfian (PCC). 

Distribution, of ErangelistU Centers — At first glance one is impressed 
by the large number and fairly general distribution of evangelistic centers. 
The province appears welt worked. After comparison, however, with such 
provinces as Fukien and Shantung this first impression gives way to a 
second, namely that there is a sparseness of centers of evangelism in 
Honan, and that the Christian ©oeupatioc of the province is only begun. 



In Fukien there is one evangelistic center for every 40 sq. mi., in Honan 
there is one to every 150 sq. mi. Note the grouping of evangelistic centers 
around Kwangebow in the CIM and LUM fields. The areas just south of 
the Yellow River where a number of mission fields overlap, Teport no more 
evangelistic centres than areas where cne mission alone is at work; as 
for example the area of the LUM in the southern part of the province 
between the fields of the LB and NLK missions. Comparison with Map 
II shows this area where fields overlap to be the most densely populated 
section of the province. 

Few evangelistic centers are reported for the extreme western section 
of Honan in the fields of the NLK, SMC (cm), and ELAng. There is 
also a marked absence of evangelistic centers in the extreme southeastern 
section of the province bordering on Anhwei and Hupeh, also in the 
extreme western section north of the Yellow River in the PCC field. All 
these regions are mountainous in character. People are widely scattered 
and travel is difficult. 

The CIM reports the largest number of evangelistic centers, 166, or 
36 per cent of the total number. The LUM ranks second with 92, and the 
PCC third with 63. 



Nt~MBER or Sq. Mi. per Evangelistic Center 
100 200 300 408 -500 



600 



MSCC 

Eurag 
xlx 

mx 

ent+SMC, 

VMA 

SBC 



Reasons for Present Inadequacy of Occupation — la stating the reasons 
for the present inadequacy of Christian occupation, four-fifths of the 
societies mention as their first reason lack of workers, both Chinese and 
foreign. Two societies particularly emphasize the need of more and better 

trained CMne&e evangelists. Other reasons given are : (») Insufficieaey 
of funds, fa) Difficulty of communications, (3) Recent arrival on the field, 
and (a) General unrest throughout the province. 



82 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 

VI. — Distribution of Workers 




MKoa dttOTUn rani 



FULL-TIME CHRISTIAN WORKERS 
Distribution of Missionaries — The foreign missionary body numbering 
394 resides in 56 cities. Kaifeng has the largest community, almost 60, or 
approximately 15 per cent of the total foreign force in the province. Honan 
is unlike other provinces in that its foreign missionaries are more widely 
scattered and do not reside chiefly in the few larger cities. Chowkiakow, for 
example, with a population of over 100,000, had only 6 missionaries, and 
Kwangchow, the third city in the province, with a population exceeding 
100,000, reported only 7 foreign missionaries when the information for this 
Survey was gathered. There are only 9 residential centers in Honan out 
of the total 56, which report over 10 resident missionaries : Changte, 
Honanfu, Hwaikingfu, Kaifeng, Kioshan, Kweiteh, Sinyangchow, Wei- 
hwei, and Yenchcng. Nine mission stations have 10 or more mission- 
aries each. The remaining 5S mission stations in Honan average four 
missionaries each. Note the distinction between a mission station and 
a missionarj- residential center. 

Foreign Force Classified Denominationally — If we attempt to classify 
the foreign force into denominational groups we find that over one-third 
of the missionary body is Lutheran, and approximately one-fifth 
Presbyterian. When classified according to nationality we find that 202 
missionaries are American, 15a British, and 40 Continental. About 65 
per cent of the male missionaries are ordained. Twenty-two per cent of 
the entire missionary force are single women. The medical force has 
been greatly depleted, due mainly to the European war. Only 4 female 
and 19 male physicians are reported. 

Foreign and Chinese Workers Classified 
73 50 25 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 



I.— Force at Work — Foreign 







a 


a 
S 










I 






£ • ■ 

















a 







» 






fc. 


Name of Society 


1 
"3 
1 
O 


1 

8 
.5 

8 


t 

1 
| 

JX 
CM 


S 

1 
a 

55 


Single Worn 


S 
"3 


H 


Total Worn 


$ 

1 


fa 

1 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


8 


7 


8 


Grand Total ... 


100 


19 


4 


12 


87 


152 


242 


394 




MB Foreign Workers 

mans Chinese Evangelistic Workers 

1, Educational Workers 
Medical Workers 



Anglican MSCC 


6 


1 


1 


1 


7 


6 


12 


18 


Baptist ... ChMMS 


2 








2 


5 


8 


13 


SBC 


9 


1 






4 


11 


15 


26 


Lutheran v ELAug 


11 


2 


... 


3 


4 


11 


19 


30 


ILM 


1 








2 


3 


5 


8 


LB 


3 








2 


3 


5 


8 


LBM 


3 








1 


3 


4 


7 


LUM 


31 


4 


3 


16 


24 


42 


66 


NLK 


10 




1 


5 


10 


14 


24 


Methodist FMA 


6 


1 




1 


6 


8 


13 


21 


Presbyterian PCC 


21 


7 


2 


% 


21 


30 


50 


80 


China Inland Mission CIM 


3 


2 


1 ! 1 


10 


91 


33 


54 


SMC (cm) 


2 




... j ... 


6 


6 


10 


16 


Other Societies ... EbM 


1 




... ' ... 


2 


3 


4 


7 


SDA 


1 


1 




... 


5 


5 


10 


YMCA 


... 


... 






3 


3 


8 



THE FRGVINCE OF HONAN 



83 



II.— Force at Work— Chinese 



Name of Society 



C £ 3.H" 






Grand Total 



462 141 614 



Baptist 

Lutheran 



Methodist ... 

Presbyterian 
China Inland 

Other Societies 



Msec 

ChMMS 
SBC 

ELAug 
ILM 

LB 
LBM 

lcm 

NLK 

nu 

PCC 

CIM 

SMC (ctm) 
EbM 
SDA 
YMCA 



4 

no 

48 
16 

51 

S7 
20 
13 



28 
24 
21 
30 
3 

10 

6 

143 

64 



110 
24 
17 
29 
4 



!(■} 



312 97 



409 



20 49 



83 



= w 



1,106 161 



16 



77%' 2.8 



(a) This column includes educational workers in institutions above Middle School grade 

III.— Extent of Occupation— The Christian Community 







<ii 












63 


3 


■,-; 


1.4 


3 


7 


77 




>?7' 


M 






3 




67".-. 


0.3 






15 




si'i ; ' . 


1.8 






10 




70< 


1.4 


21 


30 


265 
109 


11 
3 




■ 


3 


8 


37 


4 


71 . 


1.8 


10 


19 


163 


6 


7..' 


i 6 


6 


19 


160 


110 


»!, 


3 






35 


12 


S(l 


■ 


























] 


1 


38 
14 






I 1 



Name of Society 



Grand Total ... 67 247 



Anglican ... 
Baptist 

Lutheran 

Methodist... 

Presbyterian 

China Inland Mission 

Other Societies ... 



MSCC 

ChMMS 

SBC 

ELAug 

ELM 

LB 

LBM 

LUM 

NLK 

FMA 

PCC 

CIM 

SMC (CIM) 

EbM 

SDA 

YMCA 



25 



45S 



115 135 

16 31 

9 10 

14 14 



8,344 4,074 12,418 20,636 



115 

20 

392 

287 

3 

24 

17 

1,989 

551 

122 

1,316 

2,786 
360 



51 166 

13 33 

260 652 

74 361 



5 

6 

842 

175 

98 

712 

1.406 

218 

58 

154 



29 

23 

2,831 

726 

220 

2,028 

4,192 
578 
156 
418 



641 

33 

1.032 

685 

6 

60 

95 

4,773 

1,373 

220 

3,324 
6,334 
632 
477 
418 
533 



i © t; 



66% 12 



58- 



34',, 



69% 

60 % 



79%, 

eo% 



56% 



94% 



78% 1 70% 70% 

70% | 10% m% 

76% i ... 

'55% i 12% : 70%' 



91 'S 



66% 

i 

30 ! ' : , 



65% 14% 

m% ) 9% 

62% 



46 

62 
67' 
H'> 
59 ' 



5,689 



399 
696 



53 
15 

1,005 



156 
100 
397 
ISO 



27 



IS 

6 

2.5 

30 

1 

4 

4 

31 
32 
is 

32 
31 
19 
16 
SO 



In the degree of Christian occupation, the societies rank from - mis- 
sionaries per i.ogo.ooo inhabitants (MSCC), up to 22 (FMA 
-diagram, and Table VI, Column 7, on page 89). 

It "fa interesting to compare the Christian occupation of Honan in 
terms of foreign force with that of Fukien or any other of the coast 
provinces, where most of the larger societies seldom fall below an average 
of 20 missionaries per 1,000,000 inhabitants. 

The societies rank as follows in the number of missionaries per r,ooo 
■communicants : 

MSCC 112 missionaries per 1,000 communicants 

FMA ., 95 

ELAug S3 „ „ 

FCC 40 „ „ 

SBC 40 

NLK 33 

LUM 24 „ „ „ „ 

CIM and SMC ... 15 „ „ „ 

In all proportions such as the above, it must be remembered that 
the number of missionaries appearing after the initials of any society 
fttrnisJies no index whatever to the number of missionaries actually re- 
ported by these same socities. For example, the MSCC with 1.1 2 mis- 
sionaries per 1,000 communicants reports only 18 missionaries, while the 
LCM with 24 missionaries per 1000 communicants has in reality 66 mis- 
sionaries. The reason for this will be obvious to all. 



Chinese Force and Its Di$tributt0tt^-The.t$ are 3 employed Chinese 
workers to every foreign worker in Honan. The NLK reports the highest 
proportion of employed Chinese to foreigners. The LUM rinks second, 
and the PCC and FMA rank last. (See Table II, Column 16). Fifty-five 
per cent of the employed Chinese force in Honan reside in missionary 
residential centers. Compare this map with Map V*. Over 360 evangelistic 
centers out of a total of 455 report resident Chinese workers. 

Classification of Employed Chinese Workers — Appropriately one-half 
of the employed Chinese workers in Honan devote then entire time to 
evangelistic effort. Less than one-third are employed in educational 
work. The CIM and its affiiliated mission report approximately three- 
fourths of all their workers as evangelists. The MSCC, SBC, and ELAug 
report more educational than evangelistic workers. (See Table II). 
Seventy-seven per cent of the employed Chinese force are men. 

Ordained Workers — Honan is poorly provided with ordained Chinese 
workers, only ix ordained Chinese as compared with 100 ordained foreign- 
ers, being reported. If these 11 Chinese ministers were to serve at large 
throughout the Chinese church of Honan each one would have under his 
personal charge 1,128 communicants scattered in 40 centers over an area 
of approximately 6,000 sq. mi. The FCC with 2,028 communicants re- 
ports 6 ordained clergymen, over half the total number in the province, 
or one for every 33S communicants. The ChMMS with 33 communicants, 
reports 3, and "the MSCC and the SDA one each. The CIM reports the 
largest number of voluntary workers. 



84 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OP CHINA 
VII. — Distribution of Communicants 



1 


IB jm "' jl» "" iMu.mil . 




c^r^n 




■ 


SHANSI / .\f?i-AA^ 


« 




. 1 a m m ,v*^y ■ 






X "1 






y^ . . - 1 CH1HL! 


^ — f~ ■ ■" A-J 




r^ - » a ^■'■" 




f i -_i .- - • . jL 








J^^*^ ^^^V-»_. - , J ^ i ^F-faJi" '" — I ^i'-k ^ 




*mnn**r - **4*&*&tif- - .1. i<«£— ^% 




-<"-rr • -■ - 7^*^ --i hi- ^^\^ 




( ri " " -.- 1" ^^ 




a jk 


1 l ."- - - ■ r - • J 




" I. ■ '""i - ■ - * - |\ 








SHENSI1 " -.. „ " - °v ' ./- J 








yJL ." " ■«*■ »" . - "=aH -*"£_/ 




^\1 - • . V" "*-aa. - _ _ V" f\»^ 








\f&2>^<^ .^ ------ « 






f \s \-i "- 1 * i^*- I 




a 


HUPEH -. " *."_TT* ) 


. .. _s 




1% - . ■■ 








. ■ «• 




SCAlt f,«4>ML*M 




/ /"— \/NL / 




* , » »» *» K HIUU 








i ** ** *a*-' '**> If 


- n»«omTuftcoii«iu(Mio«»Tuio(4tit1f* 

1 — — , L 




i» 


.. ut , .,, 



Christian Occupation in Terms of Chinese Workers 



Workers per i, 000,000 
inhabitants 

EbM 100 

SDA 84 

LUM 53 

NLK 47 

PCC 41 

FMA 39 

ELAug 34 

MSCC 27 

SBC 23 

CIM and SMC 22 



Workers per 1,000 
Communicants 

MSCC 424 

ELAug 214 

FMA 169 

NLK 151 

EbM 138 

SBC 97 

LUM 92 

SDA 90 

FCC 82 

CIM and SMC... 41 



Ike province averages 34 Chinese employed workers per 1,000,000 
inhabitants and 92 workers per 1,000 communicants. Note that ia both 
columns the CIM is below the average. This fact however must not be 
viewed apart from another equally important fact, namely that the CIM 
reports by far the largest number of voluntary workers for the province, 
«• no out of the total 161. 

In connection with the second table, note that the Canadian Episcopal 
Mission reports 4 out of every 10 communicants as in the employ of the 
church, the SBC, LUM, SDA, and PCC each less than one out of every 10, 
and the CIM one out of approximately every 24. 

City Occupation — A recent study of the Christian occupation of 
Kaifeng, by R. H, Stanley, gives the following classification of the employ- 
ed Chinese force in that city : 34 per cent evangelists, 59 per cent educa- 
tional workers, and 7 per cent medical workers. There i< one employed 
Chinese worker in Kaifeng for every 20,000 inhabitants. Mr. Stanley also 
makes this surprising statement, that in 1918 the proportion of new converts 
to missionaries was less than one to one. Yet in that same year Protest- 
ant missions in Kaifeng reported 1278 students under Christian instruc- 
tion, and 59 per ««t of the employed Chinese force a® engaged in eduea- 
tionsl work. 

Training Centers for Chinese Workers — No entries for Honan appear 
<m the list of normal training schools in China prepared by a special com- 



mittee of the Central China Christian Educational Association at Kuling, 
1920. Furthermore no Bible training school is reported for Honan on the 
list prepared by Dr. H. W. Luce of the China Christian Educational As- 
sociation during the summer of 1919. Bible training classes are how- 
ever known to be conducted by the different missions. These are short 
term classes and meet each year for a number of weeks. Students pre- 
paring for the ministry and connected with Lutheran churches are sent 
to the Union Lutheran Theological Seminary at Shekow, Hupeh. 



COMMUNICANT CHRISTIANS 

General Summary — Honan, Hunan, Hupeh, and Srechwan report: 
approximately the same number of communicants. The total Protestant 
church membership in Honan is 12,418. Sixty-six per cent of this mem- 
bership is composed of men. When one considers that most of Honan 
has been opened to Protestant missionary activities since 1900, that many 
churches are still not ten years old, and that opposition still exists in 
many places, the present strength of the Protestant church is most 
encouraging. The Roman Catholic reports a Christian constituency 
approximately four times greater and numbering 51,592. Honan is divid- 
ed into four vicariats apostoliques. Bishops* residences are located at 
Weihwei, Kaifeng, Hiangcheng, and Nanyangfu. 

Distribution of Protestant Church Members — Four facts seem to be- 
brought out strikingly by the accompanying map. (i) The small propor* 
tion of church members in the larger cities. Scarcely 12 per cent of the 
entire church membership of Honan resides in cities over 50,000. Com- 
pare this map with similar ones for Chihli and Fukien. Are the cities^ 
of Honan receiving sufficient attention ? (3) Except for the western ai*i 
northwestern sections of the province which are sparsely populated and 
mountainous, the distribution of communicants over Honan is fairly 
even. (3} The areas south of the Yellow River where several missions- 
overlap in their work do not show any larger proportion of communicants 
than other areas where overlapping does not exist. {4) The scarcity 
of Protestant church members in eastern Honan where the density <£ 
population is relatively greatest. 



THE PROVINCE OP HONAN 
VIII. — CoJorcrmcAsrrs per aoyooo Popixatiok 




«.» mm &« 



Compare this map with Map IV. AH areas which were opened 
«arlie$t or during the third period, 1S81 to 190s, report a pxoportioBately 

larger number of communicants. This greater development in church 
■work is particularly noticeable in the extreme north (PCC field J, and in 
the southeast around Kwangchow (LUM and CM fields). The districts 
around Smyeh and Tengchow (WM field), thongh. opened after the 
Boxer Uprising, appear to have 'as mam' communicants as areas which 
ira« opened earlier. 

Membership- by Dem&mmatimts — The CIM reports the largest mem- 
bership, 4,770 ccanmunieants. The Lutherans rank second, with 3, 
the Presbyterians third with 2,028; and the Baptists, Methodists, and 
Anglicans follow in order. 

Literacy — Fifty-eight per cent of the male church members and 34 
per cent of the female members are reported as literate, according to the 
•definition .adopted by the CCC for the purposes of this Survey. There is 
•considerable variation in the returns of the societies : the Anglicans 
fMSCC) report 94 per cent of the male membership and 91 per cent of 
the female membership as literate. The ELAug, at the other extreme, 
reports only 33 per cent of the male members and 23 per cent of the 
iemale members as literate. 

■ Missionary 0«ntfwi«*« l» Terms c/ C&mmmumwt Members — The 
avenge for the province is 3.8 communicants per 10,000 inhabitants. 
Among the larger societies the LUM and CIM report the highest propor- 
tions of ;conmwtka&ts to population (6 per 10,000), The MSCC reports 
"the lowest proportion, one communicant for every 10,000 (See Table 
VI, Cdnmn 11). 

Church Organisation — "There has been great advance throughout 
Honan in the spirit of independence and self-support. Congregations 
"with more or less complete organizations have been, formed and are now 
supporting their own evangelists or pastors, and largely managing their 
•own congregational affairs. Jn the Canadian Presbyterian Mission in 
J909 the Chang-Wei-Hwai Presbytery was formed and has since been 
'^assuming its fall -share of responsibility far the work among the con- 
gregations of the mission." (W. H. Grant). 

The presence in Honan of a large number of Lutheian missions has 
resulted in considerable progress along lines of church federation- "la 



the spring of 19x5 an important conference was held at Shekow (Hnpehl, 
at which the organization of a united Lutheran Church of China was 
discussed and preliminary suggestions for a constitution drafted. A 
temporary council d the Lutheran Church of China was elected and in 
the summer of 191 7 this Council called a general conference in whie\ 
every Lutheran mission in Central China was represented. The result 
of this conference was the unanimous adoption of a proposed *Constatu- 
tion of the Lutheran Church of China.* The plan of organization calls 
for a federation of synods (missions) within the larger organization. 
Each synod, will have full autonomy in all matters directly concerning 
itself and its work. The larger organization will be governed by a 
triennial general assembly, and by a permanent church council. The 
chairman of the various synods shall be ex-officio members of this 
Council, and shall constitute one-third of its membership. The other 
tseo-thirds, of which at least one-half must be Chinese, shall be elected 
by the General Assembly." 

During the summer of 19a©, thirty-three delegates, representing the 
ELAug, FMS, LUM, XMS, and the Church of Sweden Missionary Society, 
met at Kikungshan in the first tlencral Conference of the Lutbeiax. 
Church in China. At that time the completed constitution, referred to 
above, was adopted and signed. Of the five missions signatory to this 
new censtitntion, one church, the Church el Sweden Mission, is just 
beginning work in China. A union hymn-book has been prepared and 
plans for a union church-book, together with a union industrial school, 
missionary home and agency in Hankow, and a union normal schoal 
were considered. This meeting at Kiknngshan marks ihe formal begin- 
ning of a United Lutheran Church in China. 

COMMUNICANTS PER 10,000 POPULATION 
General Impressions— In terms of canmanicants per 10,000 Honan 
ranks among the last five provinces of Chsna, with an average of 3 > 
When political divisions within Honan are compared, Juyaag-tao in 1he 

southern part of the province south of Yencheng and Lusban reports 
the highest proportion (5.9). Bopeh-tao situated north of the Yellow River 
ranks next, 3.S per 10,000 commnnkants. Kaifeng-tao. south of the 

Yellow .River and in the central eastern section of the province, an* 



86 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 
IX.— Mission Schools 




Holo-tao south of the Yellow River and in the central western section of 
the province, report the lowest proportions, 2.5 and 2.4. It is worth 
noticing that the western section of the province, which is relatively 
poorly occupied because of its unfavourable physical characteristics, 
nevertheless, when regarded in terms of communicants per 10,000 in- 
habitants, appears as well occupied as the tao just south of the Yellow 
River in which Kaifeng and Kweiteh are located. 

Black Areas — Note the black hsicns in the west, where the population 
is sparse and where as yet little missionary work has been atternpted. 
Note also the hsiens north of Honanfu, as well as the two in the extreme 
southeast, Shangchcng and Kwangshan. Previous study of the maps 
has led us to anticipate this much. However, cne is surprised to find 
the hsiens east and west of Kaifeng and Tungsii shaded black ; also the 
hsiens east and west of Kweiteh. All these hsiens are claimed by more 
than one mission. They were opened to evangelistic work comparatively 
early. Undoubtedly the low proportion of communicants per 10,000 in- 
habitants is due to the small missionary force at work, foreign and 
Chinese, the few evangelistic centers, and especially to the dense popula- 
tion as indicated by estimates received. 



MISSION SCHOOLS 

Elementary Education — Honan is relatively backward in mission 
educational work, reporting only 257 lower primary schools, and 45 higher 
primary, 11 of which are for girls. The total number of primary students 
is approximately half that of the communicant membership and slightly 
more than a third that of the Christian constituency. Only three and 
three-tenths per cent of all primary students in Honan, both government 
and mission, are enrolled in mission schools. Compare the statistics of 
mission education in Honan with those for Anhwei. How are the 
differences to be explained? 

Two hundred evangelistic centers out of 455 in Honan appear to be 
without lower primary schools. There are fewer higher primary schools 
in Honan than missionary residential centers. Compare this map with 
Map V. While the lower primary schools are distributed uniformly over 
the field, there are several districts where they are noticeably few, for 
example, around Kwangchow, where the evangelistic centers are relatively 



numerous. The following table offers a striking comparison between the 
number of evangelistic centers and the number of primary schools reported 
by each of the larger missions : 

CIM and SMC 166 evangelistic centers and 43 lower primary schools- 

LUM 92 „ „ 65 

FCC 63 „ „ 40 

NLK 23 „ ,, 31 

SBC 26 „ „ 28 

SDA 14 „ „ 4 

FMA 14 „ „ 6 

ELAttg 12 ,, ,, 22 

MSCC it „ „ 16 

Eighty-three per cent of the students in lower primary schools do not 
continue work in schools of higher primary grade. The two Canadian 
Missions (ICC and MSCC) report the highest proportions of student*, 
advancing frcm lower to higher primary schools, if we except the EbM 
and SDA . Out of every ten mission primary students in Honan, 7 are boys. 

Mission Middle Schools — There are 10 mission middle schools reported 
for Honan, 2 of which are for girls. Four of these middle schools were 
doing fulli-grade work when the Survey returns were received. No union 
educational institution's are reported. Eighty-five per cent of the middle 
schools students are boys. Note that the following missions report no- 
middle school work : LB, LBM, NLK, FMA, SMC, ChMMS, EbM, and- 
YMCA. The 10 mission middle schools are located in 8 missionary re- 
sidential centers. Only 2 are removed any considerable distance from the 
railroads. Notice the proportion of higher primary schools in the southern 
part of the province just west of the railroad. No middle schools, however,, 
are located in this district. 

The PCC, LUM, SBC, and MSCC report most of the middle school 
work. These four missions have 242 students out of the total 280 reported 
for the pro% r ince. Kaifeng is the most important mission educational center. 
Mission hospitals are established in all cities where mission middle schools 
are located, except in Juchow and Hiangcheng, Among missions report- 
ing no middle schools, the CIM, ELAug, NLK, and YMCA have the larger 
numbers of higher primary students. 



THE PROVINCE OP HONAN 
X. — Government Schools 



bl 




Compare this map with Map II. Notice the few mission educational 
centers in the eastern section of the province, where the density of popul* 
tion exceeds 500 inhabitants per sq.mi. Note also that with the exception 
of Kaifeng the area just south of the Yellow River, where mission fields 
overlap, is no better provided with educational facilities than other parts 
of the province. 

Educational Facilities Expressed m Terms of Hsiens — Thirty-eight out 
of a total of iqS hsiens in Honan report no mission lower primary schools. 
Oaty 3 hsiens however report no evangelistic centers. Two-thirds of the 
hsiens in Hcnan report less than 50 mission lower primary students each. 
Only 25 per cent of all the hsiens report mission higher primary schools. 

Higiier Education and Teacher Training Futilities — No mission 
educational facilities above middle school grade are reported for Honan. 
Several middle schools offer normal courses with a view to preparing their 
■tudents to teach in lower and higher primary schools, but as yet no 
mission normal school has been established. 

NmtBER OP COMMPKICANTS AND MISSION PRIMARY STUDENTS COMPARED 
500 1000 1-500 2000 2-5 00 3000 3500 4000 4500 

cm 

west 

POO 




- t»gpa Conrmui:. 

CZJ Mission Primary Si.: 

GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS 
General Swnmaly — The total number of government primary students 
in Honan {Report of the Ministry of Education, 19x0) is 197,014- Th » is 
equivalent to one primary student in every 164 inhabitants. The pre- 
portion reported for the United States is one primary student in every 5 
inhabitants. Less than 4 per cent of the total number of primary students 



in Honan are enrolled in mission schools. Slightly over 6 per cent of 
the government lower primary students pass on to higher primary schools. 

Hcnan is considerably below the average for China in educational 
facilities and in the number of its students. Roughly speaking, less than 
2 pa- cent of the inhabitants of China may be said to be in primary schools. 
The average for Honan however is lower than the a\-erage for the whole 
country, being 198,000 out of 32 million or consideraliy under one per 
cent. If the hsiens of the province were shadod so as to represent the 
number of government primary students per 10,000, the lighter areas would 
be in the central western section, and in the districts through which the 
Peking-Hankow Railway- passes from north to south. The darkest areas, 
levealing the lowest number of government primary students per 10,000, 
would appear in the dense districts of eastern Honan. This is noteworthy 
and of special significance to missions, for although no mission schools 
exist in many hsiens of the SMC field for example, the educational facili- 
ties are apparently greater there than in hsiens elsewhere in Honan 
where missions may be carrying forward large educational programs, and 
therefore be justified therein. 

Government Middle and Normal Schools— There are 17 government 
middle schools for boys and none for girls in Honan. These schools are 
located in n cities where as yet no mission middle schools have been 
established. On the other hand, mission middle schools are found in 3 
cities where as yet no government middle schools exist. 

The following cities report government middle schools and no mission 
middle schools : Hwaikingfu and Wuchih in the PCC field ; Juning, 
Kwangehow, and Kushibssen in the LUM fields ; Yuugcheng in the MSCC 
field ; Huyangchen in the LB field ; Shanchow in the SMC field ; and 
Chenchowfu in the CIM field, near Chowkiakow. All cities listed above 
except three, Wuchih, Yungcheng, and Huyangchen, are occupied as 
mission stations at the present time, or are to be occupied as such within 
the next five years. 

In 1918 five normal schools for boys and one for girls were reported. 
The schools for boys are located in Kaifeng, Honanfu, Weihwei, Chen- 
chowfu, and Juning ; the school for girls in Kaifeng. 

Higher Educational Institutions — One higher normal school, one 
agricultural college, and two law colleges, all of which are located in Kai- 
feng, constitute the only higher educational facilities in the province. 



88 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 

XL— Hospitals 




HOSPITALS 

General Sun-ey — There are 16 mission hospitals in Honan, one of which 

reported too late by the SDA is not located on this map. These 16 

hospitals averaging 56 beds each are in 13 missionary residential centers. 

Fortv- three cities with almost 200 missionaries are therefore without 



mission hospital facilities. One mission station is 150 miles distant fren» 
the nearest mission hospital. Ten mission dispensaries, not located ©a 
hospital premises, are also to be noted. Fonr of these unfortunately were 
reported too late for entry on the accompanying map. They are located 



IV.- 


-Extent of Occupation 


—The Christian 


Sch 


ool 






















. 










k- -a La 


I'wjB 




























| 2 


- 


1 £" 


™ 


~ 


a 


2 


t 


1 


s.| ©£> 8>- 






| « 1 


| 


i 1 






J 


3 


5 


-g 


'5-x_ - g j-S;g 


t§M 


Name of Society 


§ 1 s j & 


X 




_5 x 






5 ^ 


X 


X 


J? X 


f|lis §18 §1 


5 £ *» 

9 s 3 




~ £ j? 




% 


-5 


i- 


g 


•a 


jS 


Jg 


3 


5 .2 ~ -= J=, -j s 


























































— z. 


- 


3 




[jj 


: ZI 




*s 


p* 




§ iS I O g 


r-i-a 






















~' — — 






1 2 3 


1 


S 6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


18 14 15 


16 


Grand Total 


... m *5 10 


*096 j 


1,754 5,850 


757 


225 


982 


240 


35 


27S 


7,107 71 85 


»& 


Anglican ... MSCC 


16 ! 4 2 


416 : 


84 SCO 


86 


20 


106 


40 




40 


646 • m% 100% 


21% 


Baptist ... ChMMS* 
























SBC 


28 3 1 


512 


250 792 


69 


40 


103 


50 




50 


943 m% 


13%f 


Lutheran ELAng 


22 4 I 


404 j 


7- 482 






59 


13 




13 


*5% 1009fC 




ILM* 




- 




















LB 


6 I ... 1 ... 


63 


140 


















LBM 


i ' ... ' ... 


55 


18 n 


















LTJM 


65 11 2 


012 


430 1,342 


181 


. - 


249 


50 


21 


71 






SLK 


21 2 ! ... 


445 


219 \ 664 


22 ; 




22 












Methodist FMA 


e| ! 


98 1 


45 


143 


5 




" 








148 70j 




Presbyterian -PCC 


.40 7 2 


461 j 


343 


804 


















CbiM Inland Mission CIM 


38 1 


■ . 


127 


5-59 


















SMC (cm) 


5 3 ... 


119 


61 


ISO 




11 


W 












Other Societies EbM 


1 i ... 


30 j 




27 


3 


3 


8 ; 












SDA 


* I i 1 


30 ! 


U '* 


44 


23 


10 


33 


11 


is 








TMCA 


1 -3 1 ... 


100 i 


100 


107 j 




107 1 






... 







* Ineomp! 



THE PROVINCE OF HONAN 



89 



at Hiangcherg, CIM; Futow, CIM; Chenchowftt, CIM; and Kihsien, 
FMA. Besides mission hospitals 7 non-mission hospitals have been re- 
ported ; 4 are under government supervision, 2 under tbe Roman Catholic 
Church, and one under the supervision of the Chinese gentry. 

Hospitals to be BttUt— Plans have been approved for 6 new mission 
hospitals to be built within the next 5 years : Kihsien, FMA ; Taokow, 
PCC; Kweiteh, LBM; Sinsiang, PCC; Tungpeh, LB; and Wuan, PCC. 

Areas in Need — Note that the entire western half of Honan south of 
the Yellow River is without a single mission hospital. Only 2 are situated 
west of the railway which runs north and south through the province. The 
extreme eastern section is also noticeably lacking in hospital facilities. 
Compare this map with Map II. A number of the larger cities in the 
province appear sadly in need. For instance, Chowkiakow (CIM) with 
200,000 inhabitants; Kushihsitn (CIM and LUM), and Nanyangfu (NLK), 
each with 50,000; Juchow (ELAug) with 45,000; Kihsien (FMA) with 
40,000; Suihsicn I LBM) with 35,000; Juning (LI'M) with 30,000; and 
Sniping (LUM) with 30,000. All these cities are important commercial 
and missionary centers, yet no one of them has hospital shelter where the 
ministry of healing is offered. Compare this map with Map V. The areas 
southeast of tbe lailroad below HsSchcw and Yencheng, as well as those 
west of Kioshan and Hsiichow, report comparatively many evangelistc 
centers. Yet no hospitals are as yet provided for Christian converts by 
missions concerned in any of these areas. Compare this map with Map 
VIII. There are 14 cities reporting mission higher primary schools, which 
offer no mission hospital facilities, and there are two cities with mission 
middle schools where as yet no mission hospitals have been built. This 
is significant when tbe responsibility of missions and the Chinese Church 
for the medical oversight of Christian students is considered. 

Christian Occupation in Terms of Dcctors and Beds per Million 
Inhabitants — Honan averages 27 mission hospital beds per million in- 
habitants. The larger missions rank as follows : PCC, 58 beds per 
million inhabitants; MSCC, 43; LVM, 36; ELAug, 30; FMA, 30; CIM 
and SMC, 16; SBC, it. As for doctors per million inhabitants, the 
average for Henan is less than 1 (0.7). The PCC and FMA are the only 
missions reporting more than one doctor fcr every million people in their 
fields. There is ore mission hcspital in Honan for every 4,250 sq. mi. 
and for approximately every 2,«o,cco inhabitants. 



IT.— Extent of Occupation— The Christian Hospital 



Name of Society 


1 
14 a 


2 
10 


t 

3 
586 


a Kg 

4 9 


"3 £ 

X 

C 7 


K 

ft 

39 


3 § 

"* 3 

]/5 
§■ » 
— I 


9 


Grand Total ... 


2S9 8.00S 4 30 


7* 


Anglican MSCC* 

Baptist ... ... ... ChMMS 

SBC* 
Lutheran ELAug 

ILM 

LB 

LBM 
LUM 
NLK 
Methodist FMA* 

rresbvterian PCC 

China Inland Mission CIM 

SMC (cm) 
Other Societies ... EbM 

SDA* 
YMCA 


1 

1 

4 

I 

1 


1 

1 

2 
1 


80 

. 
152 

20 


40 
5 

19 1.771 

1 800 

155 -1 .072 
50 1.3-52 

10 ... 


1 6 



M 

45 

34 

30 
... 


100 
23 

60 

99 

154 
140 



* Incomplete returns 
(a) — This total does not agl 
on Map IX. page 88, no* 
first line of the panwraph on 
and not two, and Kihsien, which is 
present time. These errors were de 



Missionaries per Million- Population 
s 10 i-> 20 



EbM 


































«li 




































M_k 




^^> 




* 
















Msec 









EbM 

SDA 

LIM 

NLK 

LB 

PCC 

FMA 

E1.AUR 

ChMMS 

MSCC 



Chinese Employed Workers per Million Population 
20 40 60 80 



YL— Degree of Occupation and Table of Urgency 







3 


_ 




- 




| 


£ 


3 1 


15 


a 


5 5 1 


c c 


5 


a 







5s, 


c 


I 


jj 


•g 


|3 


5« 


S • 




n 


■3 g 


•S3 






Na-no of Society 


; 53 

c 

2 

>5 


HO 


OjS 


■j 


O 


g 


O 




***3 


B 3 

.2 

5* 


S ~ 


S o_ 

5 0" 


& 


£g 

c 


5 "3 
"5 c 
53 P 

■? s 

£ 


■af, 

"5.25 






I 


W 


^0 


£j 


H 


£ 


.r £ 


jj 


3 c 


a. 


3 

35 °" 


gs, 


B< 


8 






< 












O 



















1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


Grand Total ... 




67.954(a) 


32447.366(a) 


394 


1,106 


12,418 


12 


34 


32 


92 


SJ 


47* 


550 


0.7 


n 


Anglkai MSCC 


B 


6,275 


2,451,000 


18 


68 


166 


7 


27 


112 


424 


1 


4,271 


365 


0.9 


43 


Baptist ChMMS 


A 


4.C25 


975.000 


13 


27 


33 


14 


28 


39 1 


818 












SBC 


A 


2,075 


2,669.000 


26 


63 


652 


10 


23 


40 


97 


2 


614 


1,378 


0.4 


11 


Lutheran ELAug 


A 


4,975 


2,377,000 


30 


77 


361 


13 


34 


83 


214 


2 


1,936 


1,503 


0.8 


30 


ILM 


A 






8 


3 


5 


















... 


LB 


A 


2,000 


350,000 


8 


15 


2) 


23 


43 


275 


517 


1 


1,733 


4,823 




... 


LBM 


A 


1,825 


782,000 


7 


10 


23 


9 


13 


304 


434 




652 


3,174 




i"a 


LUM 


A 


12,450 


5.00H.000 


66 


265 


2,831 


13 


53 


24 


92 


6 


357 


562 


0.8 


36 


hLK 


Cent 


8.1.0 


2,265,000 


24 


109 


726 


10 


47 


33 


151 


3 


590 


940 




30 


Methodist FMA 


A 


1,725 


954,000 


21 


37 


220 


22 


39 


95 


169 


3 


1,318 


673 


1.1 


F**sbyt«r,an ICC 


B 


12,500 


5,311,000 


80 


163 


2.028 


15 


41 


40 


82 


4 


344 


491 


1.7 


58 


China Inland Mission CIM 

SMC (cm) 


lot I 
Coat [ 


] 22,123 


8,726,000 


54 
il6 


; 160 

as 


4,1 92 » 


8 


22 


15 


41 


8 


j 132 1 
1 269 J 


176 


03 


16 


Other Societies EbM 


A 


500 


225,000 


7 


j 22 


156 


32 


100 


47 


138 


7 


611 


206 




60 


SDA 


A 




454,000 


10 


38 


418 


22 


84 


24 


90 


9 


945 


183 


2.5 


YMCA 


j Int 


1 '- 




6 


14 




— 



















Total for rrovir.ee, net for approximate estimates by societies as given below. 



90 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



HUNAN 



I. — Hsten Boundaries 




HSIEN BOUNDARIES 

Area and Political Divisions — Hunan is slightly larger than Korea, 
being 83,308 sq.mi. It is situated in the same latitude as Egypt and the 
State of Florida. Politically it is divided into three tao, which are stib- 
divided into 75 hsiens or counties. The capital city is Changsha. Yochcw, 
situated 120 miles from Hankow, on the southern bank of the Yangtze, tnd 
at the outlet of Tungting Lake, is the only other treaty port. 

Physical Characteristics — Hunan is one of the picturesque provinces 
of China, and is frequently described as three-tenths hill, six-tenths water, 
and ©nc-taith plain. The mountains in the west and south are welt 
wooded, the inhabitants of these regions deriving considerable iucome 
from the exportation of timber. The rivers of Hunan flow mainly in a 
northeasterly direction, emptying into Tungting Lake. The Siang River 
is the largest. It rises in Kwangsi, and flows north through the prorince, 
farming the chief highway of trade between the Yangtze Valley and 
Kwangtung. The Yuan River, which rises in Kweichow, and also flows 
in a northeasterly direction through the cities of Shenchowfu and Changteh, 
is next in importance. The Tze and the Li rivers drain the central and 
northern sections of the province respectively. At one time, Tungting 
Lake formed a part of a great inland sea. Recently it has silted up, 
until it is now almost dry during the winter months. In the summer 
months, however, when the rainy season prevails in Hunan, and the 
Yangtze is at flood, Tungting Lake becomes a large and important body of 
water extending over more than 4,000 sq.mi. 

Climate — Hunan has a sub-tropical, moist cMmate. The temperature 
rarely falls below freezing point. The summers are warm and humid, 
while the winters are excsedingly chilly by reason of the excessive damp- 
ness. There is a rainy season during the summer months, the rainfall 
being heaviest in June. 

- Economic Conditions— The American Consul in Changsha estimates 
that 60 per cent of Hunan's inhabitants are tillers of the soil. The chief 
products are cereals, beans, cotton, tea, grass fibers, sweet potatoes, 



peanuts, tobacco, and fruits. Three to five 
million bags of rice, 200 lbs each, are ex- 
ported annually. "Generally speaking, the 
farmer of Hunan leads a hand-to-mouth 
existence. Absentee landlords are the rule. 
Clan and individual wealth is reckoned in 
number of acres owned. The land is often 
situated at a considerable distance from the 
village where the elian or individual owner 
resides. Perhaps 75 per cent of the actual 
tillers of the soil in Hunan are tenant 
fanners. They pay their rent in kind to 
the landlord, generally once a year." 

Communications — Hunan has two rail- 
roads in operation : (1) the Wuchang- 
Changsha and the Changsha-Chnchow 
sections of the Canton-Hankow Railway, 
constructed by Chinese with capital raised 
locally ; and {2) the Pingsiang (Kiangsi)- 
Chuchow Railway, constructed and operat- 
ed by the Pingsiang coal mines from Chu- 
chow to Liling and beyond. The proposed 
Canton-Hankow line will follow the route 
of this railway from Liling. It will run 
south through Yuhsien and Chaling, and 
probably touch the city of Chenchow before 
crossing the boundary into Kwangtung. 
Another proposed line is one connecting 
Changsha, via Liling, Chuchow, and Nan- 
ehang (Kiangsi), with Hangchow and 
Ningpo in Chckiang. Another road of 
importance, which has only been projected 
thus far, promises to connect the Yangtze 
Rivor trade center, Shasi, with Changteh, 
the chief distributing port for the Yuan 
River valley. From Changteh this line 
will extend along the course of the Yuan 
River westward to Hingi in Kweichow. 

Most of the large cities of Hunan can 
be reached by water. Steam launches ply 
regularly between Hankow and Changsha 
and Siangtan about nine months of the 
year. Chinese junks go on as far as Heng- 
chowfu, and smaller craft reach the borders 
of Kwangsi. By means of a canal in 
Kwangsi, and the Kwei River, direct con- 
nection is afforded with Canton, via the 
West River. All rivers of the province 
flowing from the southwest to the north- 
east are also navigable by native boats for 
long distances. The varities of Hunan junks are numerous, each adapted 
to the particular needs of its twn locality. A careful Japanese estimate 
gives 30,000 as the number of junks entering Hankow from Hunan in 
the course of a year. 

Practically no cart roads are found in Hunan, only narrow footpaths 
paved with a single line of heavy stone slabs. Two ancient highways 
are reported, one extending from Wuchang in Hupeh through Yochow, 
then Changsha, whence it follows the Suing River to Hengchowfu, Chen- 
chow, and Yiyang, whence it crosses into Kwangtung and on to Canton. 
The second highway enters Hunan from Shasi in Hupeh, passes south 
through Lichow and Changteh, thence west and south, following the Yuan 
River, through Shenchowfu and Yuanchow, till it crosses the boundary 
of the province, ending at Kweiyang in Kweichow. 

Post and Telegraph Offices— Hunan roports 57 first, second, and third- 
class post offices and sub-stations, and 338 postal agencies, only Shansi, 
Shensi, Kansu, Kwangsi, Kweichow, and Yunnan reporting fewer main 
oflices. Honan, with a slightly greater population, reports almost double 
the number of post offices. All the principal cities in Hunan are con- 
nected with Changsha by telegraph. 

Language— The prevailing language is Mandarin, with local variations. 
Approximately one-tenth of the inhabitants are still aborigines belonging 
to the Miao family. These aborigines inhabit the mountain fastnesses 
in the south and southwest They live in small, isolated communities, 
retaining manners and customs that have changed little since the davs ci 
Fu Hsi. 

Christian Occupation by Hsiens— Only 3 hsiens in Hunan remain 
tmclaimed by Protestant mission societies : Cbengpu, Jucheng, and 
Kweitung. Twenty hsiens out of 7s are occupied by more than one 
society, and n hsiens although claimed, report no evangelistic work. 
Forty-eight, or almost two-thirds of the hsiens, report less than 100 com- 
municants each. Siangkiang-tao has over half the total number of 
communicant Christians reported for the province, Hengyang-tao, in the 
southeast, reports the smallest number. 



THE PROVINCE OF HUNAN 



91 



DENSITY OF POPULATION 
Population Estimates— The inhabitants 
of Hunan number one-fourth of the total 
population of the United States. These 
people live in an area no larger than the 
State of Kansas. Available population 
estimates vary from 18,000,000 (Customs 
Decennial Report, ion), to 28,443,279 (rost 
Office Census, iota). In this last census, 
figures for 6 hsiens were unobtainable : 
Kiangbwa, Paotsing, Suining, Tungan, 
Yungming, and Yungshun. The official 
population estimates by hsiens as furnished 
to the CCC, 191S, give a total for the pro- 
vince of 29,519,272. This is approximately 
ooo.oco more than the recent post office 
estimate, and andoubtedly represents the 
population of the above-named 6 hsiens, 
for which no returns were obtainable from 
post office officials. The average 
density of Hunan, if we accept the CCC 
estimate as not being too high, is 355 indi- 
viduals per sqnare mile. 

Areas of Greatest Density — The ac- 
companying map is the result of informa- 
tion received directly from missionary cor- 
respondents. The state of the country 
was too unsettled during 1919, when hstcn 
population estimates were being called for, 
to make a more scientific method possible. 
Official hsien estimates have only recently 
come to hand. The density of population 
is greatest along the Siang River and in the 
lower courses of the Yuan. Most of the 
larger cities are situated in these areas, or 
just south of Tungting Lake. 

Cities — Four cities are reported, each 
with populations exceeding 100,000 : Cbang- 
sha, 250,000; Changteh, 200,000; Siangtan, 

>o; and Hengchowfn, loo.ooo. Four 

- are registered somewhere between 
50,000 and 100,000 : Paoking, 90,000 ; 

— iang, $0,00©; Yiyang, 80,000; and 
Tsingshih, 58,000. The names of 16 cities 
have been sent to the Committee ranging 
between 20,000 and 50,000. AH 24 cities 
referred to above, with the exception of 3, 
are mission stations. Approximately 93 
per cent of the inhabitants of Hunan live 
in the country or in cities of 10,000 and 
under. 

The Christian Co mmunity— Eleven dots of the smallest size, out of 
*•* aggregate of 20,528, each representing 1,000 inhabitants, indicate the 
aumarical strength of the Protestant Christian church membership in 
Hunan. 



PROTESTANT MISSION FIELDS 

Societies at Work — Nineteen Protestant missionary societies are at 
work in Hunan. The following, however, have no clearly defined evangel- 
istic country fields: ABS, BTP, BIOLA, PE, SDA, YM, YMCA, and 
YWCA. Among these societies, only the PE and SDA report church 
constituencies. The work of the PE is restricted to the cities of Changsha 
and Changteh. The SDA limits itself to no special area. The CMS 
■reports work in the city of Siangtan as well as in the southern section 
<o& the province. The evangelistic work of the BIOLA extends over the 
entire province, and is inter-mission in character. Note that 7 per cent of 
Hunan is still unclaimed by any Protestant mission. 

Entrance of Xe~*t Mission Society — The Lutheran National Church of 
Sweden, which supports missionary work in South Africa and South India, 
has recently decided to enter China. In 1919, after correspondence with 
Lutheran missions in Honan and Hupeh, the Home Board definitely com- 
mitted itself to mission work along higher educational lines. At the 
formation of the new United Lutheran Church of China (Kikungshan, 
August 1920), the Lutheran National Church of Sweden was one of the 
five constituent church bodies to join in this federation. The other foor 
missions will cooperate in a college soon to be established by this Swedish 
Lutheran Mission in Taohwalun, near Yiyang, where the NMS has a 
large middle school. 

'Anas Occupied — The LfciM.) claims, approximately 20 per cent of 
.he provinces . The PN ranks second with 15 per cent, the FMS third with 
14 per cent, and the NMS and the WMMS last in order among larger 
societies, each with about 10 per cent. The following four denominational 
groups divide the province about equally between them : Lutheran, 
Methodist, Presbyterian, and CIM. There are no Baptist or Congregational 
missions at work in the province. 

Overlapping A teas— Twenty hsiens out of 75 are occupied by more 
than one mission society. Most overlapping of fields occurs in the Siang 
Jtiver valley south of Changsha. The missions concerned are; UE and 



IT.— Density of Poreumos 




WMMS, NMS and WMMS, UE and PN, and L{cim). A number of 
small mission fields exist around Changteh, where overlapping occurs 
between the CIM and PN fields, CHM and PN fields, and CHM and FMS 
fields. The RCDS and EA fields in the western section of the province 
overlap slightly, and the CMS and WMMS in the south. 

Nationality of Societies — Nine of the societies at work in Hunan are 
American, 3 British, 3 Continental, and 4 International. Changsha, 
Siangtan, and Changteh, being cities of over 200,000 inhabitants, are in- 
dicated on this map as evangelistic fields common to all missions. 

Unoccupied Areas — The area shaded black in the southeastern section 
of ibe province borders on the field of the Bn in Kwangtung, and of the 
CIM in Khngsi. The unclaimed area in the extreme southern part of the 
province adjoins a field of the PN in Kwangtung, and the SBC in Kwangsi. 
The unclaimed area in the southwest borders on the CMS and CMA fields 
in Kwangsi. All these unclaimed areas are sparsely populated, while 
missionary work across the border is still only begun. Aboriginal tribes 
inhabit these districts, and travel is difficult. 

Comity Agreements— The following Principles of Comity were adopted 
by the Hunan Missionary Conference 19 13 : 

"That union can best be furthered by a wise division of the field. 
Therefore, fa) the respective spheres of influence of each mission should be 
strictly recognized by all other missions, and (b) missions wishing to 
enter the territory of other missions, or new missions wishing to enter 
the province, should first consult with the Hunan Continuation Com- 
mittee, and with the missions already in occupation." 

The FMS reports an agreement signed at Changsha in 1004, whereby 
the northwestern section of the province was turned over to that mission 
as its special evangelistic responsibility. The CIM reports no definite 
agreements with respect to its Changteh district, although there exists 
among the missionaries a mutual recognition of places already opened, 
and a conscientious endeavor is being made to prevent further overlapping. 
The PN reports no oral or written agreements covering boundary lines, 
although as a mission thev have committed themselves to the Principles 
of Comity adopted by the" CCC in 1918. The WMMS reports a similar 
conformity to these" Principles of Comity, and indicates its agreement 
with the position of the missions expressed in the 1003 Conference, that 
wherever practicable, only one mission should assume responsibility for 
a single hsien, except in" the case of the larger cities. The CMS has a 



f-2 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



ll!v— ftie>rESTANT Mis<iajr_FnsLDs 




general understanding with the WMMS not to work north ol Ynngchowfu. 
The NMS works a large field to the west of Changsha and Yiyang. 
Itineration is carried on both in Nifflgsiang and Anhwa hsiens. The L(cim) 
reports a general understanding but no definite agreement with other 
missions regarding its eastern boundaries. At Paoking a clear delimitation 
has been rnadr between the L(cim) and the WMMS fields, with mutual 
ceding of districts. Informal comity agreements are reported by the CMA, 
and CHM, Ko reports have been received from the UE, RCUS, and CMA 
missions. The SDA has thus far disregarded all comitv agreements. 



Number 
i(» 

f=3= 



or So.. Mi. per Evangelistic Cexteb 

2(W SMW *W Wl BOA 700 OAA 9m 



FM8 
WMMS 

SMS 



CMA 
CUM 

car 




AGE OF WORK 
Pioneer Period— The story of the early efforts to evangelize Hunan 
forms one cf the most heroic chapters in the history of missions. The 
earliest Protestant missionary journey into the province was made m 
tSbz <>y Rev. Josiah Cox, pioneer of Wesleyan missions in Central China. 
He Travelled from Yochow as far south as Siangtan. About 5 years later 
Dr. Griffith John and Mr. Alexander Wylie made their famous journey to 
Szechwan, and on their return, must have passed through the northern 
section of Hunan. In 1875, Mr. C. H. Judd of the CIM visited Yochow, 
and succeeded in renting property, only to be compelled to relinquish 
the same a few days later because of the hostility of the inhabitants. In 
1877, a series of trips which did so much to open Hunan finally for 
permanent work, was begun by members of the CIM. In 1879, Mr. Adam 
Dorward made the first of his memorable journeys into the province. 
He spent a fortnight at Changteh, and, after 6 months of travel and 
colportage work, joined a large CIM party at Hungkiang. Here in 



1882 he rented a house and resided for 
short intervals when sot away «n owe «t 
Ms extensive journeys. After .being; 
dri.en ot»t of" Hungkiang* he rented prer 
ituscs in Tsingsbih, from which again he 
was soon driven oat by a riot. In the 
meantime, Mr. Deck joined Mr. Dorward, 
These two resided for a time in Shenchow- 
fu, and in May, 1SS6, entered Changsha. 
Mr. Archibald, of the Scottish Bible 
Society, and Dr. Griffith John, also made 
repeated journeys into Hunan about tha* 
time. Though tlieee pioneers reported a 
series of unsnecessf al attempts to gain 
entrance into the larger cities, theit 
journeys nevertheless were effective a* 
opening wedges. Gradually the opposition 
of the people was worn down, and oppor- 
tunities increased to distribute Bibles and 
to secure a permanent foothold for Christian 
work. 

One of the earliest missionary efforts in 
Hunan was made by the PN in the extreme 
south. This work was carried on from 
Lincbow, in Kwangtnftg, A group of 
Christian believers was formed in Linwu. 
This little group was organized into a 
church by the Canton Presbytery in 1894, 
with regularly ordained elders and a pastor. 
This was the first duly organized I*re!es» 
tant church in Hunan. 

About 1898, Dr. Frank Kel'er rented a 
house in Chaling. He lived here for 6 
mouths, wh<n his house was destroyed in 
a riot, and he escaped with difficulty. Later 
he was able to return and continue evangel- 
istic work until 1900, when he again 
was forced to leave. In 1S97, Messrs. Cha- 
pin and Brown, of the CMA, secured a 
house in Changteh, followed soon after by 
the Cumberland Presbyterians and the 
CIM. From that time, with the exception 
of the Boxer year, Changteh has been open 
to all forms of missionary activity. 

In the same year that Changteh was 

permanently opened to the CMA, the LMS 

established its first Hunan mission station 

in the city of Yochow. Intensive work 

solely under Chinese oversight was begun 

at this time by the same mission in and 

around Hengchowfu. 

In 1S9S, Mr. B. H. Alexander of the CMS came to Changsha. He 

followed this visit by others, and later by regular residence on a boat 

just outside the west gate of the city, whence he made daily trips within 

the walls for preaching and bookselling. This steady, quiet work by 

Mr. Alexander, combined with his persistent courage and unfailing 

courtesy, finally opened the gates of Changsha to all Protestant missions. 

Work was begun in Siangtan in 1900 by Rev. W. H. Iingle of the 
PX mission. About the same time, a Chinese pastor, sent out and support- 
ed by the Fukien churches, settled in this city. 

During the Boxer Uprising, every foreign missionary in Hunan wa* 
compelled to leave, and the few existing chapels were "destroyed. But, 
strange as it may seem, the Boxer Uprising greatly accelerated the open- 
ing of Hunan. ImmediateBy following, the CIM, NMS, WMMS, and US 
were able to place foreign missionaries in Changsha. From then on, the 
advance of the various missions became rapid. Twelve missionary societies 
entered Hunan between 1900 and 1910. More stations were opened in 
these 10 years than in the decade just ended. The L(cuc) began work 
in Hunan in 1901. This mission rapidly spread over the central and 
western sections of the province, and has had the honor of reopening 
Hungkiang, where heroic Adam Dorward spent several months during the 
summer of 1883. 

Soon after 1900, the FMS established itself in the northwestern part 
of the province. Mr. and Mrs. Sjoblom were the pioneers arriving in 
Changteh in 1901. This mission now reports several churches in the 
neighbourhood of Adam Dorward's second station, Tsingshih. 

Two pioneer mission societies have recently withdrawn from Hunan; 
the Cumberland l*resbyterians and the LMS. The work of both these 
missions has been transferred to the PN. In 1903 an invitation was sent 
by the Conference cf Hunan missionaries representing 13 societies, 
to the Yale Foreign Missionary Society to undertake higher educational 
work on behalf of all missions and churches. In response to this request, 
the work of the YM was begun in 1904 in Changsha. 

Progress Since iorj — The following comparative figures will indicate 
the growth within the Chinese Church in Hunan during the five year* 
1913-1918 : 

1913 1918 

Stations and Evangelistic Centers 

Total Communicants ... ... ^,S?s 11,018 



THE PROVINCE OF HUNAN 



93 



Evangelistic work throughout Hunan 
las been characterized from the beginning 
hy strong colportage work. The native 
«otportenrs going from place to place with 
a boatload of Scriptures, preaching the 
Gospel and distributing tracts of all kinds, 
many of them voluntary workers, are re- 
sponsible in a larger measure than can be 
readily calculated, for the present openness 
of the country to evangelistic effort. Scores 
of villages have been worked by these 
groups of volunteer colporteurs. In this 
connection the work of Dr. Keller and the 
evangelistic bands of the BIOLA stands out 
conspicuously as having a most salutary 
effect on the work of all missions through- 
out the province. 

Oldest Fields Compared — For the pur- 
poses of the Survey, it was thought best, 
in making the accompanying map, not to 
use the dates when cities were first visited 
1*3' foreigners, but rather the dates when 
permanent missionary work was first 
begun. In addition, missionary cor- 
respondents have been unable in many cases 
to give the date of opening many of the 
evangelistic centers. Those two facts 
have made the preparation of this map 
difficult. However, one of the older 
missionaries of the province kindly super- 
vised the work and it is as accurate as 
the limited information supplied to the 
Committee has made possible. Note how 
targe a part of the province was opened 
to evangelistic work immediately after the 
Baser Uprising. The areas shaded black 
are still 30 H or more beyond any reported 
evangelistic center. These areas are 
sparsely populated and mountainous in 
character. Compare this map with Map 
VI. The areas opened before the Boxer 
Uprising report the largest number of 
evangelistic centers and resident com- 
municants. 

Mission Stations 

Arranged 
chronologically 



-Age of Work 








! 1807- 


1861- 


1881 - 


1891- 


1901- 


1911- 






i 1860 


1880 


1890 


1900 


1910 
3 


1920 


Anglican 


...CMS ( + CEZM8? 














PB 














1 




Lutheran ... 


...FMS 
NMS 
EA 














1 

6 
1 


1 
1 


Methodist 


...UE 
WMMS 














3 
6 


2 


PresVyleimn 


...1»N 
RCUS 












- 


3 
2 


1 
1 


China Inland Mission 


...CIM 
BIOLA (era) 
h (cm) 












1 


1 

6 


1 
8 


Other Societies 


...BTP 
CHM 
CM A 
SDA 
YM 
TMCA 
YWCA 












2 


1 
1 

1 


1 
1 
1 

i 
1 




Total... 








5 


3>3 


20 



EXTENT OF EVANGELISM 
Missionary Residential Centers — The preponderance of evangelistic 
over educational and medical work in Hunan has always been 
marked. If we exclude the missionaries of societies which report 
no church constituencies, we find that in 1916, n per cent of the 
entire foreign force were engaged in medical, 17 per cent in 
educational, and 73 per cent in evangelistic work. The foreign 
missionaries reside in 40 cities throughout the province. Around these 
are grouped 4C0 evangelistic centers and an equal number of occasion- 
al preaching places. According to the definition used in this Survey, an 
evangelistic center is any place where either there exists a community 
of not less than ro Christian communicants, or there permanently resides 
a paid Christian Chinese worker, conducting weekly religious services. 
Esght out of the 40 missionary residential centers have representatives 
of more than one mission society. Among these, Changsha has the largest 
number, 16; Siangtan and Changteh rank next with 4 each; Hengchow- 
fa 3, and Shcncbowfu, Yiyang, Packing, and Yungchowfu, each with 2. 
Slightly over one-third of the hsien cities are still unoccupied as mission 
stations. 



New Staticnts — Plans for 6 new mission stations to be opened during 
the next 5 years are reported : Anhwahsien (NMS) ; Hwajung (RCUS) ; 
Paotsing (RCUS) ; Sangchihsien (FMS) ; Taochow (CMS) ; and Kiencbow- 
ting (RCUS). The most extensive work is done by the I,(cm), which 
reports almost a fourth of the total number of mission stations. The NMS 
ranks second, with half as many mission stations, or 7. Seven societies 
which cannot be classified undor any of the more common denominational 
groups, report only 10 out of the total 63 mission stations. 

Centers of Evangelism — In several of the larger cities it has been 
impossible to indicate the actual number of evangelistic centers, due to 
the fact that most missions working in these cities group the figures for 
their work and report totals under one evangelistic center. Changsha and 
Changteh, for example, esch reports a number of church organizations, 
and therefore must have at least an equal number of evangelistic centers 
according to our definition of that term. However, the station symbol 
is all that could be shown on the accompanying map. The figure appearing 
on any station symbol indicates the number of societies in that missionary 
residential center. Wherever, therefore, the symbol of a residential center 
cr station is shown, it generally may be assumed that more than one 
evangelistic center is implied, the number varying with the size of the 
city and the strength of the mission or missions there at work. In studying 
the accompanying map, this fact should be borne in mind. An additional 
30 or 40 small crosses might more accurately represent the present degree 
of Christian occupation within the province. Note the concentration in 
the FMS field, also the wide-spread but well-linked area covered by the 
stations of the L(era), stating from Changsha, and extending right 
away through the center of the province to the extreme southwest. 

Hunan ranks below all the coast provinces in the total number of 
evangelistic centers reported. Of these, three-fourths are to be found 
in the eastern half. The NMS reports several organized groups of Christ- 
ians in many of its evangelistic centers. 

Neglected Areas — Hunan may still be regarded as poorly occupied 
in terms of its evangelistic centers. There is an average of one evangelistic 
center for every 203 sq.mi. The average for Honan is one for every 150 
sq.mi., and that for Fukien one for every 40 sq.mi. 

The following table will indicate the degree of occupancy within 
different mission fields in terms of evangelistic centers : CIM, ona 
evangelistic center for every 80 sq.mi. ; CMA and CHM, each one far 
every 100 sq.mi. ; UE, one evangelistic center for every 123 sq.mi. ; PN, one 
for every 130 sq.mi.; NMS, one for every 134 sq.mi.; WMMS, one for 
every 200 sq.mi. ; FMS, one for every 280 sq.mi. ; CMS, one for everjr. 



M 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



V.— Extent of Evangelism 





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mately 20 per cent c£ tte Chinese -rnxkem 
in Hunan also reside in these four cities. 
Twenty-one per cent of the entire foreign 
force consist of single women. Three mission 
wtations report single foreign missionaries 
only Fifty-seven per cent of the male 
missionaries are ordained. 

National end Denominational Classi- 
fication of Foreign Force— Fifty per cent of 
the missionaries in Hunan are American; 
35 per cent Continental; 15 per cent 
British The Presbyterian missions re- 
port 94 foreign missionaries; the Lutheran 
So; Mehodist 70; CIM 65; and other 
societies 70. 

Christian Occupation of Hunan in 
Terms of Foreign Force— The large societies 
occupy their fields in terms of foreign 
force per unit of population as follows : 

Missionaries fkr 1,000,000 Inhabitants 
(avekage foe the province, 14) 

YE 25 

NMS 24 

RODS 23 

CMA 21 

CHM 21 

L(cim) 13 

FN 11 

FMS 9 

WMMS 9 

CMS 8 

EA 4 

Missionaries per 1,000 Communicants 
(Average for the Province, 36) 

EA 94 

CMS 84 

KCUS 82 

UE • 49 

L(cim) 4° 

CMA 33 

P.\ 28 

WMMS 24 

FMS 22 

XMS 20 

Chinese Force and Us Distribution — 
There are, on an average, 3 employed 
Chinese workers to every employed foreign 
worker in the province. Among missions 
doing the larger amount of evangelistic 



300 sq.mi. ; L(cim), one for every 354 sq.mi. ; and RCUS, one evangelistic 
center for every 342 sq.mi. 

E-vmgelistic Centers per Mission Station — The following table, by 
indicating the number of evangelistic centers per mission station, throws 
light on the policies and problems connected with church administration 
in the various fields. Figures for the large missions only are here given : 

FN, 16 evangelistic centers per mission station; FMS, 10; UE, 10; 
NMS, 9; WMMS, 7; and L(cni), 4. 

Reasons for Present Inadequacy of Occupation — In stating the reasons 
lor the present inadequacy of Christian occupation, the correspondents 
of 5 societies refer first to their lack of sufficient staff, both Chinese and 
foreign. One correspondent specially refers to the lack of qualified Chin- 
ese leaders. Five mention insufficiency of funds, four speak of the general 
unrest throughout the province, or of the mountainous character of their 
field, with consequent sparseness of population. The European War caused 
serious depletion of foreign staff in several societies. Moreover, missionary 
work in Hunan is still comparatively young, being hardly more than 
a score of years old. 

Chinese and Foreign Workers Compared 
50 25 25 50 103 1-50 200 250 




Foreign Worker* 
Chinese Evangelistic Workers 
Chinese Educational Workers 
Chinese Medical Workers 
FULL-TIME CHRISTIAN WORKERS 
Distribution of Missionaries— The foreign missionary body, numbering 
39S, is distributed over 40 cities. Only 12 of these cities report more than 
10 resident missionaries each. Twenty-one report 5 missionaries or less. 
Changsha, Siangtan, Changteh, and Heugchowfu report the largest foreign 
communities, aggregating 43 per cent of the total foreign force. Approsri- 



I.— Force at Work— Foreign 



Name of Society 

| 


1 ' 

- m J 

•5 • a 
I 2 


S 


I 1 
5 j 6 ' 


g 
c 1 O 

| ; &« 

> i .1? 
"^ 1 *s 

e 1 

7 8 


Grand Total ... 


£5 24 


4 14 


64 167 2SI j 398 


Anglican ... CMS(-r-CEZMS» 
PE 

Lutheran ... FMS 

KMS 
Metbcdis: ... EA 

IE 

WMMS 
Presbyterian ... PS 

ECUS 
China Inland 

Mission... CIM 

BIOLA {cm) 
h (an) 
Other Societies BTP 
CHM 
CMA. 

SDA 
YM 
YMCA 
YWCA 


6 I ... 

1 j ... 
9 

is ; 3 

2 ... 

10 ! 2 

15 j 2 

14 , 6 

1 1 



3 

3 5 


1 
1 4 

1 
1 


4 6 
1 ! 1 

s 10 

15 23 

6 14 

8 17 
10 25 

9 14 

% 18 
3 


10 
g 

13 '■ 
34 
4 

19 
14 
33 
22 

10 
2 

i is 
3 

2 


16 

3 

23 

57 

6 

33 
31 

58 
39 

4 

59 

13 

i 

36 

6 



THE PROVINCE OF HUNAN 



95 



work, the NMS employs the highest pro- 
portion, 4.8 Chinese to every foreign 
worker. The CHM, CMA, and the L(cim) 
employ the lowest proportions, namely, two 
to one or lower. Over 60 per cent of the 
Chinese employed force reside in missionary 
residential centers. Comparison of this 
map with Map V reveals practically one- 
third of the evangelistic centers without 
resident Chinese workers. Note in which 
mission fields employed workers, both 
foreign and Chinese, appear to be most 
widely scattered. How do tho results in 
these fields compare with results in fields 
where working forces are more con- 
centrated? 

Classification of Chinese Workers — Out 
of a total of 1229, 45 per cent are in 
evangelistic, 41 per cent in educational, 
and r4 per cent in medical work. The 
CMA, L(cim), EA, and FMS repo% more 
than $0 per cent of their workers as 
evangelists. AM other missions have less 
than 50 out of every 100 giving their whole 
time to this type of work. Five mission 
societies employ more Chinese in educa- 
tional work than in evangelistic endeavor : 
CMS, PE, NMS, UE, and RCCS. Eighty- 
four per cent of the entire Chinese employ- 
ed staff are men. 

Ordained Workers — Not quite 3 per 
cent of the male evangelists are ordained. 
Were the entire communicant body to be 
divided among the 16 Chinese ordained 
workers, each would have 690 communicants 
under his special charge. Among the 
larger missions, the FMS, UE, RCUS, and 
l((cra) report no ordained workers. A 
comparison between Hunan and other pro- 
vinces in Central China reveals the follow- 
ing facts of interest : Hunan has only 
one-third as many ordained workers as 
Hupeh. On the other hand, Hunan reports 
more ordained workers than Shansi and 
Shensi combined, athongh these two 
provinces report a much larger church 
constituency. 





VI.- 


-DISTRIBUTION OF WORKERS 




m ._. 


S3 8 




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-■•■ 


nmz 7 i 




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9 etoag^SS^^ 4^ | 




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jg£S$§kk a^^^^i^*"**" f 




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snBr 


^*t « -»»*■ « r^jr--*,* _. / 






F* !«t«*i!J S Pi- ■ '«* # 




A s «•*•»*>■*» 


Q^ . ** £?Z "W^-- -~<" / 




I * 




• 


*\s BSSR, xl>- / 


• 


*\ '~ o 7 "^ * ° ^^ 




is S a _ I «(->>•« / 




tS' # -^ J ~( "^iRQsr 




/'V fi 


*mjm. _ /S^ 1 I 






R W3» 


** r = / 




V y\ a 








««o*nn«t s ""SS = • * 1 




r m 


* ■ 




1 * 






1 ^v 


■--.:.£'> a / 




» f\ 


_ .^^ ii '^^^ *"ii A M 


a 




J - & J 






* Bfi«M<a« ^^ 




1 


\ * * 1 






J ■ ^^-^ ^\ I 










„ kmes ewwn* wma. T i¥^/ ! A* 


^1 m ® « # 




***** 

amnaa amm. aatsntx raxat. 




/ _^ \ KWAHCTUIIG 




R *#*-**♦* 






6 W M £« * «« MltT*, 


i 

u 


1 


' 





Chinksi- Employed Workers per r,ooo,ooo Inhabitants 
20 40 60 80 100 




Christian Occupation in Terms of Chinese Workers — 
Workers per 1,000,000 
Inhabitants (Average for 
Province, 42} 

NMS 114 

UE -2 

RCUS 71 

PX 41 

FMS 29 

WMMS 27 

E (cm) 23 

CMS 21 

CIM 16 



Workers per 1,000 Communicants 
(Average for Province, 122) 

RCUS 266 

CMS 242 

EA 203 

PN 106 

NMS 95 

L(crM) S4 

FMS , 75 

WMMS 68 

CIM 43 



The second table is especially interesting, since it reveals the ratio 
of employed workers to the communicant body in each of the missions. 
For example, the RCUS employs 26 out of every 100 communicants, white 
the CIM employs bnt 4 out of even* 100 communicants, and so on all 
these variations are usually accounted for by differences of policy, 
and the varying degrees to which evangelistic work and church administra- 
tion have passed into the hands of competent and consecrated Chinese. 

Trawtiwg Centers for Chinese Evangelistic Workers—A Union Theolo- 
gical School, the Bible School of the BIOLA, and a Bible Women's Train- 
ing School (PS) are reported for Changsha. In addition, there are Bible 
and workers' training courses Ottered in several of the middle and normal 
schools connected with other missions. Station classes also are common. 
In these the period of study and the nature ot the work offered vary greatly. 



COMMUNICANT CHRISTIANS 

General Survey — The total Protestant communicant membership for 
Hnnan is 11,018. This approximates the combined total reported for 
Anhwei, Kansu, and Kwangsi. In 1913, a total of only 3,855 church mem- 
bers for Hnnan were reported. In other wards, during the last six years, 
the numerical strength of the Hunan church has almost trebled. Sixty- 
seven per cent of the church members are men. The Roman Catholic 
Church reports 30,605 Christians, a large proportion of whom are infants. 

Distribution of Protestant Church Members — Approximately three- 
fourths of the Protestant communicants reside in the eastern half of the 
province. There is considerable concentration around Changsha, Heng- 
chowfn, Yiyang, Changteh, and Chenchow. Outside of these larger cities 
and their immediate environs, the distribution of members appears more 
general, and the growth of the church more uniform. There are large 
areas, however, even in the eastern section of the province, where no 
evangelistic centers or communicant members are to be found. See also 
Map V. The membership in the western section is very sparsely dis- 
tributed. One is surprised to note how strikingly this is shown by the 
accompanying map, in the valley cf the Yuan River just southwest of 
Changteh.' A comparison of this map with Map IX shows mission middle 
schools wherever communicants are most numerous. 



Communicants per 10,000 Population 
1234. 5 8789 10 



11 12 




96 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



VII.— Distribution of Communicants 



Membership by Denominations— Thz 
Lutherans report the largest number of 
communicants, 3,972. The Presbyterians 
follow with 2,491 ; then the Methodists vrith 
2,021 ; the CIM with 1,564 ; and last in 
order the Anglicans with 319. From the 
above it will be seen that the Lutherans 
and Pres.byteri.ins report a communicant 
strength equal to more than half the total 
for the province. 

Illiteracy— Eighty-two per cent of the 
male church members, and 61 per cent of 
the female members, are reported as 
literate. This, in comparison with other 
provinces, is a high average. The FN and 
FMS are below the average for both men 
and women. The CIM, CMA, FN, and 
Lutheran missions are below the average 
lor female church members only. 

Union Evangelistic Efforts — The follow- 
ing resolution adopted at the Third Hunan 
Missionary Conference, Changsha, 19.3, 
has since found expression in the activities 
of the Chinese Church, especially in the 
larger cities : — "(a) That union evangeliza- 
tion be carried on in all stations having 
two or more missions, and that this union 
work be not confined to special efforts fcT 
limited periods of time, but be made the 
regular feature of evangelistic work 
wherever possible; (b) That the periodic 
use of large public buildings, such as 
educational haMs, temples, etc., be 
obtained, and that systematic evangelistic 
campaigns be entered upon ; (c) That united 
open-air services be held, and plans devised 
for the interchange of street chapels. " 



VIII. — COMMUNICANTS TER 10,000 POPULATION 





COMMUNICANTS PER 10,000 
POPULATION" 
General Impressions — Hunan ranks 
relatively low among the provinces, reg- 
istering only 3.7 communicants per 
10,000. Note the black areas in the 
western section of the province. Note also 
that the hsiens in the Siang River valley, 
and directly south of Tungting Lake, 
appear best occupied. Siangkiang-tao re- 
ports twice as many communicants per 
jo,ooo (5.7) as Hengyang-tao (2.2}, and 
Chtnyuan-tao {2.7). 

The following table shows how rapidly 
missionary work has extended over Hunan 
since the Boxer Uprising : 

1903 191S 
Hsiens with 2 or more missions 

at work 4 9 

Hsiens with 1 mission at work... 5 25 
Hsiens without any regular 

Christian service 58 14. 



THE PROVINCE OF HUNAN 
II.— Force at Work— Chines© 



07 






Name of Society 



Grand Total 



IS 432 101 543 




' JPresbvtertaa 

-Chin* Inland Mission 



"Other Societies 



CMS {+ CEZMS'f 

PE 

FMS 

NMS 

EA 

CE 

WMMS 

IN 

BCIS 

CIM 

BIOLA (CM) f 

L icm) 

BTPS 

CHM 

CMA 

SDA* 
YM 
YMCA 
YWCA * 



1 

3 1 



50 23 

12 * i 

I 

j 38 ' 3 

i io 

... i 



48 

115 

9 

36 

39 
87 
42 

7 



S 



434 



70 504 



12 

27 
149 



8 9 I 10 I 11 !2 



28 



26 120 176 







46 






19 


I 


5 


80 


* 


10 


274 

13 


10 


14 


93 


M 


14 


— « 


22 


37 





40 56 



1,229 53 



0$ 


11 


13% 


1.8 


1 


2 




1.1 


21 








35 


I 


n 


8.8 


71 






8.0 


31 






5.2 


1 






0.5 



S Ho returns * Ineoraple;e returns 

i») This column includes workers connected with educational institutions above Middle School grade 

III.— Extent of Occupation— The Christian Community 



Name of Society 



Grand Total 



63 



235 



409 



Anglican ... 

IsBtheran 

Methodist ... 

.Presbyterian 

China Inland Mission 

" Other Societies 



CMS f-f-CEZMS) 
PE 

FMS 

SMS* 
EA 

CE 

WMMS 
PS* 
BCCS 
CIM 

BIOLA (cat) J 
L (tSM) 

8TH 
CHM* 
CMA 

SDA 
YM 
YMCA 
YWCA 



7,376 3,6« 1 1.018 22,383 



67 



27% 



82 



10,900 



137 

80 

82' 

1,987 

53 

455 
776 
1,368 
326 
201 



1 

232 



48 : 


54 i 


240 


928 i 


11 • 


214 


512 



681 
116 

81 



156 
69 



185 


455 


~i''a 


134 


303 




1,062 


l.ftsl 


Tl% 


2,910 


6,190 




64 


64 


- 


669 


1,120 


- 


1,288 


1 .993 




2,049 


3.619 




442 


983 


74 


282 


32s 


71 , 


1,282 


2,337 


- *»% ' 


1 


60 




388 


669 




262 


262 
2,004 





u% 



-i <■; 



27 



583 


19 


425 


34 


163 


27 


654 


48 




16 


1,861 


14 


677 


31 


2.930 


21 


1.647 


23 


U 


31 



328 
395 



39 I 



So returcs 

Incomplete retaras 



MISSION SCHOOLS 



EkmenUtry Education — Hunan has more church communicants than 
children under Christian instruction. The 279 mission primary schools, 
and the 8,026 mission primary students in Hunan, are divided as fottows : 
223 lower primary schools with 6,432 pupils, and 56 higher primary schools 
{19 of which are for girls) with 1,594 students. Regarding the distribution 
of these schools, 39 out of the 223 mission lower primary schools are located 
in the four cities having populations estimated above 100,000. This leaves 
184 lower primary schools distributed among over 400 evangelistic centers. 
* On looking at the map one notices the absence of mission lower primary 
schools in five J.{cxx) stations. There is also one station in the FMS 
territory without Christian primary school facilities. This lack may be 



only apparent, due to incomplete returns. If we compare the number of 
mission primary students with the total number of communicants ir the 
province, we find that for every 100 church members there are 73 students 
under Christian instruction (middle school and below). 

Szechwan, Anhwei, and Fukicn rank highest among the provinces in 
the proportion of students to communicants. In Hunan, the EA, CMS, 
RCOS, and PE report the highest proportions. 

Approximately 25 per cent of the mission lower primary students in 
Hunan pass on to higher primary schools. This, in contrast to the other 
provinces, is relatively high. Seventy per cent of the primary students 
in Hunan are boys. The higher primary schools appear to be well dis- 
tributed with respect to the widely scattered lower primary schools. « 



98 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



IX.— Mission Schools 




■ teeas soon <*».) a^ if ft 

@A mmixmet.s.'MwK.'j-f&'ii) 
• moo nun xmm. tb^!*x_^-h J, % 
o aaa rout? satm «s*»^£%-.|. Ji-fc- 
- ista nun son* *j£-f- ^ ,«1 



Middle Schools— Fourteen middle- 
schools, with 533 boys and 126 girls, are- 
reported for the province. Eight of these - 
were doing full-grade middle school work 
when the survey returns were received. 
Besides the purely denominational schools, . 
there is a union girls' middle and normal' 
school, a YMCA day school doing some 
middle school work, and a large middle - 
school department in connection with the 
College of Yale in China. All of these 
educational institutions are located in- 
Changsha. Compare this map with Map- 
VII. A few districts with a creditable - 
showing of church members and elemen- 
tary educational facilities do not appear as- 
well equipped for secondary training. Note,. 
for example, the FMS field in the north- 
west, the WMMS field around Pingkiang,*. 
the WMMS and L(cim) fields around!! 
Packing, and elsewhere in southwest 
Hunan. 

Higher Education and Teacher Trains 
ing Facilities — The Yale Foreign Missionary 
Society supports a large educational work 
of high grade in Changsha. The institu- 
tion is known as the College of Yale it* 
China, and includes a middle school,, 
college preparatory, and senior college of" 
arts and sciences. The Hunan- Yale 
College of Medicine is affiliated with this- 
institution, although controlled by an in- 
dependent Board of Managers, half the* 
members of which receive appointment 
from the Hunan Yuchun Educational 
Association. The RCUS offers higher 
education at Yochow, in Huping or Lake- 
side College. Normal training courses for 
men are given in both colleges. Normal;* 
tiaining courses for women are offered i« 
the Union Girls' High and Normal School 
fPNjTJE) in Changsha, and the Girls'" 
Normal School (NMS) in Yiyang. A 
kindergarten training course is planned for" 
in connection with the former institution. 



IY.— Extent of Occupation— The Christian School 



Name of Society 



1 2 3 



X X 



12 



■- S. 






1 £ £ 3 -" 

14 13 16 



Grand Total 



223 



56 14 



4,325 2,107 6,432 1,331 263 | 1,594 



533 126 659 



8,685 70% 81 
I 



Anglican 

Lutheran 

Methodist 

Presbyterian 

China Inland Mission 

Other Societies 



CMS (+CEZMS) 

PE 

FMS 

NMS 

EA 

WMMS 

PN* 

RCUS 

CIM 

BIOLA (cm) { 
I. (cm) 
BTP§ 
CHM 
CMA 

8DA 
YM 
YMCA 
YWCA' 



8 


4 ' 


7 


2 


15 


3 ! 


5a 


10 


2 




16 


8 


18 


3 


55 


11 


19 


11 


5 




12 


4 


2 


1 


3 


1 

1 


3 




1 


1 



159 
103 
339 
1,571 
95 



82 
58 
210 
636 
25 



241 
161 
549 
2,207 
120 



241 272 513 

408 1 119 ' 527 

632 838 i 970 

364 142 506 

60 SI I 91 



144 126 



20 
106 



11 



31 
106 



71 

49 

27 

264 



12 

3 

20 

54 



47 



86 

110 1 ... 

2-52 67 

159 35 



270 



52 

47 

318 



133 
110 
319 
194 



59 
9 

270 



22 ... 22 

... ' ... 
66 30 \ 96 



30 



123 
81 



30 



219 

81 



120 
91 



120 
91 



346 
213 
596 
2,621 
120 

676 

637 

1,508 

781 

91 



76 
73 

31 
120 
467 



71% ]lO0% 

71 . 

61% J ... 
73% I 69% 
79% I ... 

51% 100% 

81% ... 

69% 56% 

75% 100% 



57% ... 

1(1% '.'.'. 

65% 

... 100J 

100% 100* 



34% 



9% 
14% 



26% 
21% 
33% 
38%: 



22% 
14% 



§ No returns 

* Incomplete returns 



GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS 

Elementary Educatkn — Reports from 
ethe Ministry of Education for 1916 show a 
«total of 175,881 lower primary students and 
31,780 higher primary students in Hunan, 
«^jr 70.3 primary students to each 10,000 in- 
"fcabitants. This ratio approximates the 
average for all China. The average num- 
ber of primary schools for each of the 75 
'hsiens in Hunan is 56, with an average 
*«arollment in each hsien of 2,750 students. 
Changsha, Liuj'ang and Pingkiang report 
over 10,000 primary students each, while 
Sinning, Kiaho, Tsinghsien, and Tayung 
'ttsiens each reports legs than 250. 

Government Middle and Normal 
. Schools — In 1918, Hunan reported moremid- 
*dfc school students than any Other province, 
"having 8,600 students in its 46 middle 
•schools. The different sources from which 
•educational data for Hunan has been de- 
rived vary considerably. A list of govern- 
•ment institutions by cities, for example, 
-gives 15 boys' middle schools for Changsha 
•while missionary returns show only 5 gov- 
ernment middle schools for boys and 3 for 
-girls, in addition to 10 private middle 
-schools, in that city. Political unrest 
-makes it very difficult to give any accurate 
■statement of the present educational situa- 
*tioH in the province. One missionary cor- 
respondent states that in January 1920, 
***apart from the foreign schools in Chang- 
-Sha, not a single middle school for ben's 
•was then in operation, owing to recent 
♦political unrest." In 1917-18, six govern- 
-ment normal schools for boys, and 10 for 
*$nrls, were reported, with 2,500 students. 
^Fourteen mission stations, where as yet no 
emission middle schools have been estab- 
lished, possess government middle school 
•facilities. In Yiyang and Taohwalun only 
•mission middle schools exist. 

Higlier Educational Institutions — 
•Government higher educational institutions 
are confined to Changsha. In that city 
^there are one higher normal, one com- 
atnercial, one technical, and three law 
•colleges. 



THE PROVINCE OF HUNAN 

X. — Government Schools 



99 




Number of Communicants and Mission Primary Students 

Compared 
250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2250 2500 2750 3000 



V.- Extent of Occupation— The Christian Hospital 




Communicants 

Mission Prinrarj Students 



HOSPITALS 

Number and Size — Eighteen mission hospitals, supported by 8 mission 
.nocieties and located in 15 cities, are reported for the province. These 
fcospitals average 50 beds each, and are under the supervision of 58 foreign 
«nd Chinese physicians, assisted by 14 foreign and 26 graduate Chinere 
smrses. The missions rank as follows in the number of their hospital 
&ai& : PH, 269; RCUS, 184 ; YM, 130; NMS, 121 ; WMMS, 100; TJE, 60; and 
X.{cm), 40. In addition, information regarding 18 mission dispensaries, 
mot located on the same premises as mission hospitals, has been received. 
■Government or institutional hospitals are reported for Pingkiang and 
Changsha; one Red Cross hospital under Chinese supervision; 2 govern- 
ment hospitals; 2 semi-public hospitals under the control of the Hunan 
gentry; and one public hospital under Japanese supervision. 

Mission, Hospitals to be Bunt — Plans are reported for 3 new mission 
*ospitals to be located in the following cities ; Sinhwa, NMS ; Taochow, 
CMS; and Yungting, FMS. 





$ 


• ol 


"? x 5 < 


- 


a 


&2 


I >£ 


Name of Society 


I 


ill 


3 « i 1 


3 




■ _ 


?s 






















1 — 


i I -a C — 


-7 




"= 


"7 h 






































S" 5 


-■ 






is 


56 




1 


•2 


3 4 5 


6 


; 7 


8 


9 


Grand Total ... 


18 


18 


548 256 8,636 


9 


III 


32 


65 



Anglican 


CMS 

(+CEZMS) '. .. 
PE 


1 






~! 






Lutheran 


FMS 


1 














KMS 


1 S 


62 


59 ; 1,517 1 


8 


30 


30 


Methodist ... 


EA 
















CE : 


1 1 


45 


15 250 1 


17 


30 


30 




WMMS 


l 


60 


40 651 ... 




33 




Presbyterian ... 


PH 


5 1 


191 


78 1 S.'oT 2 


22 


38 


135 




RCUS 


1 


100 


84 | 1,431 2 


i. 


61 


61 


China Inland 
















Mission... 


C1M 

BIOLA (cm) .. 
















h fen) 


1 11 


20 


20 322 1 


8 


20 




Other Societies 


BTP 

CHM i . 

CMA ] . 

SDA 
















YM 


1 


70 


60 1,048 2 


40 


2-i 


65 




YMCA ! . 






... j 










YWCA 






... 1 ... I ... 






-=% 



100 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 
XI.— Hospitals 



mwzh 




* m 

uuiumn st Kiwrnui aosnru «. 



'^reos in Need— As stated above,* 
mission hospitals are located in 15 cities.. 
This leaves 25 missionary residential center*, 
in Hunan without modern hospital faeili- 
tk«. Compare this map with Map IX. No» 
city reporting a mission middle school i*- 
wthout a mission hospital. Compare thi#- 
map with Map VII to see whether the- 
hospitals are located within convenient dis- 
tances of the communicant body. 

Degree of Missionary Ocewpatton im 
Terms of Medical Work — 

Foreign Physicians per i,ooo,oo» 

Inhabitants (Average for 

Province, 1.0} 

RCUS J.S 

NMS i-J 

UE 1.5 

PN i.j 

WMMS 09 

Lfcuf) 0.4 

Hospital Beds per 1,000,000- i 

Inhabitants {Average for 
Province, 31) 

RCUS 110 

PN 5^ 

NMS 50 

UE 4& 

WMMS 3° 

L^eiM) - 8 

The missions not appearing is the- 
above tables, except the YM, report no> 
medical work in the province. No esti- 
mate of the responsibility in terms of- 
area or population of the work of the* 
YM has been possible. For this reason* 
this mission does not appear in the above? 
tables although its medical work is large. 



VI. — Degree of Occupation and Table of Urgency 



Name of Society 



So — o 






1 1 fi* 



14 15 





Grand Total.. 




83,398 . 29,528.272 .; 


398 


1,229 


11,018 


» 


42 


36 


112 


3.7 


987 729 


- 


31 


An, lean 


... CMS l-f-CEZ' 




3 t 5oo 2,159,000 


16 


46 


186 
















... 




FE 


A 


133,000 


s 


19 


134 


25 


165 


2:i 


146 


11 


3.172 1,589 






Lutheran ... 


... FMS 


Cont 


11,300 » 2,674,000 


23 


80 


1,062 


9 


i9 


22 


75 


4 


151 562 








NMS 


Cont 


8.500 \ 2,489,000 


57 


274 


2,910 


24 


114 


20 


95 


12 


226 8fJ 


1.7 ; 


50 


Methodist 


... EA 


A 


4,100 ; 1,442,000 


6 


13 


64 


4 


9 


94 


203 


0.4 


1,875 








UE 


A 


6,100 ! 1,313*000 ' 


33 


93 


669 


25 


VI 


49 


139 


5 


2,733 964 


1.5 


4ft 




WMMS 


B 


8,800 j 3.364,000 


31 


88 | 


1,288 


9 


27 


24 


68 


4 


521 497 


6.8 1 


3* 


PresfeTieriatt 


... PN 


A 


12,600 | 5,211,000 


58 


211 ! 


2,049 


11 


41 


88 


106 


4 


1.430 : 632 


1.3 | 


53 




KCCS 


A 


6,700 s 1,668,000 


36 


117 


442 


23 


71 


*2 


266 


8 


.3,726 1.591 


1.8 


HO 


China Inland Mission 


... CIM 


lot 


700 I 773,000 


4 


12 


282 






14 


43 


4 












BIOLA (cm) 


Int 




1 


... 
























L(em) 


Cont 


16,200 J 4,758,000 


58 


108 ] 


1.282 


13 






84 


3 


187 


25" 


0.4 ! 


9 


Other Societies 


... BTP 


A 




2 


























CHM 


B 


400 337,000 


7 


9 


1 


21 




















CMA 


A 


1,700 650,000 


13 


21 


388 


21 


33 


33 


54 


6 


1,018 


1K7 








SDA 


A 


2,343,000 


4 


35 


262 


•> 


15 


13 


135 


1 


1 365 


119 








YM 






m 


71 
























YMCA 






6 


31 










... 














1'WCA 


Int 




2 


1 






... 




... 






... 


.. : 





(a) Total lor province, not for approximate estimates by societies as given below 



I THE PROVINCE OF HUPEH 



SOL" 



HUPEH 

I. — Hsisn Bocxtyuuss 




HSIEN BOUNDARIES 
Hunan and Hupeh Compared — Hunan and Hupeh have the following 
•^physical characteristics in common : "Both slope toward the Yangtze 
IJtiver where are also their lakes and plains. Each has its gTeat river 
penetsating deeply into tie interior, the Han River in Hapeh and the 
:sSiang River in Hunan. Both are hilly in their western sections." The 
-.two provinces differ in the following characteristics: Hupeh's lakes are 
-of moderate size and in the south. Hunan's gTeat lake is in the north. 
.Hupeh has its fertile plains, which in extent are almost as vast as the 
-mountainous regions of the southern province. Hunan, save on the 
-borders of Tungting Lake and in the Siang River valley, is mountainous 
•throughout. 

Political Divisions — The area of Hupeh is 71,428 sq.mi. This is equal 
*o the combined areas of New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, 
Massachusetts, and Rhode Island. Politically it is divided into 3 tao, 
subdivided into 69 hsiens or counties. The capital city is Wuchang, 
-situated on the southern bank of the Yangtze and opposite the mouth of 
the Han River. Hankow, Ichang, and Shasi are treaty ports. Other 
•cities of commercial importance are Kingchowfu, Siangyangfu, Fancheng, 
Anlu, Tayeh, Laobckow and Wusfieb. 

Physical Characteristics — Approximately one-half of Hupeh is an 
alluvial plain, in some places not more than 100 feet above sea level. These 
lowlands are covered with lagoons and swamps. The southwestern 
section consists <cf r«n extensive depression filled with a succession of 
lakes. The plain in the east and that lying between the Han and the 
Yangtze rivers, are considered the most fertile sections of the province. 
Bvery spot is under cultivation and transportation of field products is 
.easy. The Yangtze flows through the south of the province, where it 
.connects with numerous lakes on both its shores and nearly doubles its 
-volume of water. The Han River rises in the southwest of Shensi, and 
after draining the lower sections of that province continues south and 
southeastward, draining nearly the whole of Hupeh and joining the 
Yangtze River at Hankow. In the vallej's of the Han and the Yangtze, 
southward from Kingchowfu, the country is dotted with lakes and marshes, 
and possesses rich fields of cotton and rice. The western section of the 
jwmiaee is irregular and mountainous, sparsely populated, and relatively 
undeveloped. Bandits are numerous, and lawless groups calling them- 
selves "Heme Guards" roam over the country. 

Climate— The climate of Hupeh is quite similar to that of Shanghai; 
though the average humidity is lower. In the summer the heat is apt to 
"be more oppressive, due to the absence of sea breezes. 

Communications — Hupeh has three main highways which in a few 
places are sufficiently wide to accommodate carts. Numerous footpaths 
are to be found in all parts of the province. The Yangtze is navigable for 
"<xmtt~g©ing steamers as far as Hankow (595 miles), for at least 9 months 
each year. Baring all seasons good river steamship service is maintained 
"between this port and Shanghai. Smaller river steamers ascend as far as 
Ichang, a distance of almost 1,000 miles from Shanghai, and since 1920 to 
Chungking, Szechwan. The Han River is navigable for small launches 



as far as Siangyangfu, a distance of 300 miles, and in summer Chinese junks 
travel several hundred miles further north. The numerous lakes are 
connected by a network of small rivers and canals. Numberless junks and 
smaller boats ply unceasingly on these waters, and fish is found in 
abundance. 

The Peking-Hankow Railwry is the main artery of railroad traffic 
between the Wu-Han cities and the north. The Hupeh-Hunan section of 
the Canton-Hankcw Railway is completed and open to traffic from Wu- 
chang to Changsha and Lukow, a distance of over 300 miles. 

Recentlv, interest has revived in the proposed Szechwan-Hankow 
Railway, which is to extend from Hankow to Ichang, thence to Kwei- 
chowfu^ Wanhsien, and Chungking. Work on the construction of this 
rsflvry v.rs begtn before the Great War, the road having been cut to 
frithin a short distance of Kweichowfu. The prospects of an early resump- 
tion of this work rnd of the completion of the railway, however, are 
uncertain. The Chowkiakow {Honan)-Siangyangfu Railway is only 
contracted for. This proposed line will connect with the Peking-Hankow 
Railway at Yeneheng, Ho. Thence it will run southwestward via Nan- 
yangfu to Siar.gyargfu, the head of navigation on the Han River in 
Hupeh. Betwera Hwangshihkang and Tiehshanpu, a distance of 17 miles, 
there is a light railway for the so'e use of the Tayeh Iron Mines owned 
by the Han-Yeh-Ping Iron and Coal Company. 

Post and Telegraph Offices— Substantial increase in post office facilities 
is reported each year. In ioor there were 6 post offices in the province. In 
1006 there were 100, and in 1919 there were 115 k«a<3» firs*, stcond, and third 
class and sub-offices, and 330 postal agencies. In 1903 the Post office 
handled over 3,000,000 articles, while fifteen years later (191 8), this depart- 
ment of the government received or dispatched 56,000,000 separate piece* 
of mail. There are between 40 and 50 telegraph stations. 

Language— The ^landarin dialect is spoken throughout the province. 

Economic Conditions— Hupeh is one of China's wealthiest provinces, 
due chiefly to its industry, its commerce, and its cotton fields. The 
majority of the people are engaged in agricultural or fishing pursuits. 
The weaving of cotton cloth is a common occupation. Iron and coal are 
the principal minerals. Cotton mills, ore refineries, flour mills, iron works, 
oil, egg products, and cigarette factories represent the chief industries. 
Hankow, at present, is the center of China's tea trade. 

Christian Occupation by Hsiens— One entire hsien and sections of 
others still remain unclaimed by Protestant missions. Twelve hsiens, though 
claimed, report no mission work. Of these twelve hsiens, ten are claimed 
by the PE and CSFM, and two by the NLK. Two hsiens, claimed by the 
SMF, report one evangelistic center and one paid worker each, but no 
communicants. Twenty-one hsiens, or 32 per cent of the whole, report 
less than 50 communicants. Forty-seven, or almost 70 per cent, report 
less than 5 communicants per 10,000 inhabitants. Nine hsiens where 
evangelistic work is carried on report no mission lower primary schools. 
Slightly more than one-third of the hsiens in the province offer mission 
higher primary school facilities. 



102 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 
II.— Density ov Pqpbutich* 




DENSITY OF POPULATION. 

Population Estimates — Hupeh ranks among the 5 densest provinces 
of China. Population estimates range from a minimum of 21,256,144 
(1910 Census Report), to a maximum of 35,280,000 (Statesman's Year 
Book, 1902). Census estimates for 1885 approximate 34,000,000. The 
Minehengpu estimate by households, made in 1910, which is generally 
accepted by conservative students of China as most nearly representing 
actual conditions, credits Hupch with 24,900,000. The official population 
estimates by hsiens which the Survey Committee of the CCC received in 
1918, with such slight modifications as seemed advisable after consultation, 
total 28,574,322. This represents a normal increase over the Minchengpu 
estimate for 1910, and should receive general acceptance when the fact of 
its confirmation by the Post Office Census of 1919 (27,167,244} is known. 
Accepting the CCC figure, then, as a reasonable estimate, the density of 
population for Hupeh amounts to 400 inhabitants per sq.mi. This is' 
slightly lower than the density of population in the State of Massachusetts. 

Cities — Hupeh has four large cities whose populations excted 100,000 : 
Hankow, 350,000; Wuchang, 250,000; Hanyang, 150,000; and Laohokow, 
100,000. The size of the dots for Hankow and Wuchang on Map II 
represents more than strictly urban population. Five cities have 
been reported by our correspondents as having populations ranging 
approximately between 50,000 and 100,000 : Shasi, Fancheng, 
Kingchowfu, Ichang, and Wusfieh. Sixteen cities in Hupeh are 
credited with populations between 20,000 and 50,000. All cities having 
50,000 inhabitants and above are Protestant missionary centers, and 75 
per cent of those with populations reported to be between 20,000 and 
50,000 are also resident mission stations. 

Areas of Greatest Density — If we accept the accompanying map as 
indicating in a rough way the general distribution of population over the 
province, four special!}- dense districts attract attention. The first is the 
low and fertile area north, northeast, and southeast of the Wu-Han cities. 
The second lies south of the Yangtze, between Ichang and Hankow. The 
third is in the extreme southeast and north of Wusueh. The fourth is in 
the northern section of the province, in the neighborhood of Fancheng, 
Laohokow, and Sisngyangfu. 

The PE, I.MS, and WMMS report mission fields with the largest 
populations. Other societies with mission fields whose estimated popula- 
tions exceed a million are the SMF, NLK, CSFM, SEMC, and LUM 
fTable VI, Column 3}. These population estimates of mission fields are 
based on the figures given in the Hsien Tables, Appendix A. Where two 
or more missions are working in the same hsien, the population has been 
divided equally between them. 

The Christian Community — Only fifteen small dots, out of a total of 
28,571, each representing 1,000 inhabitants, are needed to indicate graphical- 
ly the numerical strength of the Protestant churches in Hupeh. 
PROTESTANT MISSION FIELDS 

General Survey — There are 16 Protestant missionary societies promot- 
ing evangelistic activities in Hupeh. This number is exclusive of Bible 
and Tract Societies, as well as of several Lutheran missions {N M S and 
F M S), with representatives in the Theological Seminary at Shekow. Of 
the 16 societies the YMCA, SDA, and PBIM are without field delimitations 



on the accompanying map. Note how disconnected and in some case*- 
how widely separated the fields of the following missions seem to be r 
WMMS, SMF, CIM, and PE. The MEFB, while claiming responsibility 
for a small section in the extreme east of the province, reports nc** 
resident foreign missionary, the work being entirely in the hands of" 
Chinese, supervised from Kiukiang. Hankow and Wuchang are repre- 
sented as mission fields common to an societies 

Extent of Area Claimed — All but 3,500 sq. mi., or 5 per cent of the total' 
area of Hupeh, is claimed by Protestant missions. When, however, the- 
qnestion is asked as to how much of Hupeh now claimed by missions is 
adequately occupied by them, a variety of factors must be taken into» 
consideration. Over one-third of Hupeh, for instance, is still beyond 30 H 
of am- evangelistic center. There is less than one Christian in a thousand? 
throughout the province. To appreciate how far the missions and churches 
still are from any adequate occupation of Hupeh, take the present situa- 
tion in the PE fields. This society, outside of the Wu-Han cities, has 
only 2 stations and 32 evangeMstic centers, jet the number of inhabitants - 
in the tota'i area for which the PE feels a responsibility, due chiefly to 
the absence of other missions, exceeds 5,000,000. The fields of each of" 
the following missions exceed 10,000 sq.mi. in extent : LMS, NLK, SMF. 
and WMMS . 

Nationality of Mission Societies—Eight of the 16 Protestant societies- 
reporting church constituencies in Hupeh are American, 3 Continental, $. 
British, and 2 International. American and British societies report, 
approximately equal field areas, the fields of Continental missionaries not. 
being quite so extensive. 

Overlapping Areas — Care should be taken not to receive a wrong im- 
pression from the accompanying map. In many cases the fields of several' 
missions whrile appearing to overlap, actually report no duplication inr 
the work attempted or done. This possibility should be kept in mind' 
whenever overlapping of fields is considered. Note the overlapping fields 
of the following missions : the CIM, NLK, and LUM, in the north of" 
Hupeh; the WMMS, PE, and LMS, in the eastern half of the province; 
the SMF and CSFM, in the west, around Ichang; the CM A, and PE, just 
south of the Wu-Han cities; the SMF, and LMS, east of the Wu-Han 
cities; the SEMC and PE, in the central section of the province; tbe- 
ELMo, and PE, in the extreme west. The ELMo has only recently 
decided to enter Sbihnanfu, where the PE has an evangelistic centejr. 
The PBIM reports one missionary in the city of Laifeng, in the extreme 
southwest. 

Unoccupied Areas— The area just southeast of the Wu-Han cities,, 
although shaded black, may not be wholly unoccupied. Had it been? 
possible for the Survey Committee's correspondents to consult together 
and compare boundary demarcations, before sending in the delimitations 
of these various fields, this area would undoubtedly be included in fitasr 
claims of one or more missions already having evangelistic work in tba 
vicinity. 

The unoccupied districts in western Hupeh are mountainous in 
character, difficult of access, and sparse in population. The district which 
is shaded black, and located between the fields of the WMMS and thft 
LMS in the southern part of the province, is also a difficult field to enter. 



THE PROVINCE OF HUPEH 

HI, — Protestant Missiox Fields 



103 




-en account of its unfavorable physical characteristics. CoSportage work 
Ikas been carried on for years in both these areas, and several serious 
attempts have been made by the LMS to estabfsb permanent Christian 
■work in the southern area. 

Comity A,zrecmcni$—FTom the initial stages of missionary work in 
Hupeh, Protestant societies have been familiar with the principles of 
mission comity, and for the most part have conscientiously observed 
them. The WMMS reports comity agreements with the MEFB, SMF, and 
LMS, defining all boundaries of their work. The LUM has agreed not 
to overstep fixed boundary, linos on the south with the SEMC, on the north- 
west with the NLK, and on the east with the LB. Similarly, the SEMC 
-reports written agreements affecting boundary limits with the LUM on 
the north and northwest, with the LMS on the south, and the WMMS on 
flie east. The LMS reports a definite understanding with most surround- 
ing missions, whereby- the 16 hsiens delimited on the accompanying map 
are to be regarded as the special sphere of the LMS, except a section just 
north of Yingcheng, and parts of several hsiens adjoining the Han River. 
The LMS aSso reports a special understanding with the SMF, whereby 
Wuchang-bsien, apart from Wuchang- city, is left to the Swedish Mission 
Society. The PE reports no written or explicit agreeetnents with any of 
*the missions, except it be a more or less general agreement of many years 
-standing with the CSFM, whereby the PE is to wv/rk the territory south 
-«f the Yangtze and west of Ichang, and the CSFM the territory north 
-of the Yangtze and east of Ichang. No formal understanding exists 
between the SMF and the CSFM regarding the boundaries of their 
respective fields. The existence of an old agreement between the CSFM, 
SMF, and PE is referred to by the SMF, but, according to a statement 
made in the Survey returns, this agreement has never been strictly followed. 
The CIM bas not yet succeeded in reaching any definite understanding 
with surrounding missions regarding field delimitations; with this excep- 
tion, the NLK has agreed not to occupy Kncheng-hsien. According to 
formal agreement between the NLK and the LB missions, the whoie of 
"Tsaoyang-bsien is now regarded as the special field of the LB. No state- 
-ments on Comity Agreements have been made by the SDA or CMA. 

AGE OF WORK 

Pioneer Period— Ivt 1S61. Dr. Griffith John of the LMS, accompanied 
by Rev. R. Wilson, moved inland to Hankow. Three \-ears later, Wuchang 
was occupied, and in 1867 a missionary of the LMS was appointed to that 
city. About the same time, hospital work was begun in Hankow by 
Dr. Shearer, also of the LMS. The work of the WMMS in Central China 
began with the visit of Rev. J. Cos to Hankow in 1S62. He was warmly 
"Welcomed by Dr. John, and eariy in their work these two men divided 
the city, Mr. Cox working the upper portion on the banks of the Han 
River, and Dr. John the lower part of the city on the banks of the Yangtze. 
"Three years later, in 1865, two more representatives of the WMMS, Rev. 
W. Scarborough ar.d David Hill, Esq., joined Mr. Cox. The first un- 
married lady missionary in Hupeh arrived in 1885, when special work 
for women was begun. 

Infiuence of Dr. Griffith John and Rev. David Hill— The character 
and development of missionary work in Hupsh. were strongly influenced 



vid 



■ ed 



by two remarkable nvu, Dr. Griffith John of the LMS, and Re 

Hill, of the WMMS. The preaching enthusiasm of Dr. Jot 

evangelistic emphasis to the work of the London Mission which 

to this day. In 1905, this mission had 120 evangelistic centers 

from 5 mission stations. Thee centers extended from the boundaries of 

Hcnan in the north to within 50 miles of Kwangtung in the south. The 

visits and interest of Dr. John in Hunan and Szechwan hastened the 

opening of these provinces to the Gospel message. 

A man of rare piety, unselfishness, and Christ-like love for the Chinese, 
Rev. Dovid Hall, of the WMMS, impressed himself upon the Christian 
Church of Central China as few other missionaries of his day. He sought 
every opportunity of personal work, and preached in Hankow chapels, 
on the streets, and elsewhere in ever-widening evangelistic tours. Of his 
charitable gifts, there was no end. His personal assistance during the 
Great Famine in the north of China in 1S77-79, his sympathetic interest 
in the blind, not to mention that generous giving of himself on behalf of 
the flood refugees in 1S95, which resulted in his death, stand out conspic- 
uously rmor.g the countless other deeds of love to his less-favored fellow- 
men. It was under David Hill's influence that Dr. W. T. A. Barber came 
to China in 1SS5, and laid the foundation of what has since become Wesley 
College in Wuchang. 

Early Work of Other Missions— The PE began work both at Wuchang 
and Hankow in 1S6S, whence work soon extended to Ichang on the west 
and Wuhu on the east. Mission activities then wese in charge of the Rt. 
Rev. C. M. Williams, D.D., resident Bishop in Shanghai. In tool, the 
PE field in Central China was separated from the lower Yangtze field, 
two missionary districts being formed. The direct evangelistic work of 
the PE mission is carried on mainly by the Chinese clergy, assisted by 
catheeists and Bible women who work under their direction. Boone 
University- in Wuchang was begun in a small way as far back as 1S71. 

The original purpose both of the CIM and of the CMA, who sent re- 
presentatives to Wuchang in 1S74 and 1S93 respectively, was to provide 
themselves with business agencies and forwarding depots required for their 
work in the interior provinces of China. Since Mr. Judd entered Wu- 
chang {1S74} however, the CIM missionaries have opened 4 mission stations 
for direct evangelistic work, in addition to the 3 still occupied. These 4 
were subseouently abandoned, or turned over after a time, to the SMF and 
the CSFM. 

The NLK was founded in Norway in 1890. In the following year, the 
first missionaries reached Wuchang, where they began the study of the 
language. After extended explorations along the course of the Han River, 
this mission opened its first station in 1894 at Ladhokow. Here the first 
organized church of the mission was established in 1S98. 

The first party to be sent to Central China by the SMF arrived in 1890, 
and also settled in Wnebang for language study. Reinforcements reached 
China each year thereafter, and as soon as the language had been acquired, 
and satisfactory exploration had been done, the mission began its first 
permanent work at Ichang in 1S94. Later, missionary residence was estab- 
lished at Shasi, an open port between Ichang and Hankow. As early as the 
winter of 1892, an unsuccessful attempt had been made by this mission 



1(M 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 

IV. — Age of Work 




to enter the district north of the Wu-Han cities in Macheng-hsien. Two 
missionaries were accordingly appointed to Sungfcw, but the opposition 
was so great that in the following spring, these missionaries were brutally 
murdered, end the work suddenly brought to an end. Five years elapsed 
before another foothold in this section of the province could be secured. 
The SMF also works in the difficult field of Chinese Turkestan, among both 
Mohammedans and Chinese. 

Opposition similar to that experienced by the SMF in their attempt 
to open the district northeast of the Wu-Han cities, was met by the SEMC 
in their attempt to work northwest of these cities in the neighbourhood 
of Fancheng. Here three years elapsed before the first convert was won, 
and little visible progress was made until after the Boxer Uprising in 1900. 

In 1890 representatives of the LUM reached Wuchang. These mission- 
aries later moved to Hankow, where they studied the language, and began 
active missionary- work in 1892. A few years later several of their number 
journeved up the Han River, and began work in Fancheng in co-operation 
with the SEMC. 

Rev. Geo. Cockburn was the pioneer missionary in China for the 
Church of Scotland Mission (CSFM). Ichang, opened in 1878, is the only 
station of this society. 

Mission Stations Arranged Chronolog-caixy 







l«l 


7- l«H- 


1831- 


1S91- 


1901- 


1911- 






1® 


50 1®» 


1890 


1900 


1910 


1920 


Ang'ieaa 


,1'E 




2 


3 








Congregational ... . 


.LMS 




3 




2 






Lutheran 


.ELMo 
LB 
IXM 
XLK 

SEMC 








3 


1 

1 
3 


1 

1 
I 




SMF 






1 


2 


4 


I 


Methodist 


..MEFB 
















WMMS 




5 


I 


»> 






PrwbYfcers&n ... . 


..CSFM 




1 










China Inland Mission 


.,C1M 






2 


1 






Other Societies ... • 


..CM A 
PBIM 
SDA 
¥MCA 








1 


1 
2 


2 
1 



Note that the Bible and Tract Societies have been omitted from this 
table, as well as the several missions who have representatives in the 
Theological Seminary at Shekow, but no organized church work. Note 
also that the occupation of the province in terms of mission stations has 
gone forward steadily, the largest number of new stations having been 
opened during the decade preceding the Boxer Uprising. 

Oldest Fields Compared — Compare this map with Map II. Most of 
the densely populated sections of the province were entered daring the 
third period (1881-1900). Compare this map with Map V. All the larger 
cities had mission representatives before 1880. The two following decades 
mark the greatest expansion. Most sections in the province, opened to the 
Christian Gospel during the third and fourth periods (1901-19,10] (1911-1920), 



are found located in Lutheran mission fields. Areas south of the Wu-Hajj? 
cities, where work was begun between 1860-1880, do not show proportionnte? 
development in the number of evangelistic centers. Compare this map with*. 
Map VII. The increase in communicant membership has been relatively 
great in the Han River valley, while, so far as results are visible in. 
statistical foim, it has not been so encouraging northeast, southeast, and?* 
southwest of the Wu-Han cities. 

EXTENT OF EVANGELISM 

St&tions ami Evangelistic Centers — Protestant societies report 5SP 
mission stations in Hupeh. These are located in 32 cities, and from these 
the work of evangelism extends into almost 350 evangelistic centers, and* 
many occasional preaching places. The actual number of evangelistic- 
centers, as defined by the CCC for the purposes of this Survey, is smaller 
in Hupeh than that reported for Honan by no, and than that reported for- 
Hunan by 60. On the other hand, the number of Hupeh's evangelistic- 
centers exceeds the combined total reported for Anhwei, Kansu, Kiangsi, 
Kwangsi, Kweichcw, Shansi, and Shensi. The LMS, WMMS, and SMF* 
report the highest numbers of evangelistic centers. Denominationally, the 
Lutheran missions are far in the lead, reporting almost twice as many 
evangehstic centers as the Congregational missions, which rank second. 
Each evangelistic center in Hupeh averages 43 communicants. This average- 
would be considerably reduced, were the larger cities, now regarded as 
single evangelistic centers, to report the actual number of communicant* 
groups (or evangelistic centers) within their city limits. 

Eight cities have representatives of more than one Protestant 
missionary society. Out of n Protestant mission stations in Hankow, 
five represent Bible and Tract Societies, and two are primarily business*- 
agencies. 

New Stations — Plans have been made for opening the following new 
stations in Hupeh : Hwanglinwan (LMS), Hwanglingki (LMS), Kakiawatr 
(LB), Icbenghsien (SEMC), Kusaoshu (WMMS) and Puchi (WMMS). 

Distribution of Evangelistic Centers — The opposite diagram presents* 
the degree of Christian occupation in terms of evangelist - ..- centers within 
the various mission fields. 

Evangelistic centers appear least numerous south of the Yangtze ra- 
the eastern section of the province; north and northeast of the Wu-Han 
cities; north of the Han River between Anlu and Siangyangfu; south and. 
north of the Yangtze in the west beyond Ichang; and between the Han. 
and the Yangtze rivers just west of Hanyang. The entire northeastern 
section of Hupeh presents relatively few and widely scattered centers of 
evangelism. 

From the view point of direct evangelization, work in Hupeh may be 
considered as radiating from three centers : (1) the Wu-Han cities dominat- 
ing the center and east of the province; (2) Ichang in the west; and ($}• 
the district around Siangyangfu and Fancheng in the northwest. 

The present inadequacy of the Christian occupation of Hupeh is 
strikingly set forth by the following facts. Over one-third of the province 
still lies beyond 30 li of any evangelistic center. The proportion of 
Christians to non-Christian inhabitants is still less than one to a thousand. 
On the other hand, Hupeh reports a higher degree of Christian occupation 



THE PROVINCE OF HUPEH 
V. — Stations and Evangelistic Centers 



105 



* ttWifumt tuns 

■ wmstw asm sunn 

_ > i n linn > fc h i mm 




tliati its neighboring provinces. Both Hunan and Honan average only 3.7 
Christians per 10,000, while Hnpeh reports an average of 5.2 per 10,000. 
Anhwei on the east has an average of only 2.5, and Kiangsi of 3.1. Returns 
lor Shansi and Szechwan are somewhat higher. 

Reasons for Inadequate Occupation — Ten societies emphasize their lack 
of workers, both Chinese and foreign. Six refer to insufficient funds. 
Only one correspondent suggests that the inadequate supply of workers 
arises from the shortage of funds alone. One mission correspondent 
mentions the mountainous character of the country and the sparseness of 
population as chiefly accountable for ineffective occupation. Still another 
has found the difficulties of communication a very serious hindrance. 
Several refer to the general political unrest throughout the country which 
has occupied and distracted the minds of many people to the exclusion of 
•til else. 



Chinese and Foreign Workers Compared 
50 50 100 1.50 200 250 




A .rkers 

Workers 
Kd oration*} Workers 
Chinese Medical Workers 



Xo. or So. Mi. per Evangelistic Center 



FULL-TIME CHRISTIAN WORKERS 
Foreign Missionary Force — About 400 foreign missionaries reside in 3 a 
cities of Hupeh. Eight out of those 32 cities, or 25 per cent, have repre- 
sentatives of more than one missionary society. The missionaries are 
fairly evenly distributed between these 32 cities, if we except the 4 large 
cities with populations over 100,000, where 54 per cent of the entire foreign 
force in the province now reside. It is interesting to note in this con- 
nection that these same four cities report having at least 40 per cent of 
all the employed Chinese workers in the province. There is no mission 
station where only women missionaries are located. Less than one-fourth 
of the foreign force in Hupeh consists of singk women {85). 



I.— Force at Work— Foreign 





£ 


C 




1 


£» 


9 


§ 


2 


Name of Society 


-3 


H 


J 


US 


J2 
"3b 





■a 


5s» 


















s 



























fl 










K 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


Grand Total ... 


122 


16 


T 


1? 


* 


1SJ 


222 


589 



Anglican 

Congregational 
Lutheran 



Methodist 



PE 

LMS 

BLMo 

LB 

LUM 

KLK 

SEMC 

SMF 

MEFB 

WMMS 



Presbyterian CSFM 

China Inland Mission CIM 
Other Societies ... CMA 
PBIM 
SDA 

YMCA 



16 
10 
21 



24 
15 
2t> 



. (ABS,BFBS,\ 
11 4lPTCA. I 
•• (NBSS.BTS J 



Bible and Tract 
Societies 

Societies without organized ev-J 
angeltstic work, or church 
constituency ... KMS, KMS' 



70 

38 
9 
7 

21 

40 
25 
47 



100 200 300 400 500 6^0 7C0 



106 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 
VI.— Distribution of Workers 




Christian Occupation in Terms of Foreign Force— 



iS 
14 



Number of Missionaries 
per 1,000 communicants 
(Average for Province, 27) 

CMA 70 

NLK 64 

PE 39 

SMF 30 

LB 26 

CSFM 26 



CIM 
WMMS 

LMS 

SEMC 

LUM 



24 



Number of Missionaries 

per 1,000,000 Inhabitants 

(Average for Province, 141 

LUM 

SEMC 

PE 

NLK 

SMF 

LB " 

WMMS " 

CSFM • 8 

LMS 8 

CMA 7 

CIM 3 

Nationality of Foreign Workers— Forty-one out of every one hundred 
foreign missionaries in Hupeh are American, 34 British and 25 
Continental. 

The Employed Chinese Force and Its Distribution— The proportion of 
employed Chinese to employed foreign workers in Hupeh is 3.4 to 1. 
Forty per cent of the employed Chinese force reside in Hankow, Wuchang, 
Hanyang, and I,aohok©w. Only about 30 per cent reside outside of the 
mission stations of the province. If we compare the accompanying 
map with Map V, we see at a glance that thc=c Chinese employed workers 
are fairly well distributed. Most evangelistic centers report resident 
Chinese workers, and this generous distribution of employed workers does 
not appear any more pronounced in one mission field thin in another. 

The following table will reveal great differences between the various 
missions in the proportion of employed Chinese to foreign workers : 

HOP03TION OF 

Employed Chinese 
to Foreign Workers 
6 to i 
4-8 „ 1 



is reversed. The following missions report a majority of evangelistic 
workers : LUM, NLK, SMF, CMA, and CIM. Missions having more 
educational than evangelistic workers are the LB, SEMC, MEFB, 
WMMS, and CSFM. Seventy-eight per cent of the total employed Chinese 
force consist of men. The proportion of male workers in all missions, 
except the CIM and the MEFB, exceeds- 70 per eent. 

Ordained Workers — Hupeh reports 44 ordained Chinese clergymen. 
This represents approximately 10 per cent of the total number of male 
evangelists. The PE mission alone reports 19 ordained Chinese workers. 
This is significant when we compare it with the number of PE ordained 
foreign workers, which is one less, or 18. The number of communicants 
to each ordained worker in the various missions is as follows : MEFB 56, 
PE 97, SEMC IQ3, CIM 459, LMS 464, WMMS 635, and LUM 933- The 
following societies report no ordained Chinese workers : NLK, SMF, 
CSFM, CMA, and LB. The average number of communicants per ordained 
Chinese worker in Hupeh is 334. 

Christian Occupation in Terms of Employed Chinese Workers — 



Number of Employed 
Chinese Workers 



LMS 


241 


LUM 


1 or 


YMCA 


45 


PE 


317 


SEMC 


100 


CSFM 


60 


WMMS 


221 


LB 


20 


SM* 


124 


NLK 


83 


CIM 


13 


CMA 


5 



Number of Employed 
Foreign Workers 



39 



Employed Chinese Workers 

per 1,000,000 Inhabitants 
(Average for thb Province, 47) 

LUM 84 

PE 63 

SEMC 59 

LMS , 4S 

WMMS 45 

MEFB 44 

SMF 37 

CMA 33 

CSFM 32 

LB 3I 

NLK 29 

CIM 19 



Employed Chinese Workers 

per 1,000 Communicants 
(Average for the Province, 92) 



PE 



i77 



MEFB 155 

NLK 132 

CSFM 104 

WMMS 88 

LMS 86 

SMF 78 

LB 74 

LUM 53 

SEMC 53 

CMA 38 

CIM 28 



10 


4-5 


70 


4-5 


25 


4 


15 


4 


56 


3-9 


7 


3 


47 


2.6 


40 


2.1 


11 


1.2 


9 


0-5 



Classification of Chinese Force — Out of a total of 1,347 employed 
Chinese workers, 538, or 40 per cent, devote the major part of their time 
to evangelistic work; 572, or 42 per cent, are educational workers; and 
237, or 18 per cent, are employed in mission hospitals. Note how the 
various missions compare in the classification of their Chinese workers. 
For example, the LMS reports that the number of its evangelists is 
double that of its educational workers. In the PE mission this situation 



From the second table given above it is possible to obtain the pro- 
portion between employed (Chinese workers and communicant church 
members. For example, the PE employs 17 out of every 100 of its church 
communicants; MEFB 15, NLK 13, CSFM 10, LMS and WMMS 8 each. 
The CMA and the CIM employ the lowest proportions, 4 and 3 respec- 
tively out of every 100 communicants. The average for the province is 
9 employed workers out of every 100 church members. 

Training Centers fen Chinese Workers— In addition to secular 
educational institutions under the supervision of Christian missions, the 
following Bible schools for the training of Christian workers are reported : 
All Saints' Catechetical School (PE), Hankow, under the supervision of 
Archdeacon L. T. Hu; All Saints'- Divinity School (PE), Hankow, under 
Rev. Laurence Rldgely ; Hankow Bible School (LMS), Hankow, under Mr. 
Edward Kung; St. Phoebe's Training School for Deaconesses (PE), Han- 
kow, under Miss Hart; the LMS Divinity School, Hankow, under Rev. 
Arthur Bonsey. In Wuchang, the CMA conducts a Bible Institute, of 
which Rev. W. G. Davis is president, and the Rev. A. M. Sherman is 
Dean of the Divinity School, where the medium of instruction is English, 
in connection with Boone University (PE). Recently the AugBstana. 



THE PROVINCE OF HUPEH 
II.— Force at Work— Chinese 



107 



Nam* of S oc 1 c t y 



Grand Total 



44 «6 88 558 416 156 572 14 



Anglican 
Congregational 
Lutheran .-■ 



Methodist 



Presbyterian 

China Inland Mission 
Other Societies 



Bible and Tract Societies ... 

Societies without organized 
workjor ehareb evangel- 
istic constituency 



FE 
LMS 

ELMo | 
LB 
LCM (b) 

SLK 

SEMC (b) 
SMF (ft) 
MEFB 
WMM3 

CSFM 
CIM 
CM A 
PBIM | 
SDAl 

YMCA 

ABS. BPB8, IPTCA, NBSS, KTS ? 



KMS, FMS 



85 


143 


: us 


36 


8 


9 


: 47 


31 


i 48 


27 


! 45 


4-2 


j 66 


30 


8 


9 


56 


60 


19 


12 


10 


1 


5 


... 
... 

... 


! - 

1 

1 25 


20 5 


1 

1- 





| >k> returns 

ia) This column includes educational workers in institutions above Middle School grade 

(b) Onion work in FanchengSEMC— LUM. and in Kingchowfu SEMC— SMF 



Synod and the Church of Sweden missions have joined the Lutheran 
Church of China (See under Honan — Map VII) and therefore cooperate 
ia Sfaekow lor the training of their future ministry. A union 
normal and theological school is located in Kingchowfu iSMF 
sad SEMC), with Rev. C. J. Kelson as president. In Shekow 
the Lutheran missions have the Union Ltitheran Theological Seminary, 
of which Rev. G. R. Void is president. This seminary endeavors to 
meet the need of all Lutheran missions in central China. The missions 
co-operating at present in this institution are the LUM, FMS, and KMS. 



181 
57 



_* »3& 



41 182 237 1,347 , 47 78 



6 


44 


81 


317 


1 


13 


81 


E8 


241 
20 






to 


12 


101 


2 




2 


3 


S3 
100 


17 




6 


* 


124 

17 


3 
1 


18 


63 


89 


221 




4 


6 


12 


60 
13 


1 

16 




4.5 

6.0 

3.0 
4.8 

2.1 
4.0 

2.6 



4.0 
1.3 
0.5 



KO. OF COMMUNICANTS TO LACl! CHINESE OSD.UXED WORKER 







•• •• 


• •• 

• • • 





• » ••• » • 

*• ••••• 



•••••• 



.... 


rm 




• ••• 4 


>*•> 

>••• 


....••. 


• •• 


••••*•■ 


• •• 


••••*• 


• •• 




• •••••> 


• • • 


••••••< 

••••••< 


• . . 

• . . 


. . . . 1 


. . . 



III. 


-Extent of Occupation 


—The Christian Community 


















1 














a 








| 


1 


O 


c 
3 


* 


a 


o 


I| 


O^o 


p 
"5 ^k 


' 
^ 2 

.2 ss 


M 
•ji 


A\ 

>- 3 a 

131 










s 






















Mama of Society 




| 






| 




1 


is 




= =5 


= i-f 


*~ St 


X/l 


lii 




1 1 


3? 


3 


s 


jj 




H 


H 


|o 


11 


£ 


| = 


en 


& rf SB 

3".= ** 
? 3 

S 3 

<a 




! 


w 






■ 












M 








1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 
14,725 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


11 


13 


Grand Total ... 


58 


262 j 


344 


10.054 


4,671 


2*384 


mi 


f?% 


«0% 


28% 


9.339 


43 


Anglican ... PF." 

Congregational ... LMS 


4 


45 (a) 
21 


32 

77 


1.110 
1,680 


736 
1,106 


1,846 
2.786 


5.773 
8,887 


60 'V, 
60% 


68% 
23% 


67.% 


25% 


3,589 
1.212 


58 
36 




I 




2 






















LB 


I 


•> 




242 


23 


265 


544 


90% 




100% 


100% 


180 


38 


LCM ibi 


3 


18 


30 


1,504 


363 


1,867 


2,509 


Hi % 




65% 


48% 


330 


68 


NLK 


, 


9 


n 


449 


182 


631 


1.091 


71% 


8% 


70% 


30% 


196 


28 


SEMC f"W 


5 


30 


40 


1,428 


505 


1.933 


2.713 


74% 


12% 


48% 


25% 


745 


40 


SMF tin 


8 


41 


47 


1,091 


479 


1.570 


2.023 


69%' 


16% 


53% 


22% 


1,022 


33 


Methodist „ ... MEFB 




4 


4 


68 


45 


113 


416 


60% 








285 


20 


WMJ88 


8 


67 <ai 1 


53 


1,697 


845 


2.542 


3,955 


67% 


27% 


58% 


20% 


994 


4* 


Presbyterian CSFM 


1 


12 


14 


405 


177 


582 


1,015 


70% 


38% 


S7% 


24% 


200 


42 


China Inland Mission CIM 


3 


11 


12 


316 


143 


459 


538 


m% 




66% 


33% 


65 


30 


Other Societies CMA 


2 


2 


3 


64 


67 


131 


177 


49% 


77% 


88% 




111 


44 


PBIM f 


2 


























SDA$ 


1 
























... 


YMCA 


2 












1,753 










1.410 


... 


KWe *«4 Tract Soeities ... { ^^g* IFTCA, j 


S 




... 


... 












... 








Societies without organized evangelistic 




























fork or church constituency ... KMS, FMS 


2 
























■ .11 



Incomplete returns & So returns 

W Organized congregations ontaumber evangelistic centers wherever a large amount of city evangelistic work is done. Thus, a mission may have 4 organised congregation* 

in a city, reported as a single evangelistic center. 
0} Cako work in Fancheng SKMC— LUM, aad "m ringchowfu SEMC—SMF 



108 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 
.VII.— ComtstcKjan Chjustiaks 




COMMUNICAKT CHRISTIANS 
General Surrey— The Protestant Christian Church of China Is strongest 
in the coastal provinces, hctb in age and in numbers. Among the remaining 
12 interior provinces, Unpen ranks first in the numerical strength of its 
church membership, 14,725. Of this number, 6S per cent are men. The 
Ronnn Catholic Church reports the names of 105,748 Christians on its 
membership rolls, infants constituting a large percentage of this member- 
ship. Spiritual supervision over these Roman Catholic Christiana is 
exercised from 105 mission centers. About 500 Roman Catholic churches 
and chapels are said to be scattered over the province. Permanent mis- 
sionary work was begun in Unpen by the Roman CathoHc priests nearly 
250 years before the first Protestant missionary set up residence in Hankow. 



DUtribnt&m ef FroUstant Church Members — Two centers stand oat 
conspicuously on the accompanying map : the first, within and imme- 
diately adjoining the Wu-Han cities; the second, the area surrounding 
Siangyangfn, Laohokow, and Fancheng. It is safe to conclude that con- 
siderably over 40 per cent of the entire church membershir of the province 
are to be fonnd within a radius of 25 miles from the Wu-Han center, and 
these 3 cities in the northwest at the bead of navigation on the Han River. 

Undevelerftei Areas— The accompanying map reveals rather striking*jr 
the undeveloped state of the region just northeast and south of the Wu- 
Han cities. The entire western section of the province is practically un- 
touched. Just west of the Wu-Han cities, between the Han and the 
Yangtze, comparatively few communicants appear to have been reported. 



VIII.— COirMTTXlCtNTS PER IO,00O POPCUTIOS 



SfCNSI 



r 



ROHAN 



nrasuw mmmuh* (t'S-fUr 4*-* *-** 

ra imm mum 

; £M «j» » m a* <m> ^fcj 



WKlife3E3 



SZgCifWAH 




kmym 



THE PROVINCE OF HUPEH 



im 



although the fields of several missions overlap. A good beginning 
in evangelistic work is evident in all of the stations along the Yangtze. 
Compare the accompanying map with Map III. All areas opened before 
1SS0 report a fairly large ingathering of converts. Areas opened between 
18JS1 and 1900, except for the district south and southwest of the Wtt-Han 
cities, also report proportionately large numbers of communicants. 

Membership by Denominations — The Lutheran missions enroll nearly 
half of all the Protestant Christians in the province, 6,260. The Congre- 
gational and Methodist missions report approximately the same numerical 
strength, 2,786 and 2,655 respectively. The Anglicans follow with 1,846. 
The Presbyterians, CIM, and societies which cannot be classified denom- 
inatieaatly, rank last in order, each with a total membership of about 
joo or less. 

LUtracy — The degree of literacy among church members in Hupeh, as 

compared with other provinces, is rather low, only 60 per cent of the male 

members and 28 per cent of the female members being reported as able to 

read the Gospels in the vernacular with fluency and understanding. The 

s giving the degree of literacy among women in the church are con- 

ntly low for all societies. Unfortunately, no estimates were received 
from the PE mission. Reports from the following societies are above the 
average : LB, LMS, LUM, NLK, CIM, and CMA. 

Church Federation — Various steps have been taken fcy the missions 
working in Hupeh toward church federation, but with indifferent success. 
Since the formal organization of a United Lutheran Church for China (at 



Kikiingshan in the summer of 1920), it is not improbable that within a 
short time all of the Lutheran churches in the province will become mem- 
bers of this union. The Congregational and Presbyterian churches have 
limited in other parts of China to form the United Church of Christ in 
China, the constitution of which was adopted by representatives of most 
Congregational and Presbyterian missions at a meeting held in Nanking, 
1918, and this opportunity of federaton is held out to the Presbyterian and 
Congregational churches of Hupeh. The cause of self-support has not 
lagged in Hupeh. The LMS in 1917, for example, reported an average 
contribution from the Chinese of $1.89 per church member, and the CMA 
in 1919 an average of $2.57. 

COMMUNICANTS PER 10,000 INHABITANTS 

General Imptessions — Hupeh averages 5.2 communicants per 10,000. 
In this it is exceeded by n other provinces. The accompanying map 
shows the best developed areas to be as ftJIews : (1) around the Wu-Han 
cities; (2) at the hesd of navigation on the Han River; (3) around such 
cities as Shasi and Ichang on the Yangtze. 

Siangyang-tao Teports 7.6 communicants per to.ooo. Kianghan-tao, 
in which the Wu-Han cities are locited, reports 4.8 communicants per 
to.ooo, and Kingnan-tao in the west, only 2.7 communicants per 10,000. 
Thirty-one hsiens in the province have 2 or less communicants per 1 
The black areas northwest and scuth of the Wu-Han cities, and esped ' ; ■ 
throughout the western section of the province, are impressive. 



IY.— Extent of Occupation—The Christian School 



Name of Society 





Gra 


nd 


Total . 


.. 288 


58 


IT 


..uicnai 


... IE 
... EMS 
... EEMo 

LB 

IX M (a) 






61 
10 
96 


12 

•> 

9 


2 


■sist ... 


NEK 

SEMC (a) 
SMF («} 
... MEFB 
WMMS 






10 
95 

43 
9 
96 


16 


1 

i 


'trian 
China Inland Mision 

-• dtt'« S 


... CSFM 
... CIM 
... CMA 
VBIM § 
8»A * 

YMCA 






1 


1 


1 

1 
1 



S.08S 2,964 8.W9 



1,828 


700 


1,933 


44- 


292 


292 


5*4 


261 


155 


a 


197 




119 


129 : 


241 


ia 


574 


110 ' 


984 




24i 


77 : 


322 




6*0 


335 


1.015 


69 


703 


431 


1.134 


45 


99 


77 


176 




Ml 


60* 


1.449 


138 


101 


142 


243 


72 


32 


21 


53 





So return* * Incomplete returns 

t) Colon Work in Fancbeng SEMC— LUM. and in KingtUowfu SEMC— SMF 



1,538 847 2,185 



100 
61 



10 11 13 

734 118 852 



13 



11.086 



Hi 
S3 




100% i00'\, 



MISSION SCHOOLS 

Primary Education— With the exception of Szechwan and the coast 
provinces, Hupeh reports the largest number of lower and higher primary 
students. The exact extent of mission primary education in this province 
may be summarized as follows : 288 lower primary schools with 8,049 
students, and 58 higher primary schools with 2,185 students. 

A comparison of the number of lower primary schools with the number 
of organized churches and evangelistic centers is interesting. There are 
26 more lower primary schools than organized churches and 56 fewer 
lower primary schools than evangelistic centers. Considering the large 
number of schools reported for the Wu-Han and other large cities, each of 
which has been entered in our statistics as a single evangelistic center, 
the above comparison is equivalent to saying that approximately 
roo, or almost one-third, of the evangelistic centers in Hupeh are still with- 
out mission primary school facilities. The Lutheran missions report the 
highest proportion" between lower primary schools and organize*! 
congregations, namely 129 to 100. The CIM ranks at the other end of the 
list reporting only two lower primary schools as against n organized con- 
gregations. 

'■Hupeh ranks second among the provinces, or next.. to Szechwan,. in its 
emphasis on primary education for girls, thirty-eight per cent of the 
students in mission primary schools being girls. Twenty-seven per cent 
of the mission kwer primary students continue work in mission higher 
primary schools. In this dcve!opment, Hupeh is outranked only by 



Kiangsu, which reports 44 per cent of its lower primary students advanc- 
ing to schools of higher primary grade. 

Number of Primary Students end Communicants Com fa red— There are 
70 students in the mission primary schools for every roo communicants in 
Hupeh, The PE mission reports the highest percentage with 2,633 primary 
Students for 1,846 communicants, or a proportion of r.4 to r. The CIM 
ranks lowest among the missions, with only 53 students for 459 communi- 
cants, or a proportion of o.x to 1 (see Table VI). 

Middle Schools— Seventeen mission middle schools are located in 
Hupeh. Eight of these were offering full-grade work when the Survey re- 
turns were received. Five out of the 17 middle schools are for girls. Two are 
union middle schools : Concordia School fcr Girls in Fancheng (bEMC 
and LUM), and the Union Middle School in Kingchowfu (SEMC and SMF). 
Hankow should be credited with one more middle school iSDA) than 
appears on the accompanying map. No Government middle schools are 
located in anv of the centers where mission middle schools now exist, 
except in Kingchowfu and the Wit-Han cities. Eighty-six per cent of 
the middle school students in Hupeh are boys. Mission hospital facilities 
are available in all cities ^here middle schools are ! <»^^ th *™L"" 
ception of Kingchowfu and Chuchow. Plans, however, have been reported, 
fox new hospitals before 1923 » bot* °* these ceaters " *** »'*«» middle 
schools appear well distributed over the province, with the exception of 
districts around Kingmen, Anlu, and other cities in the central part. Here 
there are a number of higher primary schools apparently without any 



MO 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF ' CHINA 



IX.— Mission Schools 




middle school conveniently rear. Compare this m."p with Map VII. 
Note the concentration of communicants in the central part of the pro- 
vince, WMMS field, as well as the absence there of any middle school. 
Note also the lack of higher primary and middle school facilities along the 
Yangtze, between Hanyang and Kingchowfir. 

Htgher Education and Teacher Training— Three mission colleges are 
located in Hnpeh, two of which were founded before 1880 : Boone Univer- 
sity <TE) in Wuchang; Wesley College (WMMS) in Wuchang; and Griffith 
John College (LMS) it> Hankow. The Inst named was founded in 1899, 
is situated six miles outside of Hankow, and offers work of junior college 
grade only. 

Normal Schools — Hupeh is relatively well supplied with normal school 
facilities. The following institutions offer special courses : Wiseman 
Memorial Training College (WMMS), Hanyang; Girls* Boarding School 
(LMS), Wuchang; Griffith John College (LMS), Hankow; St, Hilda's 
School (PE), Wuchang; Kingchowfu Seminary (SEMC and SMF) ; 
Normal School (SMF), Hwangchow; and the Union Normal School, 
Wuchang. The total enrollment of students specializing in normal school 
work was 27 girls and 83 boys, according to the report of the special com- 
mittee (1920). 

GOVERNMENT EDUCATION 
General Summary — Hupeh has one primary student for every 125 
inhabitants. The report cf the Ministry of Education 1915-1916 gives a 
total of 225,000 primary students for the province. This results in a pro- 
portion of 79 primary students to every 10,000 inhabitants. Hupeh ranks 
midway fmorg the provinces in the amount of educational facilities pro- 
vided by the Government. Less than 5 per cent of the Government lower 
primary students continue work in higher primary schools. This per- 
centage is significantly low when compared with the percentage for 
mission primary students, which is 27 per cent. Government primary 
school f.-'cilities are strikingly poor in the larger centers especially in the 
Wu-Han cities. Only three hsiens in the province report more than 300 
students per 10,000 population. The average number of elementiry 
students per io,cco population in the United States is 1,980, or over 600 
per cent totter. 

rnment Middle and Normal Schools — Hupeh ranks low in the 
proportion of its middle school students to population. The accompany- 
if.gmjp shows 26 Government middle schools, two cf which are for girls. 
It has been extremely difficult to obtain accurate information of Govern- 
ment education in this province as in many others. To indicate bow con- 
fusing rid frequently inconsistent the several sources are, we submit the 
following. The 1916 Report of th e Ministry erf Education contains three 
different totals for middle schools in Hupeh (9, 21, and 23). In a later and 
fairly authoritative list of Government schools classified by cities, Hupeh 
is credited with 25 middle schools. A recent and comprehensive treatise 
in Chinese on Hupeh lists 13 middle schools for the province. The 
Commiss:"cne-r <A Education for Hupeh in 1920 reported 16 middle schools 
to the editor of the Educational Directory. Hollington K. Tong in his sum- 



mary of Government educational statistics {1918) gives 26 middle schools 
lor boys r.r.d one for girls. Our own estimate of 26 schools, of which 
two are for girls, has been obtained from a comparison of the above 
totals, and from personal enquiry. 

Four lower grade normal schools for beys, and one for girls, are 
listed in Mr. Tong's summary. Next to Peking and Canton, Wuchang is 
perhaps the greatest Government educational center in China. 

Higher Education — All higher Government educational institutions 
in Hupeh are located in Wuchang. They are — one higher normal school, 
one commercial college, two law colleges, and the Chung Hwa University. 



HOSPITALS 
General Survey — Eight mission societies report hospital work in 
Hupeh. This is carried on in 22 hospitals, under the perstnal supervision 
of 23 foreign doe-tors and 17 fore : gn nurses. These hospitals average 51 
beds each. In addition to these, 8 mission dispensaries, not connected 
with mission hospitals or located in the same cities, are reported. In the 
matter of foreign supervision, the hospitals of Hupeh are considerably 
below the standard recommended by the China Medical Missionary Associ- 
ation, which is two foreign physicians and one foreign nurse for each 
hospital of about 50 beds. In Hupeh one doctor is reported for every 
49 beds, and there is an average of 70 hospital beds for each foreign nurse. 
These hospital beds are apportioned, to men and women in the ratio of 3 
to 1. 

Five Roman Catholic hospitals, only 2 of which came in time to be 
shewn on the map, have been reported for Hupeh. Three of these are 
located in the Wu-Han cities, one at Ichang, and the fifth at Laohokow. 
Three hospitals cf modern medicine under Chinese supervision exist in 
Hankow. Undoubtedly similar hospitals under Chinese control are to be 
found in ether cities of the province, though nothing is known of them 
or the quality of their work. 

New Hospitals — Plans have been reported for the erection of the 
following new hospitals before 1923 : Kingchowfu (SEMC and SMF), 
Suichow (WMMS), Wusiieh (WMMS), Shihnanfn (ELMo), and Suichow 
(WMMS). 

Areas in Need— Mission hospitals are located in 16 of the 34 cities 
in Hupeh whore foreign missionaries reside. From a glance at the 
accompanying map, one receives the impression that mission hospitals 
are faitly well scattered over the province. Comparison with Maps II 
and III shows these hospitals to be located in relatively dense areas, and 
in the older sections of the mission fields. Comparison with Maps V 
and VI sherws that these hospitals have been established where develop- 
ment in evangelistic work is most advanced, and the number of com- 
municants greatest. Comparison with Map IX shows mission hospitals 
to be in all cities where mission middle schools are located, with the 
exception of Kingchowfu and Sukbow. In both of these centers, plans 
for new mission hospitals within the next five years are reported. 



THE PB0YINCE OP HUPEH 
X. — Govsknmsnt Schools 



111 




KSAKGS1 



Hosiital Beps per r ,000,000 Population 
lft 20 S3 40 50 60 «0 



IMS 

WJOI.-S 

«JM 

€*3FM 
SMF 
PR 
RUE 



Sjx«ial emphasis has always been placed on medical work by the 
LMS, which maintains hospitals in all of its five stations. The Home for 
Lepers in Siaokan, under the sble supervision or Dr. Henry Fowler, is a 
model of its kind in China, and merits special mention in connection with 
this survey. 



Christian Occupation m Terms of Doctors and Beds per i.ooo.ooo 

Inhabitants — 

Foreign Phvsicians pfr i ,000,000 Inhabitants 

t AVERAGE FOR THE PROVINCE, o.gj 

WMMS 2 

LMS r *4 

CSFM - * 

1,1 M °-8 

SEMC °- 6 

PE °-4 

All other missions provide no foreign physicians for a total popolatioi 
exceeding S,ooo,ooo. 



XI.— Hosfitaus 






Wmtt-Wf 

£2, tmmmn a iumtTaui mm* ifmmt 
KJt**-*Jt 




IIS 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



Y.— Extent of Occupation— The Christian Hospital 



Name of Society 



Grand Total 



5 S S. 
'5. ~ 
3. LI l J 

: i •§" 

:|J 

5- 
l i s 






6 7 8 9 



8 842 278 12.467 t 91 49 



Anglican ... PE 

Congregational LMS 



liDtiseraa 



Methodist 



ELMo 

I.B 

LVM 

XLK 

SEMC 

SMF 

MEEE 

WMMS 

CSFM 



Presbyterian.. 

China Inland 

Mission... CIM 

Other Societies CMA 
PBIMS 
SDAJ 

YMCA 



92 

360 



46 
16 
73 

isi 

70 



15 
107 

20 



6,184 

569J 

150 

667 

3.093 

1.118 



61 


61 


63 


•til 


M 


13 




10 




M 


29 


73 


45 


90 



f N'o return* 
(» i Union with Ll'M in Siangyangf a 



Hospital Beds per 1,000,000 Inhabitants 
(average for the province, 39) 

LMS 88 

WMMS 58 

LUM 54 

CSFM 47 

SMF 26 

PE 24 

NLK 7 

Mission societies not listed above provide no hospital facilities. 



Number of CoMxrMCASTs and Misskbs Primary Stcdents 
Compared 

500 1000 1500 2000 8*00 




1.8 
HTM 

sesic 
CKA 

CIS 

LMS 

WMMS 
SMF 
PE 
SCFM 

nr.ru 

NLK 



CcnrnjunicartS* 

Mission Primary Student* 



kl'mber of non-christians to each reported 
Christian in each Mission Field 



500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 





YL- 


Degree of Occupation and Table of Urgency 




















3 




-3 




_ 


I 5 


2 


1 * 




■ 2 i 


2k « 


g 


g 






»> 


2 J, 

* fi 




j? 


c 


*J 


£| 


if 


£| 


ai 


-c 2 


"9 Jg 

« § 


5 % 








53 


faa 




« - 


3 


is £ 


> — 


3 p 


>-. « 


— HT 


-r B 








■am* of Society 


as 




"s 


O 


O 


s s 


"S.55 


S| 


Eg 


§ ~-z 


£ 


5 5 
|o 

— 2 


s«8 

"c 2 


~ 

-3 








38 ° 


&• 


3 




_" 


£ — 


M 


c — 


h 


"5 «* 


2 H 


t2 *" 


"* 








< 




t 


H 


a 


2 0, 



& 


Q 


c 


«8i 


x N 


i 


| 






1 


2 3 


4 1 


$ 


6 


7 j 


8 


9 | 


10 


11 


13 


13 


14 


15 




Crand Total... 




71,428^1 njmjan*) 


at» 


IJff 


14,725 


1* 


47 


27 


92 


u 


635 


696 


&S 


59 


AngiJMn 


. FE« 


A 


18,000 


5,067,000 


70 


317 


1,846 


14 


63 


39 


177 


4 


1,940 


1,360 


0.4 


24 


Congregational 


. LMS 


B 


13,800 


5,084,000 


39 


241 


2,786 


8 


48 


14 


HI 


6 


433 


420 


1.4 


88 


Lntheran 


. ELMo» 


A 


1,500 


166,000 


9 






... ! 


*.. 












... 






LB 


Cont 


2,500 


640,000 


7 


20 


265 


11 * 


31 


26 


74 


4 


679 


1,040 








LUM 


A 


3,200 


1,227,000 


21 


101 


1,867 


13 


84 


11 


53 


15 


176 


419 


0.8 


54 




NLK 


Cont 


10,700 


2,935,000 


40 


83 


631 


14 


29 


64 


132 


2 


311 


608 




1 




SEMC 


A 


5.500 


1,731,000 


25 


100 


1,933 


15 


59 


13 


53 


11 


386 


600 


0.6 






SMF 


Cont 


9.100 


3,406,000 


47 


124 


: 1,570 


14 


37 


30 


78 


5 


651 


770 




26 


Methodist 


. MKFB 


A 


1.000 


386,000 




17 


113 




44 


... 


155 


3 


2,522 


156 








WMMS 


B 


10,800 


4,990,000 


56 


221 


2,542 


11 


45 


22 


88 


5 


398 


663 


2.0 


88 


Presbyterian 


. CSFM 


B 


3,800 


1,943,000 


15 


60 


682 


8 


32 


26 


104 


3 


345 


733 


1.0 


47 


China Inland Mission 


. CIM 


Int 


800 


703,000 


11 


13 


459 


2 


19 


24 


28 


7 


141 


117 






Other Societies 


. CMA 


A 


700 . 194,000 


9 


S 


131 


7 


33 


70 


38 


9 


854 










PBIM| 

SDA* 

YMCA 


A 
A 

Int 




2 
13 

10 


45 






















Bible and tract Societies... 


f ABS, BFBS, IPTCA.l 
'1KBSS, BTS 






11 
























Societies without organized evangelistic 






























work or eliarch constitsjeoe*.. 


. SJMS. FMS 






4 

























I Ho returns » Incomplete returns 

(a) Total for Province, not tor approximate estimate* by societies as -given below 



THE PROVINCE OF KANSU 

L— HSIEK BOUNDARIES 



113 




* 



*8 






HSIEN BOUNDARIES 
Political Divisions— Kansu is the second largest province in China, 
ranking next to Yunnan, with an area of 125,483 sq.mi., which is slightly 
above thut of Norway. Before Cbwanpien was formed, Szeehwan extended 
westward beyond Batang and ranked first in size. For civk administra- 
tk)D purposes Kansu is divided into 7 *a<>» which are sub-divided into 
76 fastens. The vast region northwest of its present boundaries once formed 
a part of Kansu. However, some thirty years ago this was included in 
the new province of Sinkiang, or "New Dominion." A Tough idea of 
the tremendons distances that characterize this part of China may be 
gained from the feet that Lanchowfu, the capital of Kansu, is 25 days* 
journey from the nearest railway terminal in Honan (Kwanyintang), and 

54 days* journey from Tihwafu, the capital of Sinkiang. 

Physical Characteristics— -The country, on the whole, is high and 
mountainous. Starting from the eastern boundary where the elevation 

55 5,000 feet, the mountain ranges extend in a northwesterly direction, 
rising gradually to over ao.coo feet above sea level. Between these ranges 
are wide and fertile valleys. The high altitude of all cities in Kansu is an 
important physical feature for Mission Boards to consider in the recruiting 
and allocation of foreign workers. 

The Yellow River and its tributaries constitute the only waterways 
in the province. These rivers are of little commercial importance, since 
xransportatkn by boats is practically impossible except on the Yellow 
River below Chungweihsien, just before it enters Sitao Mongolia. How- 
over, these waterways provide splendid irrigation for the rich loess plains 
in the northeast, and for the fertile valleys which He between the mountain 

"climate— The climate is a healthy one, with extremes of dry and cold 
in the north, and milder winds and rains in the south. 

Communications— Although Kansu is chiefly a "province of transit, 
the means of communication are few and very poor. There are no rail- 
roads no navigable rivers, and only a few important trade routes that 
are wide enough to accommodate cart traffic. For the most part, goods 



114 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 
II.— Density of Population 




CQ 



! s is 
i 1, 

if 



••$/!*£: 



&■$■■ 



-&. 



H 



OS 
© 




are earned on the bucks of camels, mules, and donkeys, and not infre- 
quently on tbe backs of men. Three principle trade routes cross the pro- 
vince : ( t) Siaafu (Shensi) to Lanchowfu, passing up the King River 
valley by way of Pingiiangfu. This road is about 350 miles in length, and 
can be covered in about 18 days by litter or on horse-back. It continues 
westward beyond Lanchowfu through Siningfu and on into Tibet. 
Still another but more difficult road between Sianfn and lanchowfu lie* 
further south passing through Tsinchow. (2) Ningsiaftt to Suchow in 
the northwest, by way of Liangchow and Kanchow. This important road 
projects into Sinkiang, and thence to Central Asia. (3) Lanchowfu 
southward into Szeehwan, by way of Kungchangfu. It is these main 
trade routes that have kept Kansu from remaining inactive and desolate 
after the Mohammedan Massacres (1861-1870). During those terrible 
years a considerable part of the population was wiped out, and the whole 
country was overrun and laid waste. A Chinese authority states that 
in this Mohammedan Rebellion the population of Kansu was reduced 1 
from fifteen to one million inhabitants. 

Railroad Communications — The nearest railway terminal is in western- 
Honan, 25 days* journey from Lanchowfu. Future developments of the 
Chinese railway system promise the early continuance of the Siichow- 
fn-Honanfu line to Sianfu, and later by way of Lanchowfu into northwest 
Kansu, thus ultimately connecting Central China with the Siberian Rail- 
way. The inaccessibility of the province and the local difficulties of 
travel have thus far prevented the development of the immense mineral- 
and agricultural resources of the province. Large deposits of gold, copper, 
and coal axe known to exist, and abundant crops of grain* and fruit* 
grow on tbe well-irrigated plains. 

Languages — An unusual variety of languages within the bottndaries of 
a single province presents a difficult problem to the promoters of educa- 
tional and evangelistic work, particularly in western and northwester* 
Kansu. The Chinese who constitute about one-half of the total popula- 
tion, speak Mandarin. It is estimated that at least one-third of these 
Chinese live in the south and southeast. Besides the Chinese, there are- 
Salar Moslems, south of Payenjnngko, who use a dialect resembling 
Turki ; Tungsiang Moslems, cast of Hochow, who speak a language- 
differing little from Mongolian ; and a small proportion of Arabic-speakbigr 



THE PROVINCE OF KANSU 



115 



Moslems. In addition to these, immigrants from Tibet, Turkestan, and 
*ther provinces of China are scattered everywhere. About 50,000 aborigines 
.ate still inhabiting the mountain fastnesses northeast of Siningfu. A'! 
these people speak languages or dialects peculiar to their native dis- 
tricts. This variety of tongues in so small a field has a psculiar bearing 

•on the work of the missions, and makes unusual demands in connection 
with the language equipment of the foreign missionary force, in the pre- 
paration of Christian literature, and in the operation of educational in- 
stitutions. 

Post Office and Telegraph Fecilitks — Kansu and Kwangsi have the 
poorest postal facilities of any province in China. In 1910, thirty general 
post offices and 102 postal agencies were reported. Over 5,000,000 pieces 
■erf mail milter are handled annually, but expansion is slow. Eleven 

• ;<elegraph stations connect Kansu with provinces to the east, and with 
Sinkiaug and Central Asia to the west. 

DENSITY OF POPULATION 

Population Estimates — Kansu is the most sparsely popu!hted province 
in China, having only 48.4 inhabitants per sq.mi. Compare this with the 
figures for the three densest provinces, Kiangsu 1872.3), Chek*ang (323.5s, 
and Shantung (552.9!. The maximum population figure for Kansn is 
10,380,000 (Statesman's Year Book, 1002), although a still higher estimate 
«£ i2,eco*eco was recently supplied by local officials to one of oar cor- 
respondents. The iqio Minehengpu Census gives the lowest figure, 
3,807,883, or almost one-third that given in the Statesman's Year Book. 
Both the Post Office Census (1919), and the official figures sent to the CCC 
( igxS) fall between th«f*e two estimates, being 5,927,997 and 6,083,565 
-respectively. The prevailing opinion among missionaries favors 9,000,0m 
as more nearly in keeping with the rapid growth in population during the 
past qnarter of a century. Note that the above density rate was com- 
puted on the basis of the CCC estimate. 

Densest Areas — The most populous regions in Kansu He towards the 

centre in the environs of Lanchowfu, in the southeast, and along the 

Pingliang-Ianchowfu road and south. Correspondents mention the sparse- 

of population as one of the chief reasons for the slew progress of 

Christianity in the province.. 

Cities — Estimates of city populations vary so widely through imperfect 
methods of census taking that enly rough approximations at best can be 
given. The largest city population reported to the CCC is that fee Lm- 
ehowfu, the capital (110,000). Ningsiafu, Tsinchow, Taochow, and Ping- 
liang follow in order with 85,000, 75,000, 62,000, and 55,000 respectively. 
Four cities are estimated at between 20,000 and 40,000 each, and five- more 
.somewhere between io.coo and 15,000 each. Many hsien cities are mere 

Res. 



I.— Force at Work— Foreign 



Name of Society 







Grand Total ... 


11 


2 


2 


19 


29 


43 


72 


Chin; 


In! 




CIM 
SAM (era 


1 


- 


•2 


10 

6 


15 
3 


21 
9 


36 
IS 


Other 


Soc 


eties 


AG J 

CMA 

I ml 


7 






1 


1 


1-2 
1 


I 



$No 



Mission Station's Arrange] 



China Inland 
Mission 



CIM 

SAM I CIM) 

AG 

CMA 

] 



II.— Foree at Woik Chinese 



Name of Society 



Grand Total 





















I- 












- 





























































D 


.- 




" 




tm 


S 3 


- 


" 


- 


* - 


- 


- 


= 


g 




~ 


B 


1 


M 


§ — 


§ ~ 


£ 


' "£ r 


32 • 






£ 
































































































































































































1 




i 


4 


& — 


■X 


1 


§ 


i. 


- * 


■2 £ 


> 




isi 


g 


■3 




H 


i 


- 


| 


■~ 


X 


fjlj 


s 


3 




S5 3 




r- 






~ 










5 


~ 


6* 




u 


3 


4 


5 


C 


7 


- 


» 


10 


11 


1-2 


13 


14 


r 


16 


IS 


63 


Ifi 
16 


6 


22 


' 




3 


7 


11 


96 


37 


75 

\ 


12 



•China Inland Mission 



CMA 
led 




43 34 I 81 

n 1 \m 



• 



| Mo letaras 



III.— Extent of Occupation— The Christian Community 



Name of Society 




Grand Total ... 19 53 38 838 «8 !,S36 2,519 



... 


' 








AG" 

CMA 


I 10 9 

... 


. . 



m 

M 19 



116 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 
III.— Protestant Mission Fields 



8 yf 

■'an #g:< *• «f— «K^«r§5 




The inhabitants of Kansu are, in general, conservative, superstitious, 
and more or less indifferent to outside influences. Many are poor, and 
illiteracy is very prevalent. 

The Christian Community— One small dot on the accompanying map, 
out of an aggregate of 608, represents the Protestant church membership 
in Kansu. Seven additional small dots indicate the reported numerical 
strength of the Roman Catholic Church. 

MISSION FIELDS 

General Summary— Three missions have established work in the pro- 
vince : the CIM claiming the central and southeastern portion ; the SAM 
(era) claiming the eastern section; and the CMA working the southwest. 
A small Independent Mission to Tibetans claims a small field with head- 
quarters at Payenjungko, west of Lanchowfu. None of the six large 
denominational groups are represented in Kansu. A few AG missionaries- 
cany on work in Minchow, Taochow and other places, where the 
value of their work is seriously questioned. The CIM and 
its affiliated mission SAM, are endeavoring to work over 40 per cent of the 
total area of this great province, and the CMA about 12 per cent. Together 
these missions have a foreign force of only 72. This still leaves 40 per 
cent, or nearly 55,000 sq.mi., unclaimed by any Protestant mission. How- 
ever' reference to Map II shows that some of this area is very sparsely 
populated and difficult of access. The boundary line separating the field 
worked by the CIM in southeastern Kansu from the field of the SAM 
icm), is not shown on the accompanying map. 

Overlapping Areas and Comity Agreements— -There is no overlapping: 
of mission fields in Kansu. At the United Conference of Missionaries held 
in Lanchowfu, September, 19x8, it was mutually agreed that the province 
should be worked by the various missions as indicated on the accompany- 
ing map. A few AG missionaries, without respect to these agreements, 
have begun work in the field of the CMA. The CIM and CMA have agreed 
that, as soon as it is able, the former mission shall undertake special work 
for Moslems in and around Hochow {CMA field). 
AGE OF WORK 
Pioneer Period— Protestant missionary work began in Kansu some 40 
years ago with the arrival of Messrs. Easton and Parker of the CIM, 
January 1877. After experiencing considerable hardship in travel they 



THE PROVINCE OF KANSU 
IV— Ac* or Work 



IV, 







TSftl 






22 



01 



22 



If 

- ! r- 

'•Ms 

X 



arrived at Lanehowfu. The following- year the important market town of 
Tsinchow was opened, and became the first mission station in the province. 
During the whole of the pioneer period (1E77-1900), extensive journeys 
were made by a number of missionaries. Every important place in the 
province was visited, and the Scriptures circulated in six different langu- 
ages, as far as Kuldja in Sinkiang. Seven years after the occupation of 
Tsinchow ('1S78), Lanehowfu, Siningfu, and Ningsiafu were opened to 
Protestant missions (1885), the last two stations being established for work 
among Tibetans and Mongols respectively. Liangchowfu became a per- 
manent missionary center in 1S88, and Taochow, Old City, in 1891. It is 
difficult fully to appreciate the dangers and privations incident to the work 
of pioneer missions in northwestern China. The high altitude of mission 
stations, and the ever present sense of isolation from fellow workers, pre- 
sent even to-day a. challenge to all those men and women who arc willing 
to endure hardship for the sake of carrying the Gospel .to unreached far-off 
peopks. 

EXTENT OF EVANGELISM 

Stations and Residential Centers— There are 17 missionary residential 
centers in which 72 missionaries reside. /So city has represen- 
tatives of more than one society. Thirty-eight eVangelistic centers, with 
an average of 35 communicants each, and an indefinite number of occasional 
preaching places, are supervised from these 17, cities. This means an 
average of 1 evangelistic center to each 1800 sq.mi. of territory within the 
areas claimed. Sevea mission stations are British or Continental in the 
personnel of their foreign force, and 10 are American. The small number 
of evangelistic centers shows not only the scattered character of the popula- 
tion and the recent entrance of missionaries on the field, but also the con- 
serwtisM. of the people and the extensive father than the intensive 
character of the work. There is not one organized preaching place in the 
emtire northwest, and n <* more than 10 Itinerate missionaries have 
passed through this area during the 40 years df Protestant missionary en- 
deavor in the province. 

Since the galheriKg of the material for use in this Survey, important 
advances have been made. Tsingtringchowj 240 H west of Pingliang, 
Kuyuan, 180 li northwest of Pingliang, and Sifengchen about 40 li north- 
east of Chenyua^nhsien have been occupied as missionary residential centers, 



irs 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OP CHINA 

V.— StMTOHS AND EVANGEUSTIC CENTERS 




t 

f 


* 


s! 


4 


let* 1 


s 

S 

3 


s* S«* 


* 


s " ^ 


i 



thus increasing the number of missions stations in Kansu from 17 to 20. 
Kanchcw in the extreme northwest, while appearing on the map as a 
mission station, is still only an evangelistic center, with a Chinese doctor 
and two modieal assistants trat as yet no resident foreign missionary. 

Degree of Christian Occupation — Only 1 person out of every 4500 inha- 
'.'itants in Kansu is a Protestant Christian, or 2.2 per 10,000. Although; 
this proportion is a very low figure, the province of Szeehwan to the sooth 
reports a still lower proportion, or only a Christians per 10,000 inhabitants. 
Contrast these with Fukien on the coast which averages 23 Protestant 
Christians per 10,000 inhabitants. 

Reasons for Present Inadequacy of Occupation — The mountainous 
character of the entire area, the absence of good roads and water com- 
munications, and the sparseness of population, have already been mention- 
ed as serious hindrances to rapid advance in the Christian occupation of 
Kansu. In addition, the isolation and conservatism of the people, and the 
few workers, Chinese and foreign, must constantly be kept in mind, as- 
well as the fact that in Kansu over one-third of the inhabitants are 
Moslems, and that there is a considerable mixture of Tibetans, Mongols, 
and aborigines— all of whom are most difficult to win to the Christian 
faith. There is not a single ordained Chinese worker reported for Kansu. 
Moreover, there are fewer Chinese paid evangelists reported for all missions, 
than foreign missionaries. 

FULL-TIME CHRISTIAN WORKERS 
Distribution of Missionaries — Seventy-two missionaries are reported 
for 17 residential centers. Over one-half of these foreign workers live in 
the 6 largest cities of the province : Lanchowfu, Ningsiafu, Liangehowfu,. 
Taocbow, Tsinehow, and PingHang. This lea%es from 2 to 6 missionaries 
in each of the 11 remaining mission stations. Just one-half of the 
missionary force belongs to the CIM, 20 per cent to the SAM, and 30* 
per cent to the CM A. Of the total force, 40 per cent are men and 26 per 
cent single women. Thirty-eight per cent of the men are ordained. Only 
a foreign male physicians are working in the province. The average for 
Kansu is 12 missionaries per million inhabitants, as compared, for ex- 
ample, with Fukien where the average is 27 missionaries per million 



THE PROVINCE OF KANSU 



119 



VI. tam VII. — Distribution of Workers axd Communicants 




Foreign* Workers per i,ggo 
communicants 
{average for the province, 

,,A.\I (cm) 67 

CIM 58 

CMA 41 



Chinese Force and tts Distribution — The Chinese paid workers total 
96, or one-third more than the foreign workers. This is the lowest pro- 
portion given for any province. Fakien, for example, reports 8 Chinese 
workers to one missionary. Over one-third of the Chinese force resides 
in the 6 largest cities. Outside of the mission stations, there are only 16 
full-time Chinese workers, and these are resident in 14 evangelistic centers. 
Comparing this map with Map V, we find 16 evangelistic centers, each 
with 10 or more communicants, without paid workers. 

Classification of Chinese Force — Nearly 66 per cent of the Chinese 
workers are engaged in evangelistic, 23 per cent in educational, and over 
11 per cent in medical work. In the number of paid evangelistic workers, 
the 3 missions rank as follows : CMA 78 per cent of its workers 
evangelistic ; SAM 72 per cent ; and CIM 53 per cent. These proportions 
are considerably changed, if we regard the number of voluntary workers 
reported by each society. Many of these workers are as effective as those 
employed and giving full-time service. Of the total number of employed 
workers in Kansu, 75 per cent are men. 

^Church Supervision— Hot one ordained worker is reported in the 
entire province with its total Christian constituency of over 2,500. 

Ratio or Workers io Communicants— The SAM employs 16 out of 100 
communicants, the CIM 7, and the CMA 4. In comparing the number 
of employed "workers to population, the, CMA reports 34 per million in- 
habitants, the SAM 30, the CIM n. 

Training Schools for Workers— The only Bible school reported in the 
province is that operated by the CMA in Titaochow. 
COMMUNICANT CHRISTIANS 

General Survey— The three Protestant societies in Kansu report a 
total of i,33« communicants, of which 62 per cent are men. This repre- 
sents about one-fifth the reported strength of the Roman Catholic Church 
in the province (7,249). Only 9 per cent of the Protestant communicants 
-reside in cities over 50,000. A total Christian constituency of 2,519 is re- 
corded. 



120 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 
I Y.— Extent of Occupation— The Christian School 



Name of Society 



Grand Total 



China Inland Mission 
Other Societies 



CIM 

SAM (cim) 
AG | 
CMA 
1ml f 






MS : Si 

;. 



330 



93 



423 



256 
23 



288 
56 



, £ I £s2 



36 27 



63 



gO ■§'5 



3«s 



•^ .= 2 |# : 4 



486 75'-.< 



? T. » 

16 



16%' 



324 



4* 'A) 



31& * 







VI.- 


-Degree of Occupation and Table o 


f Urj 


r ency 




















„ 








s ,» 1 


. 


2 




■ ■ 


S 3 


s 








1" 


"3 "5 "s 




a 




I? i 


«"S 




c "3 


x 5 


as 3 


"ti 3. 
•a js 


"5 ° 


Name of 


Society 


Ss 


Is i wa 


§ 


o 
O 

J 


"5 s 

Id 

-S o 


ilg 1 

© oi 


sf 


• 1 


rj-> 


if 

= © 


.2-« 


So 

9 2 


si 








< * 


g ; 1 


fr* 


1 


7= fL j 


5 




— 


SB g. 


a 1, 


8 


8 






1 


2 3 


4 5 


6 


7 


H j 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 

i - 




Grand Total ... 


(a) is) 
125.483 6,083,565 


72 96 


1,336 


IS 


s " ! 


95 


7* 


12 


495 


963 


0.3 


96 


China Intend Mission 


... CIM 


lot 


31,500 


3.950.000 


36 I 43 


620 


9 


11 1 


58 


69 


2 


{ 

3*2 s 


522 


0.5 


30 




SAM (cut) 


A 


22,300 


963.000 


12 ; 29 


175 


13 


so : 


67 


161 


2 


855 " 


311 




104 


Other Societies 


... AG S 


A 












34 1 


















CMA 


A 


lo.bOO 


688,000 


22 23 


541 


33 




41 


43 


8 


669 | 


196 








Ind 


A 


1,000 


64,000 


2 1 




31 


IS 














... 




Unclaimed 




54,689 418,000 


... J ... 














... i 






.. 



j Xo retains 
(a) Total for Province, not for approximate estimates by societies as given below 

Membership by Denominations — The church membership may be 
divided among the 3 societies as follows : 46 per cent CIM, 41 per cent 
CMA, and 13 per cent SAM. No returns have been tcceived from the 
AG, or the Independent Mission to Tibetans. 

Degree of Literacy — Among communicants, 50 per cent of the men 
and 30 per cent of the women are reported to be able to read the New 
Testament in the vernacular. These figures are low in comparison with 
those el ether provinces. Kweichow is the only province reporting a 
lower degree of literacy. 

Sunday School Work — The number of Sunday School scholars is 693, 
or one-third more than the total number of students in mission schools. 
The emphasis in each of the 3 missions on Sunday School work appears 
to be about the same, there being an average of 5 scholais to every 10 
communicants. 

Communicants per 10,000— The average for the province is 2.2 com- 
municants to 10,000 inhabitants. The CIM and SAM are below average, 
while the CMA reports 8 to each 10,000 in its field, or one Protestant 
Christian to 125 inhabitants. 

MISSION AND GOVERNMENT EDUCATION 
Elementary Education — Eighteen lower primary schools {330 boys, 
93 girls), and 4 higher primary schools (36 boys, 27 girls), constitute the 
present facilities for Christian elementary education. Almost one-third 
of the mission stations and alt of the evangelistic centers were without 
any Christian educational facilities when the Survey data was received. 
However, the proportion between primary students and communicants 
(36.3 students to every 100 communicants) is not far below the average 
reported for most of the provinces. Sixteen per cent of the lower primary 
students pass on to higher primary schools, the proportion for the CMA 
being highest (34 per cent). 

twiddle Schools and Higher Education — No mission educational 
facilities above higher primary school grade are reported for Kansn. How- 
ever, at the United Conference of the three societies in September 191S, 
it was unanimously decided to establish a union middle school in Lan- 
chowfu as soon after 1020 as possible. 

Government Schools— The average enrollment in gorernment primary 
schools is one child to every 54 inhabitants, or a total of 39,685 for the 
province. This is equivalent to 60.5 per 10,000. The provinces of China 
range frcm an average of 25.5 per 10,000 (Anhwet), to 390 per 10,000 
/Rh.insi). 



V.— Extent of Occupation— The Christian Hospital 



Name of Society 



I m "S m 1 



S — ' a 



S5 e 



5 6 7 



L ?§ 



Grand Total ... 2 » 148 



864 1 5 110 US 



China Inland Mission 


CIM 


1 


6 


60 


40 


1 

j 464 


t I 5 60 


60 




SAM (cur) 


1 


2 


60 


40 


j 400 






Other Societies... ... 


AG* 
CMA 

Ind * 




1 






t - 







* Incomplete returns 

Middle Schools — One correspondent informs us that the government 
has several good middle schools in the province with which mission educa- § 
tion cannot at present compete. Four middle schools for boys are re- 
ported in the 4 cities of Lanchowfu, Tsinchow, Pingliang and Liang-- 
chowfu. The capital also has a law school and a lower normal schools, , 
one for boys and one for girls. Three other normal schools are listed for 
Liangchowfu, Titaochow, and Siningfu. Little is known of the quality 
of their work. 

FoRKtcx ani> Chinese Workers Classipikd 
30 26 10 10 20 30 40 




Foreign Workers 
Chinese Evangelistic Workers 
Chuiese Educational Workers 
Chinese Medical Workers 



THE PROVINCE OF KANSU 
IX. and XI. — Mission- Schools and Hospitals. 



121 



2S 



♦"! 



-*-« 



If 

iA 



♦23 






22 



fed 



/> 



N 



EZi 



♦II 



3S 




=h ST 



"iir 






S „ » a = «=■« £«r 

f § s i»M>ijisKs«CEti 



■ 3 S S 8 



•• ♦•MhMMj* 



HOSPITAIiS 

General Survey — The first medial missionary work in Kansu was 
attempted by Mr. H. W. Hunt, in the district of Tsinehow, Here his 
influence in opening' up the country and the memory of his good deeds 
are spoken of to this day. Following this pioneer effort in herding 
ministry, came Mr. TomvaH, who reached Kansu in 1S94. His efforts 
in the district of Pingliang have been greatly blessed and still continue. 
Medical work in the capital city began with the arrival of Dr. J. M. 
Hewett and Mr. A. Preedy, both of the CIM, 1904. To-day, after more 
than 25 years of medical missionary activity, Kansu still has only 3 
credited Christian physicians, 2 foreign and 1 Chinese. There is one 
foreign doctor to every 3 or 4 million inhabitants in Kansu. 

Two mission hospitals have been built, the American-Chinese Hos- 
pital, SAM {era}, in Pingliang, and the William Borden Memorial Hos- 
pital, CIM, in lanchowfu. These two hospitals total 220 beds. Two 
foreign nurses, 3 graduate Chinese nurses, and 7 Chinese nurses in train- 
ing represent the additional hospital force in the province. Twelve dis- 
pensaries are located in as many mission stations. The value of medical 
vsork in opening the country to evangelistic effort and in breaking down 
the opposition of the people cannot be over-estimated. Several corres- 
pondents have referred to the urgent need for medical work in such 
centers as Siningfu and Hochow. In their words, "nothing would be 
so effective in securing access to Moslems and Tibetans as the work of 
itinerating physicians in these cities and surrounding districts." Dr. 
Kac, with 2 Chinese assistants, is doing both medical and evangelistic 
'work in the city of Kancbow, under the CIM. 

Nuaaaat of Communicants and Mission Primary Students Compared 
100 200 300 400 500 800 



cm wwwvwAvwwwJwww^ 



CM A 
SAM (am 



vvwvy wwiwwwft 




Communiettats 

<' '"> Mission Primary S$tsU?«sts 



122 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



KIANGSI 



I. — Hsien Boundaries 




HSIEN BOUNDARIES 

Political Divisions — Kiangsi has an area of 69,490 sq.mi., and 
supports a population of 24,490,687, or 309 inhabitants per sq.mi. 
The State of Oklahoma, U. S. A., although it has approximately 
the saire area supports a population of only n per sq.mi. For the 
purpose of civil administration the province is divided into 4 tao. These 
are subdivided into Si hsieus. The capital city is Nanehang. The only 
treaty port is Kiukiang. Hukcw on the Yangtze is a port of call. 

Physical Characteristics — Kiangsi has been aptly described as "an 
amphitheatre of mountains and valleys, cne-fifth larger than England 
and Wales, draining into a central lake." It has many picturesque 
features, and in its general geological structure, resembles Hunan. Except 
in the north it is entirely mountainous, the Tanges running generally 
in a southwest and northeast direction, while the main river valley, 
that of the Kan, runs more nearly south to north and the sub-valteys west 
to east. The Kwangsin River drains the northeastern section of the 
province, and the Fit River the southeastern. All three rivers empty 
into Poyang Lake, which is 90 miles long and about 30 miles wide in 
the north. This lake is similar to Tungting Lake in Hunan, overflowing 
in summer and becoming quite low during winter. It is gradually 
shrinking in area. The Hukcw Canal connects it with the Yangtze River. 
The. great plain surrounding Poyang Lake extends southward as far as 
Linkiang. 

Climate — The climate in the north is temperate in summer, although 
the days and nights are frequently very depressive and hot. During the 
winter the lakes between Kiukiang and the mountains are occasionally 
frozen. As one goes further south, climatic conditions change, and may 
he characterized as more nearly seme-tropical, 

language— Mandarin is universally spoken throughout the province, 
eraept in the extreme southern and eastern sections where the country 
fcordexs on Fukien and Kwangtung. Here Mandarin is understood with 



difficulty, and local variations of Fukie*» 
and Kwangtung dialects are heard. 

Communications — The only railway in* 
Kiangsi extends from Kiukiang to Nan- 
ehang. Other lines have been projected,, 
but no developments are in sight. One 
proposed railway is to extend in an east-- 
wardly direction from Nanehang to Nan- 
king, and another in a westwardly direction" 
to Pingsiang connecting with the Hankow- 
Canton trunk line at Chuchow in Hunan. 
Another important railway is planned from* 
Nanchang southward following the conrse- 
of the Kan River and the MeiMng Pass ans"3 
terminating at Canton. 

Most of the rivers are navigable, and 1 
practically every large city in the province - 
can be readied by water. The roads- 
throughout Kiangsi are generally merc- 
footpaths and much neglected due to the 
exceMent water communications. One- 
important highway, however, deserves- 
mention. If foHows the Kan River almost, 
due north and south through the provincev- 
and is commonly known as the "Ambas- 
sador's Road," for along this highway many- 
foreign embassies journeyed in years past- 
en route from Canton to Peking. This- 
highway is marked by mission stations and? 
evangelistic centers. From Kianfu, roads- 
run to Yungsin and Yungfeng. Along 
these roads mission work is developing* 
rapidly. At Changshu the main highway" 
is crossed by a road extending from Fukien* 
into Hunan. Along this road extending: 
westward one may find considerable missionr 
expansion. Another road extends frown 
Kiukiang through Juichowfu, Fengsin, Ani^. 
Kienchangfu, and Teianhsien, to Kiukiang.. 
Each of these important cities is now ie 
missionary residential center. From Kien-- 
changfu another road runs up into the tea 
district. This road is dotted with churches*, 
schools, and Christian homes. East of the- 
lake the Kwangsin River is the chief means - 
of communication, and has a notable series- 
of stations. Some of the oldest mission* 
work in the province is being done along: 
this river by women missionaries. Just. 
scuth of this in the valley of the Fu River 
and along the Fukien-Hunan highway one also finds very active Christia**- 
propaganda going on. The shores of Poyang Lake, being accessible to* 
boat travel, are lined with Christian churches and schools, particularly 
in the northern sections. 

Economic Conditions— Kwangsi is in the main agricultural. Several 
districts report four crops annually. Two in-gatberings are quite common,, 
one being of rice and the other of wheat, opium, rape, or buckwheat- 
Tea is grown on the borders of paddy fields, and along the hill sides.. 
Tobacco is common, and various qualities of hemp are also seen. Timber 
forms a principal export from the western and southwestern sections of 
the province. Extensive orange groves are seen in Liangking and* 
Chienchang. The mineral wealth of the province is very great though* 
little developed. 

The majority of the people are engaged in agricultural pursuits andf 
live rather a secluded life. 

Postal FacUUtes—The extension of post office facilities is greater im 
Kiangsi than in the neighbouring provinces of Hunan, Hupeh, or Fukien. 
During 1919, over 40 new postal agencies were established, and more pieces- 
of mail were handled in Kiangsi that year than in either Hunan or Anhwei. 
These comparisons will indicate the relative openness of the country to- 
missionary itineration and evangelism through the medium of the press. 

Telegraph Facilities — The main line of the telegraph system between 
Hankow and Canton passes through the middle of the province, and* 
supplies ample service to the cities en route. There are more telegraph 
than mission stations in the province. 

Christian Occupation by Hsiens — No hsien in Kiangsi is wholly 
neglected or untouched by Christian evangelism, although there are two- 
areas unclaimed by mission societies, one in the north including parts of 
two hsiens, and one in the south embracing parts or the whole of six 
hsiens. Thae are 8 hsiens, having a total population estimated as being 
over a million, without any organized Christian work. Thirty-six hsiens,, 
or almost one-baM the total number in the province, with approximately 
40 per cent of the population, are without any Christian schools. 



THE PROVINCE OF KIANGSI 



123 



POPULATION 

Gener*d Estimates — Population es- 
timates far Kiangsi vary from 14,500,000 
(Mtnchengpa Census, 1910) to 26,530,000 
(Statesman's Year Book, 1902). A per- 
sonal estimate by Mr. Clennell reduced the 
figures to 11,000,000, which, however, has 
received little support. The Board of 
Revenue in 1S85 reported 24,541,000. This 
was undoubtedly too high, for twenty-five 
years' later an official estimate reached 
approximately the same igure, 24,534,000. 
The annual rate of increase in population 
fcr India, as indicated in the recent India 
us, is 0.7 per cent, and that for Japan 
per cent. It seems improbable, there- 
that the rate for China can be much 
; .5 per cent. 

Population estimates by hsiens received 
from official sources by the CCC in 1918 
credit Kiangsi with 24,490,687. The Post 
Office figures gathered a year later, 1919, 
total 24,466,809. The slight difference 
between these two estimates greatly 
strengthens the report among Chinese in 
Kisngsi that the inhabitants of this pro- 
vince number slightly over 20,000,000. 

Post Office population estimates for the 
fo!lowing hsiens exceed these supplied to 
the CCC : Singtze, Tsiensban, Shibeheng, 
Ltiling and Shangkao. On the other hand, 
Post Office figures are much below those 
of the CCC for Suishui, Hnkow, Kweiki, 
Tsiennan, Tayu, Nankang, Taibo, Kishui, 
and Linchwan. If, then, we accept 
24,500,000 an a satisfactory estimate, the 
density ratio for KJangsi becomes 352.8 
inhabitants per square mile. 

Densest Areas — The areas of greatest 
density are those around Poyang Lake and 
the valley of the Kan with its tributaries. 
The mountainous sections of the province 
are considerably below average density. 

Cities — Four cities are reported with 
populations roughly estimated to be 100,000 
or above : Nanchang, 500,000 ; Kanchow, 
300,000; Kianfu, 120,000; and Fucbow, 
100,000. Note the large dot representing 
the Kingtehchen district. This 
is the center of the China-ware industry, 
and of numerous villages of workmen, 
grouped closely together. Seven cities are 

believed to have somewhere between 50,000 and 100,000 inhabitants : 
Kiukiang, 85,000; Ningtu, 60,000; Jaochow, 50,000", Kienchangfu, 
50,000; Nanfeng, 50,000; Yuanchow, 50,000; and Juikin, 50,000. The 
populations of thirteen other cities range between 20,000 and 50,000, Of 
the total 24 cities in Kiangsi reported as having over 20,000 inhabitants 
each, 11 or almost half are without foreign missionary residents. 
Approximately 87 per cent of the people in the province live in cities 
under 20,000, or in rural districts. 

MISSION FIELDS 
General Surrey— There are 15 Protestant mission societies with 
Christian constituencies in Kfiangsi. Four of these have no resident 
foreign missionaries, the work being carried on by Chinese and supervised 
from neighbouring provinces. All denominational groups except the 
Congregational are represented. One-tenth of the province still remains 
unclaimed. The missions with largest fields aTe as follows : CIM and its 
affiliated societies (FFC and GCAM), MEFB, NKM, and CMML. Over 
half the province is claimed by the CIM and its affiliated missions, while 
the MEFB claims approximately one-third as its special responsibility. 
The field of the NI.K is only one-quarter the size of the MEFB field. 
The delimitation of field boundaries for the following societies has been 
impossible : CMS, CE, SDA, and YMCA. Independent missionaries are 
located in Kiukiang, KuHng, and Tungsiang. The two first named 
societies work very small areas in the western part of the province around 
rinjjsiang. No field demarcations were received by the Survey Com- 
mittee from the CMML. In order, however, to give some idea of the 
atea over which the evangelistic work of this mission now extends, 
boundary lines have been drawn enclosing all evangelistic centers and 
the territory 30 H beyond the furthermost centers. In this procedure the 
Committee has followed the principle kid down for the demarcation of 
mission fields in all relatively unoccupied provinces as for example, the 
CIM field in Kwekbow. 

^Nationality aj Satieties—Three societies are Continental : Bn, FFC, 
and GCA.M. The last two are affiliated with the CIM. Unfortunately, a 
distinction between the fields of these two missions and the field of the 
itself was impossible on the accompanying map. Five societies are 
American, two of which report no foreign missionaries in the province : 
S»DA and UE. Four societies are British, with the CMS and EPM 



II. — Density of Population 




without resident foreign workers. Two societies are International : CIM 
and YMCA. 

Overlapping Areas — In any province as poorly occupied as Kiangsi, 
overlapping is mere evident on paper than in the experience of the 
workers. More overlapping of fields does not necessarily indicate any 
duplication or cenfli-.tion in the work of the various missions concerned. 

I. — Force at Work— Foreign 



Name of Society 



Grand Total ... 


14 


5 1 2 | 101 


ss 


165 


226 


Anglican PE 


3 




... 1 ... 


3 


4 


1 


CMS 






... j ... 








Baptist ABF 


1 




1 \ 1 


% 


3 


5 


Lutheran ... Bn 


1 


... 




1 


1 


2 


Methodist MEFB 


7 


2 j 1 


i i? 


11 


27 


3«* 


CE 




... 


... j ... 




... 


... 


Presbvterian EPM 








... 








China Inland Mission CIM 


2 


1 




46 


16 


62 


TO 


FFC (cm) 


... 






8 




8 


8 


GCAM (cm) 




... 




1 


8 


8 


16 


Other Societies ...CMM1< 




... 




... ; 12 


13 


23 


36 


Ini 




... 




... ! 4 




4 


4 


XKM 








... j 6 


4 


11 


15 


SDA 
















TMCA 




... S ... 




2 


2 


i 


Societies witiwut or- 1 j.„ 
ganised evangelistic ! pgW 




| 












2 1 ... 


9 






13 


work or church i r-it£ ' 














constituency ' 















124 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA' 



III. — ; Protestant Mission Fields 




The accompraying map shows overlapping mission fields around 
Poyang Lake, where the PE and CIM, NKM and CMML, MEFB and 
CMML, MEFB and PE overlap; and in the central part of the province, 
where the MEFB and CIM overlap. Nanchang and Kanchow, as well 
as the Kingtehchcn district, are indicated on the accompanying map as 
fields common to all mission fccieties. 

Unoccupied A rety— Unoccupied areas arc frequently visited by 
evangelists and colporteurs. In the north the country is more or less 
swampy, and consequently sparsely inhabited, while the south appears 
to be more populous. In this southern region the people speak local 
dialects resembling those heard in Fukien and Kwangtung. 

Comity Agreements— Mission correspondents mention very little in 
the way of comity agreements. The CIM reports having definitely 
apportioned certain districts to the GCAM and FFC, for them to regard 
as their special responsibilities. An unwritten agreement exists between 
the workers of the CIM and the Bn missions in the northwest, which 
fixes field boundaries there. But this is all. Doubtless definite agree- 
ments between the missions regarding their respective field delimitations, 
and a more or less general policy cf comity for the whole province, will 
he worked out before long. It is much needed. 



the MEFB was signalized by the opening 
of Fowler Institute in Kxnkiang in rSSx. 
This institute later developed into the 
William Nasi Coiege. Due to stubborn 
resistance from conservative Chinese, Nar- 
chang, the capital of the province, was not 
entered until 1899. 

Two years after the Methodists entered 
Kiangsi, Mr. J. E. Cardwell, of the CIM, 
reached Kiukksg. Here he secured pre- 
mises just outside the west gate of the 
city- and opened a street chapel. During 
1871-72 three long itinerating journeys 
were made, one into the Kan River valley, 
as far south as Wananhsien, another to 
the cities and towns around Poyang Lake, 
and a third up the Fnchow River as far 
as Fuchow, and the Kwangsin River, as 
far as Anjen. In 1873 Mr. Cardwell opened 
Takutang on Poyang Lake, where 5 years 
later he secured a permanent site for his 
headquarters. The work of the CIM lr 
Kiangsi has developed along three lines : 
{i) The Kwangsin River district to the 
northeast; (2) The Kan River district is 
the north, west, and south ; (3) The Fa 
River district in the southeast. Yushaa 
was tire first station to be opened along 
the Kwangsin River. This river district, 
foPowing Dr. Hud&on Taylor's decision, is 
worked almost entire!}' by foreign women 
missionaries, with Chinese assistants both 
men and women. In 1889, definite 
itineration in the practically untouched 
Kan River district was begun. No at- 
tempts were made to rent premises in tfc*, 
larger cities such as Changshu, Kianfu, or 
Kanchow, Cliinese inns being used in- 
stead. The province was not opened to 
aggressive evangelism until after the Sine- 
Japanese War of 1S95-6. 

The ladies of the Finnish Mission began 
work in Kiangsi in 1899 at Yungsin and 
Yfianchow. The Fn River district wis 
allotted to «he German China Allm-.cs 
Associates oi the China Inland Missk<n. 
This, in Reality, is an extension of their 
field in Chekiang. The first station oc- 
cupied by this mission was Fuciiew, 
opened in 1899. 

Messrs. E. J- Blandford and C. E. 

Holland were pioneers into the northwestern portions of the province 

where the NKM and CMML are still working. 

Note that the greatest advance in the opening of mission stations was 
made between xSgr and 1910. A comparison of the Christian occupation 
in terms of mission stations between Kiangsi and Hunan is interesting. 
Most stations in Hunan were opened after the Boxer Uprising, while in 
Kiangsi as many stations were opened before as after. In comparing 
present results, however, Hunan, though opened later, exceeds Kiangsi 
in almost every feature of missionary work. While the growth through- 
out Kiangsi has been steady, it has not been as rapid as elsewhere in 
China, nor have all departments or activities of missionary .work been 
equally stressed. 

Oldest Fields Compared— A comparison of this map with Maps V. 
VI, and VII shows that the areas which were opened first to missionary 
endeavor now report the highest degree of Christian occupancy in terms 
of evangelistic centers, workers, and communicants. Progress during the 
earlier stages was exceedingly slow, due largely to the anti-foreign feel- 
ing throughout the province. The CMML was the first mission to 
enter Naiithausr. 



Mission Stations Arranged Chronoiogicaixy 



AGE OF WORK 

Age of B'orfc— Rev. V. C. Hart, who arrived in Foochow in 1S66, was 
sent with Rev. E. S. Todd by the MEFB to open work at Kiukiang, in 
December, 1867. Two years later this work had extended sufficsentlv to 
the east and west of the city to justify the formation of an independent 
Methodist mission. Two additional male missionaries reached Kiukiang 
in 1870, and in 1872 the first foreign single women joined the mission. 
The first annual meeting of the Central China Methodist Mission was held 
an 1S75. 

Two Chinese girls, Ida Kahn and Ma«y Stone, having completed their 
medical education in America, returned in 1S97 and opened medical work 
in Kiukiang. Recently Dr. Kahn has been carrying on self-supporting 
medical work in Nanchang. The first attempt at higher education by 







1807- 


1861- 


M81- 


IS9»- 


1901- ( 


r;>u- 






1860 


1880 


\ l!*90 


1900 < 


1910 J 




Anglican 


..PE 














Baptist 


..ABF 












1 


Lutheran ... 


..Bn 














Method fet ... 


..MEFB 




1 




1 






China Inland 
















Mission.. 


..CIM 
FFC (CIM) 
GCAM (cm) 








I 


1 




Other Societies 


..CMML 
Ind 
NKM 
YMCA 












1 

1 



THE PROVINCE OF KIAKGSI 



1-25 



EXTENT OF EVANGELISM 

Residential Centers— Forty-she xnis- 
•sionary residential centers are located 
co the accompanying map. More than 
half of these are on navigable streams 
or accessible by railway. Except for the 
southern section and the extreme northeast, 
Kiingsi appears fairly well dotted with 
mission station symbols. Only fcur re- 
sidential centers reported representatives of 
more than one mission society when the 
Survey data was collected. For the most 
part missionary advance has followed the 
chief waterways, notably the Fu, Kwarsg- 
sin, and Siu Rivers, and to a lesser extent, 
the Kan and the Yuan. Besides 272 
evange'jstic centers grouped around the 
mission stations, there is a large number of 
occasional preaching places scattered every- 
where over the province. 

Bach foreign residential center averages 
ft evangelistic outposts. The CIM is far in 
the lead in its number of mission stations. 
This society (with its affiliated societies 
GC-VXf and FFC) maintains over 30 mission 
stations. The CMML ranks second with 
12. These two report 77 per cent of the 
ni'ssion' stations ; 68 per cent of the Pr< - 
testant communicants; 40 per cent of the. 
employed Chinese workers ; and 3s per cen* 
of the total mission primary students in the 
province. 

Distribution of Evangelistic Centers— 
There is as yet Mttle evidence of intensive 
evangelism in Kiangsi. Fairly extensive 
itineralive work has been done by the CIM 
in the Kwangsin and Fu valleys, and by 
the CMML in the Siu vilky. The Kan and 
Yfian River valleys appear less developed. 
Overlapping mission fields show no more 
intensive work than other sections of the 
province. 

Compare this map with Map II. The 
ureas now reporting the greatest develop- 
ment in the number of evangelistic eentt is 
are greatest m their density of popnlatioin 
For this reason the need of extensive 
evangelism may be said to be equally great 
throughout every section of the province. 
The degree of Christian occupation of 
■various mission fields in terms of 
evangelistic centers is strikingly presented 
in the table which follows on the next 
page: 



IV.— Agk of Work 



m?m 




II.— Force at Work— Chinese 



Name of Society 



S^ I 



Anglican 

Baptist 

Lutheran 

Methodic 



PnesfejteriaB 

China Inland Mis&ion 



Grind Total 



26 195 99 320 



©iber Soeielie* 



rfcektias without organised ewtngel- 
wtie work or church eonstituencT... 



PB 

CMS 

ABF 

Bn 

MEFB 

VE 

EPM 

CIM 

FFC (cm) 
OCAM (cm) 

CMML 

lad 

NKM 

8BA 

YMCA 

K3, FCM8, UMC 



47 


181 


1 
11 


47 



206 M 294 



10 11 

IS 102 



126 



740 174 



■u 

9 
384 

1 

t>m 

10 

7:! 



69 



W 



8&% 


4.8 


7S% 


4.5 


'•'• 


S.K 


100'- 1 ,, 




100*. 




71\, 


2.4 


90% 


1.3 


79'-';, 


4.6 


&*% 


O.S 


$5% 


1.8 


100 Hh 




100% 


2.4 


.... 
100 «;, 


0.8 



ia) This column includes worker* connect**! with educational institutions above Middle School grade. 



126 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OP CHINA 



V. — Extent of Evangelism 



hupeh 



HUNAM 




-=* »* 



cV«C£l«!H (mv 

nsibiMF ansa* ««n» 



•T**.***! ****** 



SDA. Only two societies, with church con- 
stituencies report medical missionary work. 
The proportion of women to men in the 
foreign force is almost three to one. 

Distribution of the Foreign Force— It 
we omit Killing which is essentially a 
health resort during the major part of the 
year, 36 per cent erf the missionary' force ia 
the province live in the cities of Kiukiang 
and Nandiang. The remaining foreign 
residential centers average a fraction more 
than three missionaries each. 

Nationality— -Fifty-eSgJit per cent of the 
missionary body in Kiangsi are British, 



and 14 p<ar < 
n Terms 



rat 



of 



Field 
Area 

ABF 750 

Bn i/*;° 

NKM 5.7«> 

CIM, GCAM, & FFC 37,000 

PE 875 

CMMI 3,7«» 

EPM 1,300 

MEFB 20,600 



Nouses op 

evangelistic 

Centers 



l6o 

4 



NCMBLR OF SQ.Ml. 

per Evangelistic- 
Center 

107 

150 
190 

219 
21S 

30S 
32s 
735 



Hem Stations — Plans for 8 new stations have been reported. All of 
these are to be opened before 1923. They are located as follows : Kwang- 
ehang, (".CAM (cmj ; Shihchcnghsien, GCAM (cm) ; and Lukihsien, 
GCAM (cim), in the eastern half of the province; Siakianghsien (CIM), 
and Sinvuhsitn (CIM), in the central Kan River valley; and Jnihung 
(CIM), just south of Poyang Lake. The MEFB reports definite plans to 
enter Kianiu and Kienchangfu where the CIM and GCAM (cim) respective- 
ly are already at work. 

Reasons fir Inadequate Occupation— All correspondents refer to the 
inadequacy of their working staff, both foreign and Chinese. Four refer 
to lack of funds, and several mention the political unrest. Shortage of 
funds is attributed by several correspondents to economic conditions 
resulting from the War. In one district anti-foreign feeling is still 
too strong to permit of the establishment of permanent work. 



2$ per cent American, 
Continental. 

Christian Occupation 

Foreign Workers — 
Number of Missionaries per !,«•• 
Inhabitants (Average 9) 

ABF 2 1 

CMMI. 16 

NKM 14 

PE 13 

MEFB 11 

CIM 8 

GCAM (cim) 7 

FFC (cim) 7 

Ba 4 

Number of Missionaries per i r ow 
Communicants (Average 30) 

CMMI 164 

NKM 75 

FFC (cim) 57 

I'E 19 

MEFB 35 

GCAM (cim) 22 

CIM 20 

ABF 15 

Bn 5 

It is interesting to compare the rank - 
of Various societies as given in the above 
two tables with their rank in the tab!es 
accompanying this same map, which show 
the degree of Christian occupation in terms 
of Chinese workers per million inhabitants 
and per thousand communicants. 

Chinese Workers— There are more than 
three employed Chinese workers for every 
foreign worker in Kiangsi. The MEFB 
employs the highest proportion, 8.8 
Chines to each foreigner. (See Table II, Column 16). The CMML J»a* 
two foreign workers to each employed Chinese. When we count tfie 
employed Chinese workers engaged in all forms of missionary activity, 
the total for Kiangsi reaches 740. Of these, 43 per cent are engaged full- 
time in evangelistic, 40 per cent in educational, ami 17 per cent in medical 
work. The following missions report more evangelistic than educational 
workers : CIM with almost three times as many, NKM, ABF, and Bn. 
On the other hand, both the PE and MEFB report twice as many 
educational workers as evangelistic. The figures supplied- by the CMML 
are not sufficiently complete to make comparison of any value. (See Table 
II, Columns 4, 7, and 12). 

Ordained Workers— Slightly over 8 per cent of the emploved 
evangelistic force are ordained (26). Of this number, 17 or 65 per cent 
are connected with Hie MEFB society. The CIM and PE are the only other 
missions in the province reporting regularly ordained Chinese clergymen. 
Over 2,100 communicants in the province are without the pastoral over- 
sight of any regularly ordained Chinese minister. In the missions report- 
ing ordained workers there is an average of 301 communicants to each 
Chinese ordained pastor. It is striking to nota that if we include the 
foreign with the Chinese force, Kiangsi has a total of only 40 ordained 
workers. What this means in the spiritual ministries and administration 
of 225 organized churches with a total constituency exceedng 15,000 cannot 
be easily imagined. Each ordained worker averages over 5 organized 
churches and almost 200 communicants under his spiritual charge. 



FULL-TIME WORKERS 
Foreign Staff — Kiangsi has a total of 226 foreign missionaries residing 
in 46 cities. Twenty-two per cent of the men are ordained, in other wcrds 
there is one ordained missionary to every five. The province reports a 
surprisingly large number of single women missionaries, 104, or almost 
half of the entire foreign force. Fifteen out of the 46 residential centers 
report women missionaries only. Over one-half of the foreign force of 
the CIM consists of single women, about one-haM of the MEFB, and 
one-half of the NKM, and exactly one-third of the CMML. The largest 
number of missionaries is reported by the CIM (78). The MEFB ranks 
next with approximately one-half this number, the CMML third with 
almost as many as the MEFB, and the NKM fourth. The following 
societies report no foreign workers in the province : CMS, UE, EPM, and. 



mkfb 
cim 

GCAM <c 

PB 

NKM 

ABF 

CMMI. 

FFCjcuO 

YMCA 

Be 



Chint.se and Foreign Workers Compared 
50 25 25 50 100 150 200 S50 300 

1 ■•' I" 




CbtatM F«oe»*fen*f Wottosrs 

Chines Medical Worker* 



Note the high rank of the MEFB, PE, 
cud KKM missions in both tables. The 
second table also indicates the number of 
^employed Chinese workers oat of every 
agoo csanmanicants. The MEFB, for ex- 
ample, employs the highest number, or 
jji.j oat of every ioo communicants; the 
^E iS-3, and so on. (See Table VI, Column 
to). Among the larger societies the CIM 
.employs the lowest proportion, 4.7 out of 
•■•every 100 communicants. It is interesting 
<o compare these tables on Chinese 
•Christian workers with preceding tables on 
■■foreign workers. 

Twenty-eight per cent of the foreign 
•force, 69 per cent of the Chinese workers, 
.and 59 per cent of the communicants are 
«aen Notice that the MEFB reports the 
largest percentage of women workers, 45 
■«^er cent ; the NKM, next in order, with 35 
••per cent; and the CIM, third, with 29 per 
•cent 

Training Centers for Chinese Workers 
— In addition to such training in religious 
-mask as is offered in mission higher 
(primary and middle schools throughout the 
-province, the following special Bible 
-schools have been reported : Burrows 
Memorial Bible Training Institute, CIM, 
"Nanchang; Knowles Training School for 
"Women, Kiukiang, and the Women's 
Bible Training School, Nanchang. The 
lut two schools are supported and staffed 
t>y the Women's Foreign Board of the 
'American Methodist Mission. Most of the 
-other large missions provide opportunities 
•for Bible study and training in religious 
•work in the form of station classes and 
"Bible training institutes which extend 
over a number of weeks, and which are 
attended by both old and new workers. 

COMMUNICANT CHRISTIANS 
General Suney — The total communi- 
«tat membership of the Protestant churches 
•in Kiangsi is 7,827, and that of the 
Homan Catholic Church is 79,593, almost 
'tea times as great. The Protestant com- 
municant body is divided into 225 organized 
-congregations, making an average of 34 
-members each. The spiritual oversight of 
*hese congregations is in the hands of 26 



THE PROVINCE OF KIANGSI 

VI.— DISTRIBUTION OF WORKERS 



127 




III.— Extent of Occupation— The Christian Community 



Name of Society 


00 § 

1 3 


6 

SB 
C 

> 

S3 
3 


I \ 
■e 

4 


5 6 7 


— — "^ 
8 9 10 11 12 


13 


Grand Total ... 


56 225 272 


4.438 3.059 7,827 15,319 


59 ; 53 71 44 , 7,323 29 


Anglican PE 

CMS 

Baptist ABF 

Lutheran Bn 

Jfafkodki , MEFB 

VE 

Presbyterian EPM 

Chin* fa-Jand Mission CIM 

FFC u:mi 

GCkkicml 

Oifeer Societies CMML 

Ind 
KKM* 
S0A 
YMCA 


•2:4 4 

1 1 

17 7 

1 9 11 

*2 27 * 28 

1 1 

a 4 

23 116 130 

•2 S 5 

34 34 

U 2 12 

5 15 3D 

... i 3 ; S 

I 


133 

5*2 
1-7 

638 

16 

63 

2 222 

87 

488 

12S 

127 

57 


so laa ; 4*7 

20 i 7*2 . 122 
147 334 402 
160 399 i 399 
431 1.067 3,979 

5 21 1 61 

68 ! 10-5 

1,771 ; 3,993 i 6,741 

51 13> 154 
246 ! 734 ; 1,289 

551 262 

74 ] 201 1 1,252 
9 66 | 66 


73% ■ m% '. 705%' 

72% 

m% ... :•-".. 

60% 

60% ! 90% 

76% 
100% ! ... \ 55% 
56% 16 

63% 13% 
66% _ 90% • 19% 

57% ] m- 

63% 

86% 50% I 


30% 1S7 

7t ; ".. i '. 

176 
135 

1 203 


46 
36 

n 
21 

17 
SB 

S3 

46 • 

7 
13 



128 



THE CHEISTIAU OCCUPATION OF CHINA 

VII.— DlSTRlBCTlOX Off COMMWICANTS 















f" 


m — ' 1 


I 


*. 


H0PCH *«* 


^■S 


Jf^\ ANffWO 




^^^ ~ 


JL /f * f 


■ 




^"-^-^■"^"X^E-i 






HUNAN 

• 

* r 


• • mJtk 
mj • 


/far "^to*""''^. *• **.# 


i i 

S * '*" 

( 1 


-a - - f 
* - • i 


, 


■ *•" S^ 


■ / 




t 4 


« ^■""■H^l Ife/V^J ***j| 




/^ FUKIEN 


=£■ 










V • • 
KWANGTUNGj C 




SCAlt 1, » «0»Wv 


# i 


* ♦« ** 3t» *«- !♦ 








- ibi nimij«i tmmuv emsnm. 


in 













Moreover, the number of Sunday SchooP 
scholars in Kiangsi exceeds the total 
number of student* under Christian in- 
struction by over a.oco. Considerablfr- 
diftcrence in administration of churches iA- 
rcvealed by the tables giving the num- 
ber of foreign and Chinese workers per- 
1,000 communicants. "The CIM and* 
affiliated societies report 102 foreign mis- 
sionaries, and 271 Chinese workers, whil»- 
the MEFB, for example, Teports one— 
third fewer missionaries and one-fourth* 
more Chinese workers. 



Christian Occupation m 
Chinese Employed Workers- 



Terms of 



ordained and 294 unordained evangelistic Chinese workers. Appro- 
ximately 6 out of every 10 of the churchmembers are men. 

Membership by Denomination — Denominational emphasis, except that 
among Methodists, is not a prominent feature of Christian work in 
Kiangsi. The communicant membership of the CIM and other societies 
not grouped under any denomination is 5,683, or almost 74 per cent of 
the whole. Methodists number 1067, while other well-known denomina- 
tional missions report a combined church membership of only 1,000 or 
thereabouts. In other words, the membership of the Methodist church 
Kiangsi is as great as the combined membership of Anglican, Baptist, 
Lutheran, and Presbyterian churches. 

Distribution of Membership — There is one Christian for every 3,129 
inhabitants in Krlangsi, and one evangelistic center to approximately 
every 255 square miles. These facts reveal the undeveloped state of 
Christian mission work and the great need both for intensive and exten- 
sive evangelistic effort. A glance at the accompanying map shows the 
greatest number of Christians along the Kwangsin River, and in the 
valley of the Fu River. The percentage of Christians in cities over 50,000 
is very low. Except for Kiukiang and Nanchang there is little con- 
centration in large cities. The Kan River valley compares very un- 
favorably in the number of its church members with the Kwangsin River 
valley. The section west of the Kan River, if compared with Map V 
showing the location of evangelistic centers, appears fairiv well supplied. 
The southern part of the province, especially the lower Kan River valley 
is striking in the absence of resident Christians ; also between Kanchow 
and Kingtu. If the accompanying map be compared with Map IV, it will 
be seen that the districts where missionary work first, began, namely 
around Kiukiang and in the Kwangsin River valley, report the largest 
returns today in the number of communicant Christians. There is no 
region where intensive work stands out prominently. Most of the pro- 
vince still appears inadequately occupied and in immediate need of strong 
evangelistic endeavor. 

Church Organization — The number of organized churches is slightly 
less than the number of evangelistic centers. There is as average of 4 
churches to every mission station. The Christian constituency in the 
province is about double that of the church membership, while the 
number of scholars in Sunday Schools is most encouraging. There is 
en average of 938 Sunday School scholars to every 1,000 church members. 



Workers per 1,000,000 Isehamtakts 

(AVERAGB 31) 

ABF 

MEFB • 93 

PE 53- 

GCAM (cim) 3J- 

NKM 24' 

Bn -• 20' 

CIM • •— 18 

FFC lem) 9- 

CMML .-•• 8 

Workers per r,ooo Communicant* 

{Average 99) 

MEFB 313 

PE •- 153 

NKM 124 

OCAM (era) 106- 

ABF - "3J 

FFC (as) - IT 

CIM AT 

CMMI, 3*P 

Bn 25. 



Number of Chinese Employed Wqrjkirs pib, 100 Sq. Mi. 

12 3 




ABF 

PE 

MEFB 

cm 

Bn 

CMMI. 
HXM 
EPM 



COMMUNICANTS PER 10,000 

The average number of communicants per 10,000 population is slightljr* 
over 3. Yfichang-tao, in the central eastern section of the pro- 
vince is relatively the best occupied, showing 5.1 communicants per 10,000. 
Kannan-tao, in the extreme south, with 3.3, and Sfinyang-tao, in the- 
extreme north, with 2.5 follow, leaving Luling-tao, in the central west, 
ranking last in order with only 1.6 communicants per 10,000. 

Among hsiens, Kweiki leads, with 18.9 communicants per 10,000, or 
1 for every 531 inhabitants. Kiukiang-hsien comes next with 1 for every 
561 inhabitants. It is interesting to note that the best occupied lxsien in • 
terms of church communicants is worked by a single mission, the CIM. 

Undeveloped Areas — The areas in the province whkh show the lowest 
proportions of the Christians to inhabitants are, generally speaking, 
sparsely settled, wild and mountainous is their physical characteristics, 
with poorly developed means of communication. Only one exception 
should be noted, namely, the region northeast of the Poyang Lake. Thi» 
district, though rather sparsely settled, is within easy reach of the two 
oldest stations in the province, Kiukiang and Takutang. 

If a comparison of the degree of Christian occupation in terms of 
communicants per 10,000 within the various mission fields be desired, we 
have the following figures for the larger missions : ABF, 13 communicants, 
per 10,000 inhabitants; Bn, 9; CIM, 4; MEFB and GCAM, each 3; NLK, 
2 ; and CMML, i. 

Kiangsi is one cl the four provinces in China reporting the lowest 
degree of Christian occupation in terms of communicants per 10,000, rank— 
nag with Anhwei, Kausu, and Szecbwan. 



MISSION SCHOOLS 
Gemral Summary — Only 5 provinces 
■report higher proportions of m is$ ion 
primary stadeats to charch communicants 
than Miangsi (€4 students to every 100 
communicants), The province has a total 
of 4,796 children in primary schools. About 
four-fifths of these are lower primary, and 
coe-fifth higher primary students. It is 
interesting to note that the Soman 
Catholic Church, with a communicant 
membership 10 times larger than the 
membership cC the Protestant churches, 
reports fewer primary students, 4,061. 

Societies which are providing most of the 
Christian educational facilities in the pro- 
vince are the MEFB and the C1M, if the 
affiliated mis*ons of the latter society be 
included. The MEFB with 14 per cent of 
the commnnicant membership reports 
having half the total number of students. 
On the ether hand the CIM, while ranking 
next in the total amount of educational 
work done, presents a very different pro- 
portion. With 62 per cent of the cfaoreb. 
membership in the province, this society, 
with its affiliated missions, reports less 
than one-fourth the total number of primary 
stadents. 

Distribution of Primary Students-" 
From a glance at the accompanying map 
one receives the impression of a decided 
scarcity of lower primary schools through- 
out the province. Not more than half of 
the evangelistic centers are sapplied. 
Seven stations west and 3 east of the Kan 
River and south of the Fa River appear 
without any Christian educational facilities 
whatever. Most of the mission schools are 
concentrated in the cities of Eiakiang, 
Wacheng, Nanehang and Fnchow. Note 
also the relatively large number of 
schools in the Fa and Kwangsin river 
valley s, and in the extreme sonthern section 
of the province. The small number of 
schools in the province may be accounted 
tor partly by the fact that most missions 
hitherto have devoted the larger part of 
their energies to evangelistic work. In the 
Fa River valley considerable emphasis is 
being placed on educational work by the 



THE IROYINCE OF KIANGSI 

VIII. — Communicants per 10,000 Population 



m?m 



HUMAN 




iy.— Extent of Occupation— The Christian School 

































_ L 
































Sg 








Name of Society 


1 
1 

' 1 

f 




1 

& 

.1 


1 

i 

a 


m 

ac x 

3 


5: _ 



si 


X 

X 


S- 


£5 

3 x 


3s „ 
p 


23 


S53 


3a5 

S-— --e 
"s c S 


O 15 ^ -, 

S| =| 

£*? J5 i^S — 

^ c ^'^ ? § 

.5= |S 

* s s.s 

or" S.* - 


* g =*» 

il 

^» 33* 

- 3C - * 

lis 






1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


M 


13 


14 15 


16 




Grand Total . 


.. 159 


24 


6 


2,435 

83 


1,379 


M14 


m 


209 


in 


153 


115 


2S6 


MR 


91% ; 58 


26 


Anglican . . . 


PE 


5 


3 


1 


52 


135 


80 




80 


•5 




5 


220 


76% 100% 


j59% 




CMS 






























"«, 


Baptist 


... ABF 


8 


3 




155 


17 


172 


17 




17 








189 


91% 


\ 1«% 




Bo 


1 2 






69 




69 














69 


100% 




Methodist ... 


MEFB 

UE 


\ m 


5 


4 


1,022 


896 


1,918 


219 


163 


382 


1*8 


98 


2*6 


2,546 


55 % 60% 


20% 


ffeMkyteriui 


EPM 


a 






30 




30 














30 


100% j — 




Chin* Inland Mi 


«»ioo CIM. 


: m 


4 




334 


204 


55S 


32 




32 








590 


65-,, 


i 60% 




FFC(CTit) 


1 


2 




25 


18 


43 


6 


4 


10 








53 


... 


! 23% 




GCAM (cm) 


25 


% 




425 


73 


498 


6 


7 


15 








513 


86% 


3% 


Other Societies 


CMML 


11 






172 


79 


851 


3 


10 


13 








264 


67% I — 


i% 




lad 
iSKM 


- 




1 


100 


40 


140 


20 


ts 


45 




15 




200 


65% ".I 


33% 




SDA 
YMCA 




2 


... 
... 








388 




388 










hm% * ".'.". 


! • 



130 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



IX.— Missios Schools 




GCAM (cm). This mission reports more lower primary schools than the 
CMML, NKM, and PE combined. The relative emphasis on primary 
education between the various missions is made evident from the following 
table. 

EVANGELISTIC CENTERS I.OWER PRIMARY SCHOOLS 

CIM -. 130 30 

GCAM (CIM) 34 25 

NKM 30 8 

MEFB 28 66 

CMML 12 11 

Bn ir 2 

ABF 7 S 

FFC (era) 5 2 

PE '. 4 5 

EPM 4 2 

There are 24 higher primary schools located in 12 of the total 56 
mission centers. Eight are reported by the CIM and affiliated societies, 
and 5 by the MEFB. Six of the total 24 are for girls. 

When the tao are compared Sunyang-tao appears to have the largest 
proportion of mission students to communicants, and Luling-tao the 
lowest. Of the total number of primary students in Kiangsi, 4.2 per cent 
attend mission primary schools. 

Middle Schools— The MEFB reports 4 middle schools, 2 in Kiukiang 
and 2 in Nanchang; the PE reports one for boys in Kiukiang; and the 
NKM one for girls ir. Wuchang. The entire mission middle school 
facilities of the province, therefore, are limited to 6 middle schools, 3 for 
boys^and 3 for girls, located in 3 cities. Two of these middle schools were 
not** doing fall-grade work when the Survey data was received. 
There is an average of 45 students in each school. The proportion of girls 
to boys in mission middle schools is greater than that reported for mission 
primary schools Twenty-six per cent of the mission lower primary 
students enter higher pnanary schools, the CIM and PE reporting the 
highest preeenfages. 

Number of Students and Communicants Compared— The differences 
between missions in the relative emphasis which each places upon 
education is well shown by the number of primarv students per mo 
communicants : MEFB 218, PE 119, NKM 93, GCAM (cim) 70 ABF %i 
CMML 48, PE 44. FFC (cm) 38, Bn 17, and CIM 15. 



Higher Education — No mission educa- 
tional facilities above middle school grade 
are offeted at the present time. The MEFB 
maintains William Nast College at Kiu- 
kiang where college grade work has been 
and will be offered again as sooa as a 
sufficient faculty staff can be secured. 

Teacher Training Faeffiiies — Normal 
courses for men are being given in the 
Nanchang Academy, and training in 
education is given also at the Baldwin 
School for girls in Nanchang. Bible train- 
ing schools for men and women are con- 
ducted both at Nanchang and Kiukiang, 
and short-term Bible schools exist in 
smaller centers throughout the province. 



GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS 
General Survey— Over 100,000 govern- 
ment primary students are enrolled, or a 
proportion of 44 students to every 10,000 
inhabitants. Kannan-tao seems to be best 
provided with educational facilities, re- 
porting 57 government primary students to 
each 10,000 inhabitants. 

A comparison of the accompanying 
map with Map IX reveals the fact that 
government education receives little 
emphasis in Nanchang and Kiukiang 
where mission schools are strongest. The 
hsiens for which the government report 
gives the largest numbers of lower primary 
schools are Kian, Poyang, Kaoan, Ping- 
siang, Kanhsien, and Wantsai. The 
number of lower primary schools given 
in the report of the Ministry of Educa- 
tion {1916) for Kian-hsien appears to be 
altogether out of proportion to the number 
of students reported (770 schools and 1760 
students, or less than 3 scholars in each 
school). Moreover the number of schools 
far exceeds that given for any other hsien 
in the province. These two facts point to 
an obvious error in one or the other of 
the two figures; probably 70 or 77 
more nearly approximates the actual 
number of lower primary schools 
in Kian-hsien. Another interesting fact 
is that the hsiens which report more 
than 10 government higher primary 
schools pre all situated southwest of a 
line drawn vertically through Nanchang and Fuchow, whereas the great 
bulk of mission schools, both lower and higher primary, are located 
north and northeast of this line. 

Government Middle Schools — Kiangsi has 16 government middle 
schools which are located in n cities : 4 in the capital city of Nanchang, 
one of these being for girls ; 2 north of this city, one in Kiukiang and 
another in Jachow; while all the remaining ones are fouii farther south, 
Wucheng has a mission middle school for girls, but no government middle 
school. Only one government school for girls is reported for the entire 
province. The following mission stations which are without mission* 
middle schools have government educational institutions of middle school 
grade : Jaochow, Fuchow, Kanchow, Ningtu, Kianfu, and Yuanehow, 

Higher Education — In addition to seven normal schools of middle 
school grade, Kiangsi has one higher normal school, one agricultural 
college, and two law schools, these latter located in the capital city, 
Nanchang. 



nfmrer of communicants and mission primary students 
Compared 
300 1000 1500 2000 2-500 3000 3-500 4000 



awa»; 



WWWWt f ' 




Comaianieants 

.3 Pri«5ary Stadeau 



THE PROVINCE OF KIANGSI 

X. — Government Schools 



131 



Wttligiomi Education within the Church — 



Mission Tola 


Communicants 


Sunday Sc'i.vi 


PE 


vm 


1*7 


CMS 


72 




ABF 


m* 


:«5 


Wa 


899 




MEFB 


1.067 


3.S91 


CE 


21 




EPM 


BH 




CIM 


3,993 


1,551 


FFC ',€»«) 


13* 


170 


•GCAM {cm) 


73i 


ua 


-CM ML 


531 


537 


Iml 






skm 


201 


176 


SDA 


66 


135 


IMC A 




203 



Metaikm of Chinese to Foreign Force— 

Number of Employed 
-on Tola! Foreign Force Chinese Workers to each 
Foreign Worker 
4.0 



4.H 
4.5 
8,8 



•2.4 
1.9 
4.6 

0.5 

1.x 

2.4 



NtMBER OF SOCARE Mil ES PER EVANGELISTIC CENTER 



PE 


7 


CMS 




ABF 


5 


Bn 


•2 


MEFB 


88 


IE 




EPM 




CIM 


TO 


FFC {am} 


H 


OCAM fen) 


16 


•CMML 


36 


Ind 


4 


.NKM 


15 


SDA 




YMCA 


4 







100 200 300 400 500 60) 700 

HOSPITALS 

General Survey — In addition to the hospital work maintained by 
*be summer residents in Ruling, Kiangsi reports 6 mission hospitals 
located in 4 cities. The foreign physicians in these institutions represent 
2 societies the MEFB and the CIM. The Chinese physicians, especially 
Dr. Mary Stone and Dr. Ida Kahn, while representing the same missions 
are more widely known and their work far more influential. The average 
uumber of beds in each hospital is 57. Fifteen dispensaries located in 
-centers where no mission hospitals have as yet been built are also shown 
-«n the accompanying, map. The entire work of medical missions in 
Kangsi is carried on by a staff of 6 foreign and 9 Chinese doctors. These 
workers are assisted by ,2 foreign nurses and 15 graduate Chinese nurses. 
A large training school for nurses is connected with the MEFB hospital 
at Kiakiang. 

Areas In Need — Some idea of the backwardness of medical missionary 
■work in Kiangsi wili be made more evident by the following facts : forty- 
two cities having resident foreign missionaries are still without any 
modern hospital facilities. Kiangsi ranks with Kweichow and Yunnan as 
tnoat poorly provided with foreign physicians of all China's provinces. 
Only Shensj, Kwangsi, Kwehhow, and Yunnan report fewer hospital 
neds per million inhabitants There are as many hospitals in Manchuria 
as in the provinces of Kiangsi, Shensi, Kwangsi, Kansn, Kweichow, and 
Yunnan combi.ned. Eleven cities report populations exceeding 50,000, yet 
-only four of these have mission hospitals. 

Compare the accompanying map with Map V on Evangelistic Centers. 
Note that with one exception tie 7 mission hospitals are located north and 
-east of Xaackssig, while the dispensaries are generally confined to the 
legion east of the Kan River and Foyang Lake where they seem fairly 
"•wealy distributed. The entire northwestern section, embracing perhaps 



one-fifth of the province (NKM and CMML Selds) appears without any 
professional medical work. Along the Siao River, where good develop- 
ment has taken place in evangelistic work, we also fail to find any modern 
medical facilities, Christian or non-Christian. Xote the relatively large 
nnmber of evangelistic centers east of the Kan River and south of the 
Kwan?sin. In this entire southeastern section of the province, 



Y. Extent .of Occupation— The Christian Hospital 







mm 




















; a 




g 








z 


s 


























"S £ 


•9 


~ 


~ -5 


S 




— 5 


•3 - 












































s 


~ E .- 


■3 




= < 




= 


3 -? 


"3>5 






















Name of Society 


2 


lit 


-z 


- 




4 


X 


J i 


8 • 


































































11 


s 


~ 


- = 


m 




•* 


- 






= =: 












y. 


y. 




I 


2 


a 


i 


» 


6 


: 


a 


9 


Grand Total ... 


7 


IS 


134 


268 


MM 


4 


too 


67 


201 


Anglican PE 




















Baptist ABF 




1 
















Lutheran Bn 














... 






Methodist MEFB 


4 




43 


210 


4,655 


4 


jioo 


86 


888 


Presbyterian EPM 














' 






China Inland MissionCIM 


2 


g 


46 


88 


494 






74 




FFC jenri 




3 
















GCAM (cm) 




7 
















Other Societies ...CMML 




















Ind 




















NKM 




















SDA 




















YMCA 




















Killing Hospital .,. ... ... ... 


1 






30 


200: 






35 


'% 



132 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



XL— HosniALS 




however, there is no Christian hospitals 
Also, west of the Kan River, with the ex- 
ception of Yuanchow, we find the whole 
half of the province destitute of mission 
medical work. 

Compare the accompanying map with* 
Maps VI and VII. A fairly large number- 
of coramuneeants are located aronnd Fu- 
chow and Nanfeng, as well as in the south* 
and the extreme east of the province near 
Chekiang. No medical provision, however,, 
seems to have been made by the missions., 
for these relatively large Christian com- 
muftities scattered over the country, nor- 
for the workers both foreign and Chinese. 

In addition to the mission hospitals,, 
the following non-mission hospitals are re- 
ported : one each in Fuchow, Kiukisng,. 
Naucbang, and Kianfu. Two Roman Catho- 
lic dispensaries exist in Kanchow ancP 
Yungsin, Doubtless others exist, for one- 
correspondent refers to 6 Roman Catholic- 
hospitals and 4 dispensaries. A hospital 
under the supervision of Chinese gentry i*» 
loeated in PingsGang, and there is a Redl 
Cross dispensary in Xanchang. 

Kew Hospitals — No plans for new- 
hospitals to be built before 1923 have beet* 
reported. Extensive developments, how- 
ever, both in Kiukiang and in Nanchangr 
are being planned for by the MEFB. 

Christian Occupation — In terms of doc- 
tors and hospitals beds per million inhabi- 
tants, the fields best occupied are naturalljr 
those of the MEFB and C1M, since these?- 
are the only two missions doing any 
medical work in the province. In the- 
MEFB field we have one doctor and 85, 
hospital beds for every 1,200,000 in- 
habitants; in the CIM field one doctor 
and 8 hospital bads. The average for the- 
provinee is 0.2 foreign physicians and 16- 
hospital beds per 1,000,000 inhabitants. 
The inadequacy of occupation is most im- 
pressive when one considers that in the- 
fiekls of the 13 other mission societies no* 
modern hospital facilities are offered. 



¥X — Degree of Occupation and Table of Urgency 







2 


~ 




~ 




3 




il 


-* = 




. 3 


S 2 


a 


§ 






































































"3 


*■ *£ 


Bn 


5* 


a 


■j - 


•^ X 


tr H 


^ — 


£ & 


JS 'Z 


.3 "3 


* ""3 


•S* 




. is 


? — 


■|8 


s* 


■2 . 


§ 


5 — 


"?£ 


'5 s : 


"5 S 


■~ &• 


X 2 


•Ji 3 


~ o* 


1 §• 


Name of Society 


95 


.5 


Is 


I : 


|* 


i 


'So 
.2 


1- 


i§ 


S-O 




X Q 

5'* 


§1 




"§• - ' : * 






1 


- 




H 




s, 


Q 


s- 


Q 




&fc 


s & 


a 


i 




I 


S 


3 


4 


-' 


<> 


7 


K 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


it 


15 


Grand Total... 




69,498 ;> 24,490,687 . 


226 


740 


7,827 


9 


., 


30 


» 


u 


930 


•IS 


0.2 


1C 


Anglican ... ... ... ... PE 


A 


875 


625,000 


7 


•irt 


183 


13 


53 


39 I 


153 


3 


1,022 


1,194 






CMS 


IS 




256,000 






72 




12 




42 


3 










Baptist ABF 


A 


750 


253,000 


.-> 


24 


334 


20 


96 


15 


73 


13 


1,063 


570 






Lutheran Bn 


Cont 


1.650 


466.000 


•> 


9 


m> 


4 


20 


g 


23 


9 




17* 






Methodirt ... MEFB 


A 


20,600 


3.764,000 


38 


334 


1,067 


11 


93 


.'!■-. 


313 


3 


3.636 


2,177 


0.8 


70 


UE 


A 




257,000 




1 


21 




4 




50 


1 










Presbyterian EPM 


1 B 


1.300 


497,000 




.-, 


68 




10 




77 


1 










■Cbirja Inland Mission CIM 


| 'Int - 


37,000 


10,561,000 


7* 


IKK 


3,993 


H 


1H 


20 


47 


4 


388 


148 


0.1 


7 


FFC (cm) 
GCAM (cim) 


1st 

i Int 




1,173,000 
2,218,000 


ll 


10 

73 


138 
734 


7 
7 


9 
33 


22 : 


99 


1 


1,232 
162 


379 
70S 






-Other Societies CMML 

Ind 


B 

Int 


j 3,700 


2,308,000 


36 
4 


\x 


351 


16 


H 


164 . 


32 


2 


974 


479 






NKM 




I 5,700 


1,077,000 


1.-. 


36 


201 


14 


24 


75 


129 


■t 


880 


925 






8DA 


A 




1,027,000 


... 


7 


66 




7 




106 


1 










YMCA 


lot 






4 


10 






















Hoc relies without organized evangel istie work or church 
































constituency K8, FCMS, UMC 








13 


4 














... 









(a) Total for Province, not lor approximate estimate* by societies «* gi*en below. 



THE PROVINCE OF KIANGSU 



123 



KIANGSU 



HSIEN BOUNDARIES 



I. — HS1EX BOLNDAEIES 



Political Divisions — At one time 

!Kiangsu and Anhwei constituted a single 

-©rovince, with the name Kiangnan. To- 

*day both are administered independently. 

For purposes of civil administration 

Kiangsu is broken up into 5 tao, which 

•are subdivided into 60 hsicrs. The seat of 

.pi the provincial government is Nanking. 

This city has repeatedly been the capita! 

• of China, the first time being about 317 

A.D., and the last in 191 2, when Dr. Sun 

Yat Sen established the republican form 

*of government. Five treaty ports are 

located in the province ; Shanghai, Chin- 

feiang, Nanking, Soochow, and Woosung. 

Kiangsu ranks next to Chekiang as the 

smallest province of China, with an area 

-of 38,610 sq.mi., which is slightly less than 

that of Ohio in the U. S. A. or of Greece 

in Europe. 

Physical Features — The province is a 
-wide and low alluvial plain, formed by 
•fits silt of two great rivers, the Yellow 
-which formerly flowed through the north- 
-era section of Kiangsu, and the Yangtze. 
"This plain is cut off on the south by the 
"highlands of Chekiang, and on the north 
*Jby the hills of Shantung. The Grand 
•Canal extends in a north to south direction 
'throughout Kiangsu's entire length, 
Richard divides the province into 3 re- 
-gions. The first, or northern region, 
•extends almost to Hwaianfu. This dis- 
trict comprises the whole of the former 
"bed of the Yellow River . which even to 
this day is half -filled with water in the 
Jlood seasos*. The country is well 
populated. The second, or central region, 
extends from Hwaianfu southward to the 
Yangtze. Here the plain is covered with 
lagoons and swamps, and intersected with 

jiumerous canals. The third, or southern region, lits south of the 
Yangtze. This is the most productive area in the province, and the most 
"thickly populated. Several large lakes lie along the borders of Kiangsu, 
-the chief ones being the Tai Lake in the south, and Hungtseh Lake in 
*the northwest. The coast in the north is tow and fringed by immense 
-eand banks. This northern coastal plain as well as the southern Yangtze 
»delta are steadily advancing seaward, each year new land being re- 
•claimed. The water courses tributary to the Yangtze and open to tidal 
action are also gradually filling np with the silt brought in by each 
"flood tide. 

Climate — The climate of Kiangsu is temperate. Spring constitutes the 
-rainy season along the Yangtze. Except in the extreme north, the; winters 
-.are mild, with little snow. The moist, unhealthy heat during the summer 
is usually followed by a beautiful autumn period. Owing to the proximity 
•«f the sea, differences of temperature are less felt than in the interior. 

Lam.gmages — The Mandarin dialect is heard throughout northern 
*ad. western Kiangsu, In the southeast, local dialects, chiefly those of 
"Soochow and Shanghai, prevail. In the city of Shanghai, Ningpoese and 
Cantonese are also frequently heard. 

Communications — All rivers are navigable, and the province, especially 
«cmth of Hwaianfu to the border, is interlaced with canals. One authority 
•estimates that southern Kiangsu and northern Chekiang afford 30,000 
miles of canal traffic. Modern steamers ply on the Yangtze, connecting 
•Shanghai with all Yangtze River ports. The major portion of the water 
traffic is still carried on by junks, although steam tranches are fast 
<oming into use. The junk traffic is under the jurisdiction of the native 
«ustoms, and the Tevennes derived at several ports almost double those 
■«€ the Maritime Customs. 

Country roads are poor and few in number, the excellent water com- 
munications making them unnecessary. Heavy transportation is confined 
1» the river steamers and the railroads. Kiangsu is well-favored in its 
railway development. The following railways cut across the province, 
-cr lead from it into other parts of China : Shanghai-Nanking Railway (103 
miles in length), Tientsin-Pukow Railway (626 miles, full length), 
Shanghai- Woosung Railway {10 miles), Shamghai-Hangchow {160 miles, 
"full length), and the Lung-Hai Railway, which connects with the Tientsin- 
Pnkow Railway at Sichowfu and with the Peking-Hankow line at 
'Cheugebow, Honan. No railway construction is in progress. Several 
important lines extending from Nanking and Shanghai have been surveyed 
and are partly contracted for. 

Postal and Telegraph Facilities — The organization and efficiency of 
the Chinese Post Office reach their highest poiDts in the two postal dis- 
'tricts of Shanghai and Kiangsu. Every village of importance has its 
post office and its regular mail deliveries. (See Appendix B). Foreign 
mail parcels may be dispatched from treaty ports. Nanking and Shang- 




hai have post offices of foreign nationalities. In the latter city, free 
delivery of mail is made by all foreign postal agencies. There is a total 
of 171 head, first, second, and third class and sub-offices, and 434 postal 
agencies in the province. Chihli alone exceeds Kiangsu in the extent of 
its postal service. The number of articles of mail matter posted during 
1919 in the Shanghai postal district alone exceeded 71,000,000, a total 
greater than that for all China in 1907. Between 1918 and 1919 the Post 
Office Report for Kiangsu shows an increase of approximately 25,000,000 
pieces of mail handled by the postal agencies within its boundaries. 

Telegraph service is a Chinese Government monopoly, and is not as 
efficient as the postal service, though fairly reliable. The province is 
faell rupplied with telegraph stations, and the city of Shanghai i& in 
touch with every part of China as well as with all parts of the world. 

Economic Conditions — The country is poor in minerals, but rich 
agriculturally. The seil is very fertile, especially south of the Yangtze, 
and the latitude and the even distribution of rainfall throughout the year 
permit of several crops. The northern section of the province from Shan- 
tung to the old basin of the Yellow River is economically least favored. 
The alkali soil characteristic of so much of this region seems much less 
productive than the black soil of southern Kiangsu. Areas subject to 
floods in summer bear only a single crop of winter wheat. Higher land 
produces wheat in winter, and "kao liang," beans, peanuts, or other crops 
in summer. Inquiry has brought out the fact that for a northern family 
to obtain the same support secured by the southern farmer from planting 
twenty mow (3 acres) of land, it must cultivate from forty to one hundred 
mow. 

The people of this whole section are markedly plainer, poorer, and 
of a more rugged sturdy type than further south. Their struggle for a 
living has been continuously hard, and the repeated famines have left 
small margins of food supply. The homes are plainer, with fewer furnish- 
ings, less ornamentation, and fewer comforts. The dress is almost wholly 
cotton, rather than silk or wool. The manners of the people are more 
brusque and direct — "more like foreigners"— with much less of the formal 
politeness of the south. 

The finest quality and the largest quantity of China silk are produced 
in the plain of southern Kiangsu and northern Chekiang. Another highly 
important product is cotton. Between 25 and 30 cotton mills, with a total 
of a million spindles, operate in Shanghai. This city is the commercial 
capital of China, and its greatest industrial center. The entire import 
and export trade of eastern central China and of the gre it Yangtze River 
valley, extending westward Into Szechwon, passes through this port. 

Christian Occupation by Hsiens — Half of the hsiens of Kiangsu are 
occupied by more than one mission society. The whole of the province is 
claimed. Only 6 hsiens out of a total of 60 report no communicants ; aS 
less than a hundred communicants each; and only 18 report no missions 
primary school facilities. 



134 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OP CHINA 



II. — Density of Pofcxation 




DENSITY OF POPULATION 

Various Estimates— Population estimates for Kiangsu vary from 
15,380,000 (1910 Census), to 37,800,000 (Customs' Report 1882). Inter- 
mediate figures are as follows: Minchengpu Census 1910, 17,300,000; 
CCC official returns, 33,678,611 ; and the most recent census, that made 
by the Post Office officials with the assistance of provincial authorities in 
1919, which totals 33,786,064. According to the Minchengpu Estimate, 
19^0, Kiangsu ranks third m density among the provinces of China (448 
per sq.mi.). According to the more recent estimates Kiangsu ranks 
first (CCC Estimate, 1918, S72 per sq.mi., and Post Office Estimate, 1919, 
875 per sq. mi.). In all three estimates, Chekiang ranks second in density 
among the provinces of China. 

It is interesting to compare the above density figures for Kiangsu with 
estimates of density for other parts of the world. For example, Belgium 
reports 657 per sq.mi.; England and Wales, 618; and Rhode Island, the 
densest commonwealth in America, 508. From these figures it would 
appear that Kiangsu ranks among the more densely populated 
geographical units in the world. 

In many cases, similar estimates arc given for the same hsien in both 
the CCC and Post Office census returns. One missionarv, who with the 
aid of Chinese assistants mp.de a careful count in 1917 of the inhabitants 
in several hsiens in his field, upon receiving the CCC and Post Office 
estimates expressed his unqualified confidence in their approximate ac- 
curacy, affirming that the figures supplied for the hsiens where he works 
come within several tens of thousands of his own actual count. One 
wishes that more confirmations or denials of this kind regarding recent 
CCC and Post Office population estimates were possible. 

Cities— Twelve cities with populations exceeding 100,000 are thus 
far reported for Kiangsu: Shanghai 1,500,000; Soochow 600,000; Chin- 
kiang 320,000; Nanking 300,000; Yangchow 300,000; Hwaianfu 180,000; 
Wusib 150,000; Tsingkiangpu 130,000; Changchow 125,000; Suchowfu 
125,000; Sungkiangfu 100,000; and Taichow 100,000. All cities in this 
first group are mission residential centers. Ten cities arc reported with 
populations estimated to be somewhere between 50,000 and 100,000 : 
Yemheng 90,000; Changshu 88,000; Hinghwa 80,000; Tungchow 65,000; 
Sutsien 65,000; Kiangyin 50,000; Kintan 50,000; Jukao 50,000; Tanyang 
50,000; and Tungtaihsien 50,000. Only 6 out of the above 10 cities are 
mission residential centers, the other 4 being worked as outstations. 
Twenty-seven cities are reported with populations between 20,000 and 
50,000. In addition, there is a village and country population of con- 
siderable importance, more readily accessible to Christian teaching than 
are the people of the cities. Approximately 83 per cent of the people in 
Kiangsu live m cities of 20,000 or below. From 1850 to 1864, the Taiping 
Jtebelhon reduced the number of inhabitants in Kiangsu by several miilion 



Densest Areas — Southern Kiangsu i» 
very dense. At least two-thirds of thfc 
total inhabitants in the province live here. 
The Haimen Promontory and Tsungming 
Island appear almost black on the accom- 
panying map. There are large country 
areas south of the Yangtze where the 
density of population mounts as high as 
i»ooo inhabitants per sq.mi. Note also the 
country just north of the Yangtze and 
along the Grand Canal. 

The Christian Community — Thirty 
cut of an aggregate of 33,678 small 
dots, each representing 1,000 inhabitants, . 
indicate the numerical strength of the 
Protestant communicant body in the pro-- 
vince. 

MISSION FIELDS 
General Summary — Twenty-three mis- 
sion societies reporting church organiza- 
tions are at work in Kiangsu. If we add? 
the Bible and Tract Societies, as well as ■ 
other societies with foreign representative* 
in educational, literary, or general ad- 
ministrative work, the total number of 
foreign mission societies represented in the- 
province exceeds 40. 

The following missions among the* 
23 which report church organizations have 
no country fields beyond the immediate 
submbs of the larger cities where they are- 
working : the AAM, ABF, AFM, CCACZ^ 
CCAu, CGM, CMA, SDA, SRM, and WU. 
The AAM, Ind, and SDA report work in 
Nanking, while all the others including 
the SDA and Ind have stations in' 
Shanghai. Independent and CGM workers 
are also located in Chinkiang, Tang- 
shan, and Hinghwa. 

Certain societies, as for example the- 
CIM and MEFB, have workers in recogniz- 
ed country fields, and at the same time 
representatives in general administrative 
activities in Shanghai. The PN is typical of a number of missions which 
report strong work in a city like Shanghai and its immediate environs,, 
but whose fields are too small to be shown on the accompanying map. 
The SBC and the PE missions, while supplying the Committee with the 
location and number of their evangelistic centers, did not venture any 
delimitation of field boundaries. Therefore, in order to show the extent, 
of the work of these two missions, the Committee has followed its general . 
rule adopted for all relatively unoccupied provinces, and has described* 
boundary lines just outside the most distant evangelistic centers. From* 
Tangshan and Hinghwa independent missionaries are endeavouring to- 
work extensive country areas large enough to be shown on the accompany- 
ing map. 

Overlapping Areas— The presence of many large cities in Kiangsu, 
the fact that several of these were opened as treaty ports relatively early - 
in the history of Protestant missions, and their strategic position as im- 
portant missionary centers combine to attract many missions, thus!-, 
resulting in a considerable overlapping of fields. It remains for other*- 
to say whether or not this overlapping has been for good in every case. 
Overlapping of fields exists to a greater or less degree between the fol- 
lowing missions : AFO, CIM, FCMS, LMS, MEFB, MES, PE, PN, PS,. 
SBC, and SDB. 

Roughly one-sixth of Kiangsu is claimed by more than one mission 
society. Shanghai, Nanking, Soochow, Chinkiang, and Yangchow, since 
they are cities of 200,000 inhabitants and above, appear on the accompany- 
ing map as city mission fields common to all societies. Notice that there 
are no Lutheran societies at work in the province. Also that Kiangsu has *i 
large number of missions having church organizations which cannot be 
classified under any of the more common denominational groups. The 
PS easily ranks first in the extent of its field. The Methodists, however,, 
lead in the number of communicants, outranking the Presbyterians by 
over 2,000. The Baptists, Independents, and Anglicans come next in order. 

Mission Fields Compared—The fields of the PS cover approximately 
two-thirds of Kiangsu, 25,000 sq.mi. They report a population exceeding 
eleven and a half million. The MES and SBC rank next in the extent of 
their fields, with 8,000 and 5,000 sq.mi. respectively. Each of these mis- 
sions assumes responsibility for a population exceeding 3,000,000. The 
PE comes fourth in order with an area of 4,000 sq.mi., with 2,500,000 in- 
habitants. 

Nationality— Kiangsu is largely the responsibility ot American mis- 
sionary societies, whose fields extend over considerably more than three- 
fourths of the province. The CMS in Shanghai, the CIM in central 
Kiangsu, and the LMS in the southeast, together with three or four 
smaller missions whose activities are restricted to Shanghai, are the only 
non-American societies in the entire province. 

Comity Agreements- The Committee has received very little informa- 
tion of a definite character regarding comity agreements between missions-. 



One cannot infer from this, however, that 
few such agreements exist. The CIM re- 
ports a more or less general understand- 
iag with neighbouring missions not to 
begin new work where another mission is 
already established. The MEFB, while 
reporting no formal comity agreements, 
expresses a desire to work along lines ac- 
ceptable to all neighbouring missions. The 
SDB reports an agreement with the 
several missions concerned, whereby Liuho 
becomes ' the sole responstbiltiy of this 
society. The AFO correspondent refer* 
to an understanding which exists between 
bis mission and the FCMS regarding 
Lubo, but no definite agreements have as 
-ret been readied regarding the delimita- 
tion of field boundaries. An understand- 
ing between the A AM and FCMS is also 
reported. The PN states that its fields in 
general are well defined. The LMS re- 
fers to a definite agreement with the PN 
which both missions respect. Certain 
districts in several of the larger cities are 
generally recognused as the special re- 
sponsibility of a particuidr mission. 

AGE OF WORK 

Pioneer Period — '"The first Protestant 

aary to visit Kiangsu was Karl 

Fricdrich Gutrfaff, who explored the coast 

of China in a sailing vessel in 1832, and 

visted Shanghai during that trip." 

"To the London Missionary Society 
belongs the honor of commencing settled! 
work in mid-China. Dr. W. H. Medhnrst 
first visited Shanghai in 1835. In 1S43, 
be took up his residence there, renting 
premises outside the east gate of the native 
city. Here he erected the first printing 
press and engaged in evangelistic work. 
In this same year he also rented premises 
outside the south gate, and established the 
first mission hospital in central China. 
Since 1843 the mission work of the LMS 
has been continued without intermission 
both in the city and in the surrounding 
cwinlry, extending southward into the 
province of Chckiang." 

The Rev. T. M'Clatehie, of Trinity 

College, Dublin, representing the CMS, 

a house inside the native city o£ 

Shanghai in 1844. His first c nverts were 

from among the blind. 

The Right Reverend W. J. Boone, 
M.D., D.D., of the American Episcopal 
Church, began work among Chinese ia 
Batavia, Java, in 1837. As soon as the 
ports of China were opened to foreign re- 
sidence in 1842, the PE mission was trans- 
ferred to Amoy. Two years later, while 
bear"; on furlough, Dr. Boone was con- 
secrated the first Bishop of Shanghai and 
the lower Yangtze River valley. Ia the 
following year he returned to China with 
nine associate missionaries. The work in 
Amoy was abandoned, and Bishop Boone 
took up his residence in Shanghai, exercis- 
ing episcopal Jarisdiction over Kiangsu, 
Anbwei, Hupeh, and parts of Hunan and 
Eiangsi. This large missionary district 
has since been divided into 3 dioceses. St. 
John's University, Shanghai, was founded 
in 1S79 by the Rt. Rev. S. I. J. 
Schereschewsky. Previous to this the 
•s maintained two boarding schools, 
one called Baird HaB, and the other Duane 
Hall. It was these two educational in- 
stitutions which were united to form the 
new St. John's. 

Rev. and Mrs. Matthew T. Yates were 
the pioneers in Shanghai for the SBC, 
arriving in 1847. In that same year, Rev. 
and Mrs. J. Lewis Shuck, with two Chin- 
ese evangelists, arrived from Canton. The 
first Baptist church was organized Ins 
November, JS47. The evangelistic work 
was pushed with vigour, and "in May, 
»%», a building far teaching and preach- 
*»g was completed, and the first Protestant 



THE PROVINCE OF KIANGSU 

in. — Prgtestaxt Mission Fields 



135 




wm 
~E3 minim 



station to be owned permanently in the interior was opened 12 miles 
southeast of Shanghai." 

Some idea of the character and extent of the work of the Baptists 
before i860 may be gained from the following extract ; "During the 
year there were 18 public services per week, with an average attendance 
of 2,500 persons, and 5 day schools, with an average attendance of 100 



IV. — Age of Work 



SHANTUNG 




136 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



V.— Stations and Evakgeustic Centers 




mmntrn mam sure* 



fl?ii^fl4£*:lt 



pupils. For more thnn 20 years, Mr. and Mrs. Yates were the main and 
sometimes the only foreign workers in the city. After 1S75 the work of 
the SRC expanded rapidly as far north as Yaugchow, In 1903 the Eliza 
Yates Memorial School for Girls was erected. Two years later Shanghai 
Baptist College was founded, being a union of the SBC and the ABF. 

In the same year that Dr. and Mrs. Yates began laying the founda- 
tions for the work of the SBC in Shanghai, Drs. Carpenter and Wardner 
of the SDB arrived, and began activities in the western section of the 
native- cit}-. The MES commenced work in Shanghai in 1848, upon the 
r.trival of C. Taylor, M.D., and J. Jenkins, D.D. Between 1S60 and 1875, 
due to the Civil War and its aftermath, few missionary recruits were sent 
oat. Since 1875, however, the MES has extended and strengthened its 
work consistently- each year. In 1881 Dr. Young J. Allen laid the 
f mndatkms of the Anglo-Chinese College for Boys, now located on Quinsan 
Road in Shanghai, by opening "Trinity Bouse" in the French Conces- 
s : on. The following year the present building was erected, in the hope 
tbutt it might be the beginning of a large educational institution. How- 
ever, in 1809 the mission decided to concentrate all higher educational 
■work in Soochow, and to develop a university there, with arts, theologi- 
cal, and medical departments. This development erf Soochow University 
has resulted in the abandonment of extensive educational plans for 
Shanghai. Medical work for the MES was begun in Shanghai by Rev. 
Chas. Taylor in 1848. Later, in 1883, this work was removed to Soochow. 
The Women's Board of the MES sent its first representative to China in 
-€75. In 1S08 the Hayes-Wilkins Bible Women's School was opened at 
Stutgkiangfu. In 1902 McTyene s School for Girls was opened. 

The American I'resbytcriar.s decided to enter Shanghai in 1850, and 
Revs. J. K. Wight and M. S. Culbertson were detailed from Ningpo to 
inaugurate the work. For some years the activities of this mission were 



per Evangelistic Center 



hindered by the Taiping RcbelHoa. Two 
day schools, opened in 1855, have 
since grown into the Eowric Memorial High 
School for Boys, and the Presbyterian 
Girls* School, both at South Gate. The 
latter absorbed the girls' school conducted 
by the ABCFM in 1862. Soochow was 
occupied as a station in 1871 by M. C- 
Schmidt, an ex-officer in General Gordon's 
army, and Rev. G. F- Fitch, D.D. Mr. 
Schmidt was the first foreigner to live in 
Soochow. His extended acquaintance 
among military officials secured him an 
unmolested sojourn throughout the pro* 

TOBCC. 

Mr. Geo, Duncan, representing the 
CIM, was the first Protestant missionary 
to begin permanent work in Nanking, He 
reached this city in 1867, where he lodged 
in a room in the Drum Tower, which he 
rented from the Buddhist priest in charge. 
Ij» i88i, after years of han'ship, loneliness, 
and persistent toil, as missionaries of 
other societies began to arrive, the CIM 
retired from Nanking sub-renting its pre- 
mises to them. A year later, Rev. J. 
Hudson Taylor rented a house in Yang- 
chow. Here considerable opposition was 
experienced, resulting in a riot. Vigorous 
measures on the part of foreign consular 
authorities followed, and as a result the 
viceroy of the province issued a proclama- 
tion which secured the reinstatement of 
the mission, compensation for damages to 
property, and restoration of moral status 
in the eyes of the people, stating that 
"British subjects possess the right to enter 
the land," and "local authorities every- 
where are to extend due protection." The 
China Inland M>*sion Home for Women 
Workers is now situated in Yangtbow. 
l'cmises were rented at Chinkiang in 
x86S, immediately following the riot. That 
same year the I.MS commenced work in this city, regarding it as an out- 
station from Shanghai. Soochow was worked by the CIM for four years, 
186S-1S72, and then relinquished. The first CIM house in Shanghai was 
rented in 1873. Since then commodious quarters on Woosung Road have 
been built through the munificence of one donor. 

The PS entered China in 1867, just two years after the close of the 
Civil War in the United States. In 1872 Dr. and Mrs. H. C. DuBose 
started work in Soochow. Between 1880 and 1887, Chinkiang and 
Tsingfciangpu we're occupied. From 1S88 on, tite work of this mission has 
been marked by constant advance in the occupation of new centers, and 
by a steady ingathering of converts. 

Dr. W. E. Macklin was the first missionary of the FCMS in China, 
arriving" in Nanking in 1886. A small boarding school,- opened by this 
mission under the superintendence of Mr. F. E. Meigs, was the beginning 
of what has since become the University of Nanking. 

Summary — Kiangsu is one erf the six provinces opened before 1S60, 
reporting two centers, Shanghai and Soochow, where foreign missionaries 
lesided. A larger number of cities (15) were entered by foreign mission- 
aries before 1900, than were entered since (8). On the other 
hand, 30 new mission stations are reported since 1900. Obviously 
ftrost erf these new stations have been established in cities previously 
occupied by representatives of other missions. 

Most «>nsptcuous among the pioneer missionaries in Kiangsa 
whose contributions and influence have lasted till this elay, are 
I>rs. xMedhurst, Milne, Muirhead, Wiley, Williamson, Edkins, Faber, and 
Hudson Taylor. To quote from the words of another : "These men laid 
the foundations of the Church in mid-China. They were giants in faith 
and intellect, and they shall be had in lasting remembrance as long as 
the Church of Christ in China shall endure." 

" '- \ - •-'" 
Chinese and Foreign Workers Compared 

100 58 SO 100 280 800 100 500 



Snd 
Iks 

MES 


Nl'MSKK 


OF 


So. 


Mi. 


PER F.\ 


CIM 








LOB 








PE 










HEFB 










SBC 












PS 












AFO 





2&a 300 35a im 




Chinese Medical Worker* 



THE PROVINCE OF KIANGSU 



137 



Mission Stations Arranged Chronologically 



j 180?- ', l*»6l- 1881- 1891- I 1901- 1911- 
I I860 i 1880 1890 1900 : 1910 1920 



Anglican 
Baptist 



• Congrejf tional 

"Methodist. 

Presbyterian 

•jCfcina Inland Mission 
» Other Soristiw 



! Bible and Tract Societies 



...CMS 

I'K 
...AAM 

ABE 

SHC 

asm 

...LMS 
...MEFB 

MES 
.. VS 

rs 

...C1M 

.. AFM 
AFO 
CCACZ 
CCAa 
COM 
CM A 
CSCB 
OHM 
PCMH 
OC 
IBC 
Ind 
MM 
SUA 
HUM 
IN 

wr 

YMCA 
YWCA 



I 1 

1 1 
1 


] 

; 


l 




i 

1 


l 




i 

i 

i 






! 


i 
l 


1 

.. j 1 


l 
l 

"i 


3 

1 
1 

I 


2 


•_> 


2 



EXTENT OF EVANGELISM 
Missionary Residential Centers — There are 24 missionary residential 
.centers in the province, tS of these having representatives of one mission 
•-only. The remaining 6 report a total of 67 mission stations, or an average 



I.— Force at Work— Foreign 



Name of Society 



Grand Total 


161 


.Anglican CMS 


1 


PE 


12 


• Baptist AAM 




ABF 


« 


SBC 


IS 


HBColl tai : 




SMS 


2 


"Congregational ... I,MS 


4 


-Methodist MEFB 


14 


MES 


17 i 


"Presbyterian I'K 


19 


.1"S 


25 


■China Inland Mission C1M 


4 


•Other Societies ... AFM 


s 


AFO 


1 


CCACZ 




CCAu 




COM 




(MA 


■> 


CSCB 




I>HM 




FCMH 


B 


OC (a) 




IBC 
I ml 




JCM 




8DA 




SUM 




FN <*) 




\VU 




YMCA 


■> 


rwcA 




/ABS.BKBS, 




"Bible and Tract ! CLS. CTS. 




Serfetiesi ... , 'IWCA, 




tXBSS, KTS 




Societies represented but without 




organized evangelistic work or 




church constituency 


7 



161 56 15 29 331 327 611 933 



IS 


21 


.54 


u 


36 


41 


"•i 


a 


10 


G 


9 


15 


17 


45 


62 


30 


C>7 


97 


30 


45 


75 


45 


69 


110 


15 


44 


59 


1 


13 


21 



9 



21 


9 


1 
6 


1 
13 


19 


IS 

1 


28 

1 

IS 


49 
16 



(a) Additional roemlwrs of the foreign force are included under their respective societies. 



of 11 each. Shanghai has the largest number of stations, followed by 
Nanking. The accompanying table shows the number of mission station* 
reported by etch denominational group, with the total number of com- 
municants for each group. 

Denominational Fo. of Mission No. or Com- Av ^ rage NomSJS 

Group Stations mlnicants op Cohjhwicaww 

per Station 

AngKcan 7 3,013 430 

Baptist 9 3, 5 u 390 

Congregational r 639 629 

Methodist 8 8,991 1,124 

Presbyterian 15 6,939 4°2 

China Inland Mission 5 1,004 *» 

Other Societies 32 5,695 178 

Note that the - 8 mission stations of the Bible and Tract Societies have 
not been included in the above list. 

Nationality of Missionary Residential Centers — Eighteen of the 24 
residential centers are American in the personnel of their foreign staff | 1 
British, and 5 International. 

New Stations — No new stations to be opened before 1923 have been 
reported by any mission society. 

Evangelistic Centers — Kiangsu reports a total of 460 evange'astie 
centers. According to the definition adopted by the Survey Committee, 
an evangelistic center is any place where, either fi) there exists a 
Christian community of not less than ten Christian communicants and or 
baptized adults (whether constituting a permanent church organization 
or not), and where a weekly religious service is held ; or (2) there 
}>ermanently resides a Christian Chinese worker recognized by both 
church and mission (whether in the employ of the mission or church or 
not is immaterial), and where a weekly religious service is held. 

The inconsistency of reports on city work makes it difficult to arrive 
at any accurate figures on evangelistic centers for the entire province. 
Some missions report their entire work within a city under one evangelistic 
center, while others credit themselves with three or four evangelistic 
centers according to the number of churches therein established. For this 
reason, 500 might be a more accurate total of evangelistic centers in 
Kiangsu than the figure recorded, namely 460. In addition to these 
evangelistic centers, there are numerous irregular preaching places 
scattered everywhere. The PS reports almost a third of the total number 
of evangelistic centers (153), ranking first among the missions. The MES 
follow* with 88, SBC and PE come next in order with 35 and 36 evangelistic 
centers respectively. The independent missionaries of Hinghwa in 1916 
reported 42 evangelistic centers for their field. This estimate was made 
before the Committee'? definition of the term had been formed, accord- 
ingly, although credit for 42 evangelistic centers has been given to the 
independent missionaries in this Survey due to no later statistical returns, 
the Committee assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of this figure. 
Kiangsu is outranked m the number of its evangelistic centers by Shan- 
tung, Fukien, Kwangtung, Cbekiang, and Cbihli. Houan and Szechwan 
both report approximately the same number as Kiangsu. 

Distribution of Evangelistic Centers— The distribution of evangelistic 
centers over each mission's field, and therefore the degree of its Christian 
occupation in terms of evangelistic centers, will be made evident in tLe 
following table. Figures only for societies having country areas are here 
given : 

Ncmbfr of Sq.Mi. 
per Evangelistic Center 

Ind 29 

EMS 62 

MES 9i 

CIM - 05 

SDB rno 

PE in 

MEFB 120 

SBC 143 

PS 163 

AFO 167 

PN 219 

FCMS 417 

Seme idea of the distribution of evangelistic centers over the province 
as a whole, regardless of mission fields, may be gained from a study of 
the accompanying map. Over one-third of all the evangelistic centers are 
located in the extreme southeastern section of the province, south of the 
Yangtze River and east of the Grand Canal. The density of population in 
this part of the province, the comparatively long period during which it 
has been worked by Christian missions, and the large amount of over- 
lapping of mission fields, lead us to expect this relatively intensive develop- 
ment. Few evangelistic centers appear directly north of the Yangtze 
and along the Grand Canal, where population is also dense and mission 
work of long standing. Unfortunately, the 42 evangelistic centers credited 
to the Ind Mission in the neighbourhood of Hinghwa have not been located 
on the accompanying map, due to absence of information. Kiangsu presents 
no intensive evangelistic work such as one sees in similar maps for Shan- 
tung, Chekiaug, and Fukien. Except for its southeastern section, this 
map of Kiangsu resembles several of the maps of evangelistic centers in 
central interior provinces of China. 

Reasons for Present Inadequate Occupation — All missions replying 
to this question mention first of all the lack of staff, both Chinese and 
foreign. This is specially emphasized. Additional reasons, such as, 
recent arrival on the field, shortage of funds due to unfavorable exchange, 
and difficulties in acquiring property, are also given. 

9 



138 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



VI. — Distribution ot Workers 




* « t* *=f- 



rrrj.-TiME christian workers 

Foreign Force — Kiangsu ranks first among the provinces in the 
the number of foreign missionaries, 938. Kwangtung follows with 200 
less; next Chihli, then Szcchwan, Shantung, and Fukien in order. Over 
one-half of the total foreign force in Kiangsu resides in the city of 
Shanghai ; over 70 per cent in Shanghai and Nanking. If we add together 
the number of missionaries residing in the 12 cities with estimated 
populations of 100,000 inhabitants and above, we have a total of 8S1. This 
leaves only 57 missionaries for the remainder of the province, for 10 cities 
ranging between 50,000 and 100,000 , 27 cities between 20,000 and 50,000, 
and the entire country area. When one considers that approximately 83 
per cent of the people in Kiangsu live in villages and rural districts, the 
above facts concerning the distribution of missionaries over the province, 
call for stronger emphasis on country evangelism. 

Aleut one-half of the men in the missionary force are ordained (a 
high percentage when contrasted with other provinces), and one in every 
ten is a practicing physician. Over one-third of the entire missionary 
force consists of single women. The denominational classification of the 

missionaries is as follows : 



Anglican - ... 

Baptist 

Congregational 

Methodist 

Presbyterian 

China Inland Mission 
Other Societies 



96 
90 
15 
»59 
185 
59 
334 



Over 200 of the foreign missionaries in the province are engaged in 
general administrative, literary, and clerical work. Over 100 are occupied 
with language study. Consequently the total foreign force working full- 
time among the people of Kiangsu is considerably below 700. 

Foreign Force Classified Denominationally — Over 35 per cent of 
tjje foreign force in Kiangsu, or 334, are affiliated with missions which 
cannot be classified under any of the well-known denominations. Among 
those which can be so classified, the Presbyterians lead with 20 per cent 
of the entire foreign force, or 185. The Methodists follow with 17 per 
cent, or 159. Next in order come the Anglicans with 96 missionaries, 
then the Baptists with 90, then the CIM with 59, and lastly the Con- 
gregationalists with 15. It is interesting to note that the Methodists, 
although ranking second in foreign force, report the largest percentage 
of church members, over 30 per cent. On the other hand, the societies 
which remain unclassified denominationally, while they claim 36 per 
cent of the foreign force, report a number of communicants which repre- 
sents only 19 per cent of the total church membership in the province. 



Degree of Christian Occupation Ami- 
Terms of the Foreign Force — 

Number op Missionaries m» 
1,000 Communicants 
(average for the province 32^ 

•SDA 102 

SDB 77 

FCMS 52 

•MEFB 34 

PE 29. 

PN 27 

PS 26- 

AFO 25, 

LMS 24r 

•CIM 23. 

SBC t& 

MES 12 

AAM is 

Ind 5 

Number op Missionaries per- 

1,000,000 Inhabitants 
(Average for the Province 28> 

^ 84 

SOB 74 

AAM 67 

•MEFB 6r 

AFO S o 

•SDA 43 

PE 35 

MES 31 

Tnd 21 

LMS 20 

FCMS 15 

SBC „ 

PS IO 

•CIM Q 

•In order to insure a fair comparison,* 
between all missions, only those mission- 
aries giving full time to local missionary- 
work within the province have been 
credited to the three societies indicated by 
an asterisk in the above tables. 
As seen above, Kiangsu averages 28 missionaries per 1,000,000 in- 
habitants. If we substract the 200 and more missionaries who are 
engaged in general administrative, clerical, or literary work, the average • 
for the province becomes 2r. This appears to be a fairer proportion for 
the province, and is exceeded only in the case of Chihli, Fukien, and* 
Shansi. The average number of missionaries per 1,000 communicants w- 
32. When, however, this is determined on the basis of the actual work- 
ing force, it is reduced from 32 to 24. This again more truly represents 
the situation, Kiangsu ranking tenth among the provinces if this lower 
proportion be accepted. 

Chinese Force— There are 3.1 employed Chinese workers to every 
foreign worker in Kiangsu. Among the larger missions the MES lead» 
with a proportion of 5.4 Chinese to one foreigner; the EMS follows with 
5 to 1 ; then the SBC with 4.7 to 1 ; the PE with 4.6 to 1 ; the PS with 3.$ 
to r; and the PN with 3.1 to 1. (See Table II, Column it). 

Distribution of the Chinese Force— The total number of employe! 
Chinese workers is 2,860. Eighty per cent of this force reside in missionary 
residential centers, 53 per cent reside in the three cities of Shanghai, 
Nanking, and Soochow. A total of 561 employed Chinese workers, or a- 
little more than 20 per cent of the entire number, reside in approximately 
400 evangelistic centers. It is interesting to compare this map on the- 
distribution of workers with Map V showing the distribution of evangelistic- 
centers. 

Classification of the Chinese Force— The Chinese force may be classifiej 
as follows : 40 per cent are evangelistic workers, 48 per cent educational* 
workers, and 12 per cent medical workers. Only 9 out of 32 societies- 
employing Chinese workers report a larger evangelistic than educational* 
staff. These are the MES, CIM, Ind, AFO, SDA, and YWCA. Tbis- 
fnct indicates the emphasis on Christian education in Kiangsu. One 
society reports 3 educational workers in the mission to each evangelistic- 
worker, and 5 societies report 2 educational workers to each evangelistic 
worker. On the other hand, the SDA reports 4 Chinese evangelistic 
workers to each Chinese teacher. It is interesting to take the soeieties- 
which report a majority of educational workers, and compare the number 
oi their communicants with the total number of their students under 
Christian instruction. In most eases the communicant membership still! 
exceeds the student enrollment. This suggests that the emphasis on the- 
education of the future church is not out of balance. On the other hand*, 
the need for spiritual oversight and leadership must not be overlooked, lest 
the evangelistic force behind the spiritual life and activity of the churches- 
suffers at the expense of the educational. All societies report more com- 
municants than students under instruction, except the strictly educational* 
mission societies, and the MEFB, CCAu, CMA, and SDA. Seventy-three 
per cent of the Chinese employed workers are men. This slightly exceeds 
the percentage of male communicants, which is 62 per cent. 

Ordained Workers — One hundred and eighty-three out of 869 male 
evangelistic workers, or 21 per cent, are ordained. Among the larger 
societies, the MES reports the highest number, 42; the PE 34; the SBC 



THE PROVINCE OF KUXGSC 



13fr 



2-; the PN 13; and the MEFB 10, The Ind. missionaries in Hinghwa 
reported 42 orchined workers in 1916. The missions reporting no ordained 
church workers number almost 3,000 communicants on their church rolls. 
Within the missions having ordained workers, there is an average of one 
Chinese clergyman for every 1.1 organized congregations, and every 147 
chnrch members. This proportion between ordained workers and organized 
cgations suggests considerable Chinese supervision in church ad- 
ministrative affairs. 

''Christian Occupation in Terms of Chinese Workers — Fukien a'one, 

among the provinces of China, exceeds Kbngsu in the number' of employed 

Chinese Christian workers per million inhabitants. In the number at 

employed Chinese workers per thousand communicants, Kiangsu ranks 

fifth smong the provinces, following Anhwei, Kiangsi, Hunan, and 

■yaw. 

Number of Empi.oyep Chinese Number of Employed Chinese 

Workers per 1,000 Communicants Workers per 1,000,000 Inhabitants 

; a verve f<»r province <j6) (average for province 85) 

SUA AFO 292 

AFO 146 Ind tja 

PE PN 

LMS MEFB 17a 

FCMS 114 MES 170 

MEFB 98 PE 161 

PJS ... 95 SDR 119 

PN % SDA 116 

hid . 73 LMS 99 

SRC 71 SBC 

MES 66 PS 35 

C1M 24 FCMS 33 

SUB 13 C1M 13 

The first table also indicates how many out of every 100 com- 
municants are employed full-time either by the Church or the mission. 
For example, the PE employs 13 out of every 100 communicants, SBC ~ t 
I.MS u, FCMS 11, MEFB 10, and PS 9. 

Occupation — In 1915 a survey of the status of the churches in 

snado. Some of the interesting facts gathered 

frem statistics fcr 1913 as set forth in the report of this 



survey may be summarized as follows : 35.8 per cent of the church 
members in Shanghai were men ; the total number of communicants ex- 
ceeded 3,700 ; 22.3 per cent were Anglican ; 21 per cent Presbyterian ; 6.3 
per cent Methodist, ic.3 pqr cent Baptist; and 8.3 per cent Congrega- 
tionalist. In most of the churches the congregations were paying the 
salary of the pastors, and to this extent, at least, were self-supporting. 
An increase in church members of 13.5 per cent was reported for a single 
year. The CIM and the SDA showed the highest percentage of gains, 
followed by the Anglicans, CougregatiouaHsts, and Methodists in order, 
the SDB reporting the lowest rate of increase. Within the 10 missions 
reporting, 72 per cent of the current expenses for the year 19 13 were 
received from Chinese. A total of 21,215 people constituted the parish of 
a church pastor in Shanghai, as against 522 individuals to each American 
pastor. At that time, less than 5 cut of every 1,000 inhabitants were 
members of seme Pretest ant church : the figure given for the United 
States being 241 church members out of every :. 

The foliewing weakness 
(i) The failure en the part 
the importance of the Chn 
that it nvK~\ 
a working nu ! 

calling all forces intc play. '■ v the past rs of the 

part which the foreign mfesicHKiry can play in the organization and work 
of 'he Church. 

In a study made more recently by the MES of Christian fair- 
its Shanghai and Scochow districts, it was found that only one :' miry 
«< of every four reported all est its members as Christians, and also that 
only one family in every ten prayers. 

Training Centex, ? r Christ an II 'crkt rs— Kiangsu has three thec4ogical 
seminaries open to middle school and junior college graduates : Nanking 
Theological Seminary (Union), and the theoiogk d schools connected with 
Shanghai Baptist College (SBC and ABFi, and St. John's University (PE}, 
both in Shanghai. Two union Bible schools for women located in Nan- 
king are reported : the Bible Teachers Training School and the Severance 
Bible School. The MEFB conducts the Hitt Memorial Training School 
fcr Women in Nanking. The PS reports a training school few women in 
Kiangyin. In Sungkiangfu the MES maintains training schcols for both 
men and women. The PE reports a church training school for women in 



arch, and thai ev< 
Leaders too few in num 



hai were mentioned : 
1 any great 51 

nembe-r must become 



II.— Force at Work— Chinese 





























*5 




















































~ 




§ 






8 










_ c 


E 


"Z 




rz 9 








5 - '« 


z 


'3 




a 


,= 




? 




u 


£ 3 


5 <m\ 


if 


g 


>■ * 
















































































H ^ i 


E 


D 


A 


= 


■T3 '■ 


^ 


s 


£ 





-— - 


© „ 


^ 


** h 


■& -8 






1 


= xj. 


\ 


3 


1 


Es 


III 


X 


•~ 


•?. 


iZ 


~= ■ 


£ .- 


fr3 


:£ 


ESo 






"5 


— ~ ? 


s 


&9 


5 


L 


S "5 


S 


■ 


5 


Q 


T a 


_9 ""* 


~z. = 


JO £ 


*S fl 




Name of Society 


6 


.1 2 = 


1 


I 


■s 


1 


15 




■s 


| 


£ 


- Ii 


s£ 8 




i^ 


■5 1 _S 








|»| 


g 


3 




1 





- 


-f 





SS 


§0 


1* 


1 


- 


z.'M 








- ~ 




e* 






b* 










J 


H 


t* 




O 






1 


■1 


* 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 




Grand Total ... 


183 


686 


276 


1,145 


957 


4-10 


1,567 


38 


6 


57 


247 


348 


2.860 


251 


73%' 


3.1 




CMS 










1-2 




18 












12 






1.5 




PE 


31 


44 


•20 


98 


137 


7<5 


213 


13 


2 


6 


71 


92 


403 




64 % 


4.6 


Bapsist 


AAM 

ABF «b) 




4 

1 


- 


6 
1 


10 
2 


5 


15 

% 












81 






4.2 




SBC* 


•27 


37 


13 


77 


64 


36 


100 


1 






14 


15 


192 




"-'"■'• 


4.7 




8BC0U 


1 






1 


27 


g 


35 


1 




3 




4 


40 




- 






SOB 




% 


I 


3 


4 


6 


10 








3 


8 


16 




48 % 


1.6 


.-Mional 


LMS 


2 


9 


4 


15 


•21 


8 


26 


s 




9 


20 


34 


7-5 




so%; 


5.0 


Methodist 


MEFB* 


10 


10 


10 


30 


43 


85 


es 












88 


11 


64 '-V, 


1.6 




MES* 


42 


250 


4*» 


34(1 


101 


67 


i6s 


4 




5 


10 


19 


-527 


184 


7SV, 


■5.4 


PwsbvJemn 


KR 


IS 


ss 


17 


65 


116 


5*2 


168 




1 






1 


234 


20 


70% 


3.1 




PS* 


3 


113 


•is 


144 


146 


35 


isl 


8 


I 


22 


44 


75 


400 


■5 


81^ 


3.6 


China Inland .Mission 


CIM 




10 


5 


15 


3 


6 


9 












24 


18 


54% 


0.4 


Othti Societies 


AFM* 




10 


4 


14 


















14 




71% 


0.7 




AFO 




5 


5 


10 


5 


4 


9 


1 




3 


12 


16 


35 




55% 


5.8 




CCACZ 




1 




1 


















1 




100%' 


0.3 




CCA a 


J 






1 


8 


1 


4 












5 




- 


5.0 




CGM 




S 


2 


5 


















5 






0.8 




CMA 


1 




6 


7 






19 












88 




• 


4.0 




CSCB 






8 


•2 






:; 












S 






2.5 




I>HM* 






2 


•2 


1 


17 


18 












20 






8.8 




FCMS 


8 


11 


4 


SI 


83 


12 


39 


1 




1 


4 


8 


66 




74%, 


2.4 




GC* 












8 


*2 












2 




c SS 


0.2 




IBC 










"e 




6 












6 




uw . 


3.0 




Ind* 


42 


6*2 


6-3 


169 


74 


13 


87 












256 






13.5 




JCM 




1 




1 


















1 




UX"' : ;, 


0.5 




SDA 




88 


i-i 


40 


8 


2 


10 


1 




2 


27 


30 


SO 


13 


72': 


1.7 




SRM 


1 


2 


1 


4 


6 




6 












10 




90 '"„ 


5.0 




US: 










48 


2 


50 


a 




3 


24 


30 


80 




96% 


5.0 




wo 






7 


7 


1 


16 


17 




2 


3 


1* 


88 


47 






5.9 




YMCA 








48 


84 




84 












132 




100% 


2.6 




yvvcA 






is 


18 




ii 


12 












30 




Q\ 


1.8 



i&i This eoieinn includes workers connected with educational institutions above Middle School grade, 
an with SBC. 



Incomplete returns 



140 



TI1E CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



VII.— Distribution of Communicants 




Soochow, and a school for catechists in Wusih. The following three Bible 
schools are located in Shanghai. Newberry Bible School for Women (CMA), 
Douw Women's Bible School (WTJ), and the China Mission Training 
School (SDA). The Central China Mission of the SBC has a Bible school 
for men in Chinkiang. Note the large number of training schools for 
women in the province, eight out of a total of twelve. Undoubtedly other 
facilities exist for the training of Christian workers — less institu- 
tional perhaps in character. The schools listed above appear on the 
records of the CCEA for 1918. 

VIII. — COMMUNICANTS PER IO.OOO POPULATION 




COMMUNICANT CHRISTIANS 

General Summary— Kiangsu reports * 
Protestant church membership of 29,783. 
The following three provinces outrank 
Kiangsu: Kwamgtung, 61,262; Shantung, 
41,821; and Fukien, 38,584. Among the 
church members in Kiangsu, 62 per cent 
are men. The largest proportion of men 
to women communicants are reported by 
the PS, AAM, and ABF societies. 

The Roman Catholic Church reports 
approximately 190,000 Christians, or over 
six times the numerical strength of the 
Protestant churches. Kiangsu is still 
united with Anhwei in a single Vicariat 
Apnstolique, with the Residence Episcopate 
at Shanghai. Missionary work began as 
long ago as the middle of the 17th century, 
and is now in the hands of the Jesuit 
society. Kiangsu Tanks next to Chihti in 
the extent and quality of the work accom- 
plished. 

There is one Protestant Christian to 
every 1,123 inhabitants. The number of 
students under Christian instruction is 
10,000 below the number of Protestant 
church members. 

Distribution of Communicants — A 
g&nce at the accompanying map brings 
three striking impressions : (i) The large 
-number of church members reported for 
Shanghai, Soochow, and Nanking, and 
their immediate suburbs. About 40 per 
cent of the communicants reported for the 
province reside in these three cities, which 
however include only 7 per cent of the 
total population. {2) The large number of 
communicants reported by the independent 
missionaries for the Hinghwa district in 
the central part of the province. The Com- 
mittee was unable to obtain the location 
<»f their evangelistic centers scattered over 
the country. For this reason the total 
number of communicants, which approx- 
imates 11 per cent of the total church mem- 
bership in Kiangsu, has been shown as 
resident in the mission station of Hinghwa, 
Tegardlcss of their distribution over the 
field, {3} Considerably less than one-third 
of the Protestant communicants in Kiang- 
su reside north of the Yangtze River. 
Compare the accompanying map with Map 
II, A few communicants, comparatively 
very few, are reported for the area just 
north of the Yangtze. Note, however, that 
•this district for a distance of 60 miles 
northward from the river is almost as 
populous as the very dense sections south 
of the Yangtze. Note also from the accom- 
-panying map the relatively small namber 
of communicants along the Grand Canal. 
Here again the country is thickly populat- 
ed and communication relatively easy. 

Compare the accompanying map with 
Map III. In spite of the large amount of 
overlapping in the southern half of the 
province, one fails, to see any evidences 
of intensive development such as are ex- 
pressed in terms of evangelistic centers 
and Christian communicants. There is no 
•section in the whole of Kiangsu which 
"begins to resemble districts such as the 
Hinghwa field in Fukien, the Wenchow 
•circuit in Chekiang, or the SBC and PN 
areas in northern Shantung. 

IClJMBER OF COMMUNICANTS IN THE VARIOUS 

Mission Frmos of Kiangsb per 
10,000 Inhabitants 

Ind 37 PE 12 

PN 31 SDB ... 9 

FCMS 29 LMS ... 8 

MES 35 SBC ... 8 

AFO 20 CIM ... 5 

MEFB 18 PS ...... 4 

Note that the PS, with work extend- 
ing over two-thirds of the total area of 
the province, ranks at the end of the list* 
•with only 4 communicants per 10,000 in- 
habitants. 



THE PROVINCE OF KIANGSU 



141 



Compare this map with Map IV. The area just north of the Yangtze, 
sad extending from the central part of the province to the extreme western 
border, was opened to evangelistic work immediately after the Boxer Up- 
rising, and Christian woikers have been in the field for at least 10 years. 
However, the accompanying map shows less than 300 Christians. The 
southwestern section of the province was also opened relatively early, 
and still shews very slight development, due perhaps to the ph5-sic.1I 
characteristics of the country and the sparseness of the population. The 
Nteek area in the central part of the province, which cuts across the field 
of the Independent mission, would doubtless appear as having been opened 
during either the fourth or fifth periods, if the location and opening dates 
of the 42 evangelistic centers reported by the Independent missionaries 
were known to the Committee. 

Proportion of Commvniatnts in Cities of sojooo Inhabitants and Over — 
Kiangsu reports a rather high proportion of church members in cities 
of yojxo and over, namely 53 per cent. Ten societies appear to have 
all their communicants in these larger centers. The PS and the CIM 
report the largest degree of country work. 

Literacy — Seven out of every 10 men and 6 out of every 10 women in 
the church are able to read the Gospels with understanding. Several 
societies report high percentages of literac3?. The AAM, CIM, and PS 
return the *owest estimates. 

minational Affiliation — Methodists and Presbyterians represent 
w per cent of the church members in the province. Approximately 
r cent can not be classified with any of the well known denomina- 
tional groups. Exact figures follow : Anglicans 3,013 — 10 per cent ; 
Baptists, 3,51a — ra per cent; Congregationalists, 629 — 2 per cent; 
Methodists, 8,991 — 30 per cent; Presbyterians, 6,938 — 23 per cent; CIM, 
1,004—4 per: cent ; Other Societies, 5,695 — 19 per cent. Note that there are 
no Lutheran churches reported for Kiangsn. 

Sunday School Work — Kiangsu ranks third among the provinces 
of China in the proportion of Sunday School scholars to church members. 
Szechwan reports 1,719 Sunday School scholars per 1,000 communicants; 
Aahwei 1,336 per i.coo; and Kiangsu 1,236 per r,ooo. The average pro- 
portion for all China is considerably lower than any of the proportions 
given above, being only 641 Sunday School scholars for every 1,000 church 
members. 



In the actual number of Sunday School scholars, Kiangsn ranks first 
among the provinces of China with 36,609, Fukien, Szechwan f and Che- 
ktang ranking next in order. Twelve societies report more Sunday School 
scholars than church members, some almost twice as many. The entire 
pi evince has 7,000 more Sunday School scholars than church com* 
munkants. Kiangsu, Szechwan. and Anhwei join in sharing this dis* 
tinction. 

COMMUNICANTS PER 10,000 INHABITANTS 

General Summary — When we consider the number of Protestant churci 
members in the various provinces without regard to populations, those 
ranking among the first four are : Kwangtung, Shantung, Fukien, and 
Kiangsn. When, however, we consider the number of Protestant church 
members per 10,000 population in these same provinces, the above order 
is slightly altered. Fukien ranks first with 22.6 communicants per 10,000 
inhabitants ; Kwangtung second with 17.4 ; Shantung third with 13.5 ; 
Chekiang fourth with 12.5; Manchuria fifth with 11.4; and Kiangsu, 
the province under discussion, sixth with 8.9 church members per 10,000 
inhabitants. It is striking to discover that Yunnan averages approxi- 
mately the rame nnmfoer of communicants per 10,000 inhabitants as 
Kiangsu, the former reporting 8.8 while the latter reports S.9. The 
average for all China is 7.S communicants per 10,000 inhabitants. 

Hsicns Relatively Unoccupied — Sections of the fields of the following 
missions lie within the black belt which stretches across the middle of the 
ptovince : FCMS, PS, SBC, CIM, Ind, and PE. The hsicns which are 
shaded brightest to represent 51 to 75 communicants per 10,000 are those 
in which Shanghai is located, and also Hinghwa station of the Independent 
missionaries working in the center of the province. 

Huhai-tao, with Shanghai as its largest city, ranks first among the 
larger political divisions of the province in the degree of its Christian 
occupation, with 20.7 communicants per 10,000 inhabitants. Kinling-tao t 
with Nanking as its political center, follows with 11.3 communicants per 
10,000. Scchang-lao in the central section cf the extreme southern part 
of the province, Hw.iiynng-tao, north of the Yangtze, and Sfihai-tao in the 
extreme northern part ci the province follow in order with 8.5, 5.1, and 
3.7 ccmmur.icants per 10,000 respectively. Note the drop between Hahai- 
tao and *ne three tao last mentioned. 



III.— Extent of Occupation- The Christian Community 









c 






§ 








■ 5 


B 


a 


E 


i 






■ 


"S 


I 


aa 


3 


| 


-I 


£ S 


1 1 


- 5 


_r = 


j§ 


2 a 












t 
















-Jr. 








■3 


K 


O 


'5. 




5 


2 2 


s 


C -- — 


J? "5 -r 


S "S ■§ 




g — „ 






X 


1 


.2 


c 


I 


5 


•I 1 


&I 


©5 —. 


733 J 


S i 


5 


iff 




Name of Society 


g 




■£ 


*g 


a 


£ 


7T- -3 


-3 5 


5 S « 


~ p ^ 


Z ? j* 


X 


z ?T. 




































I 




I 


£ 


§ 


1 


l 


I 


6 P 


i. H 


| | 


>> 


3? H -™ 








J? 


S3 


Ǥ 


3 








i5 


£ 


2 


-^ 


< 








° 






u 












— 










1 


a 


3 


4 


5 


8 


7 


B 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 




Grand Total ... 


85 


314 


4t8 fa) 


18.2S1 


11,502 


23,783 


70.084 


62 


53 


69 


58 


56.699 


65 


Anglican 


CMS 

PE* 


1 
6 


is 


36 


1,815 


1.193 


3,013 


9.146 


fit 








180 


-4 
474 


Baptist 


AAM 


1 




1 


3-59 


115 


474 • 


624 














ABF 


•y 


1 


1 


77 


29 


106 


166 


73% 






88 v. 


-5 j .1 


106 




8BC* 


4 


33 


35 


1,502 


\ 1,163 


2,665 


7,096 


Mj ■ 








2.024 






SBColl 




1 




122 


20 


142 


142 


98 ! i 








" 






SDB 


2 


2 


"2 


57 


68 


125 


145 


46% 












a! ... 


LMS 


1 


7 


13 


433 


196 


629 


1.195 


■ * 














MEFB* 


3 


12 


19 


543 


473 


1,016 


1,912 










1 . 1 n 






MES' 


6 


83 


88 


41,793 


3,182 


7,975 


14,609 


61 i 












utrita 


PH 


a 


15 


16 


1.720 


1.064 


2,784 


4.371 


62% 




77% 






174 




i'S 


32 


36 


153 


2.973 


3.1-2 


4.155 


6,966 












53 


China Inland Miwkm 


CIM 


5 ' 


19 


19 


562 


442 


1,004 


1.105 










-w 


Other Societies ... 


AFM* 


1 


4 


4 


180 


120 


300 


300 


60% 


I'M' 








40 




AFO 




4 


6 


148 


95 


243 


243 


6»» 


34% 




'" 


210 




CCACZ* 


1 


1 


2 


30 


20 


50 


90 


88 ., 








40 


25 




CCAn* 


1 


1 




41 


27 


- 


6S 


BOX 








150 


25 




CGM* 


2 


2 


""2 


30 


20 


50 


150 


88 












CMA* 


1 


1 




70 


m 


120 


270 


5- .. 






... 






CSCB* 


1 




... 




... 


'*** 


102 








... 








E>HM* 
F<EMS* 


2 
3 


6 


6 


361 


222 


tm 


320 
666 


62% 






B0% 


1,022 


110 




GC 


1 








! 




















IBC 

Ind* 


I 

5 


42 


42 


2,073 


! 1,382 


3,455 


38 
14.142 


60% 








4,731 


82 




3CU* 

SDA* 
SBM 


I 

1 


1 

16 

I 


16 
1 


188 
180 


105 
120 


293 
300 


313 

887 


60g 

60% 


69% 

100% 


30% 


N 1 


503 
1,800 


18 
300 




r.s 


1 

1 


1 


"2 


"m 


209 


233 


275 


10% 


100% 


90% 


100% 


18-5 


117 




TMCA 


i 




... 








4.474 










8 -72 






rwcA 


: 2 




! 








275 
















f ABS, BFBS, CLS, 


1 


























Bible acd Tract Sock 


ties -'CTS. IPTCA, 

1 HB8S, BTS 


:l « 




... 




1 — 



















* Incomplete ret arris. 

<a) The uoraber ot evstngeliftlc centers located on Map V 1 
from 895 ^Hsien Table! so 460 (Table III afcove) represents addil 
whom it has never been possible to obtain direct infonnation. Tb 



, the totel number given in the Hsien Tabk for Riangsn-tSee AH^udU A ^J^* J^SiiTtaS 
all ot which are n$po%im^e, Bering the work of Ind misaowmes »d a few sntaB societies from 
ve been made hi the interest of more complete returns. ^ 



142 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



IX.— Mission Schools 




MISSION SCHOOLS 

Primary Education— Shantung, Fukien, Kwangtung, and Szecbwnn 
outrank Kiangsu (11,550) in the number of mission lower primary students. 
On the other band, Kiangsu csily outranks all other provinces in the 
number of higher primary students (5,015). The percentages of lower 
primary students entering higher primary schools within the four above- 
named provinces are as follows : Kiangsu 44 per cent, Kwangtung 24 per 
cent, Fukien 18 per cent, Shantung 16 per cent, and Szechwan 12 per cent. 
Next to Fukien, Kiangsu reports the largest Chinese Christian educational 
force. 

There are 354 mission lower primary schools and 120 higher primary 
schools in the province. The total enrollment in schools of both grade.* 
equals 16,565. The FE, SBC, MES, PS, and Ind report the largest amount 
of educational work. Out of 120 higher primary schools, 50 or more than 
a third are for girls. Sixty-seven per cent of the primary students in 
Kiangsu arc bovs. The missions laving greatest stress on education for 
girls are the CIM, WU, DHM, and SDB. The SBC, FE, MF.FB, MES, and 
AFO do almost as much for girls as they do for boys. 

From a glance at the accompanying map one is impressed by the 
apparent concentration of mission education in the larger cities. Also 
by the disproportion between the numbers of higher primary and lower 
primary senoois in many of these cities. Yangchow, for example, reports 
6 higher primary to 6 lower primary schools, Wusih 3 higher to 4 lower 
primary schools, and Shanghai 34 higher to 43 lower primary schools. 
May one conclude from these figures that Christian parents are sending 
their children to private or government lower primary schools, or have 
the Survey correspondents failed to report a number of lower primary 
schools conducted by self-supporting churches. 

Compate this map with Map V- Over one-third of the evangelistic 
centers appear t« have no lower primary schools. The grouping of lower 
primary school symbols around Hinghwa is due to the inability of the 
Committee to distribute these among the 42 evangelistic centers reported 
but not located by the Independent missionaries. 

Relative Emphasis on Primary Education Between Various Missions — 
"tempore the accompanying map with Map V. Only 7 out of the total 
84 missionary residential centers in the province are without mission 
higher primary schools. Twelve missionary residential centers report no 
mission midd!e schools. There are hospital facilities in nil centers where 
mission middle schools are conducted, thus assuring medical supervision 
over all students. 

Middle Schools — Fiftj-one mission middle schools are reported for 
Kiangsu, each wtth an average attendance of 65 students. The total en- 
rollment throughout the province is 3,323. Of these 51 middle schools, 
30 are for girls (618 students). The proportion of boys to girls in mission 
middle schools is 4 to 1. Two of the 51 are union middle schools, one 



connected with the Shanghai Baptist 
College, and the other with the University 
of Nanking. About one-third of the middle 
schools for boys, and one-half of the middle 
schools for girts were not offering full- 
grade middle school work when the 
Survey data was being gathered. Kiangsu 
ranks first in the number of mission 
middle school students. More mission 
middle school students are reported for 
Kiangsu than for Anhwei, Kiangsi, Honan, 
Hunan, Hupeh, Kansu, Kweichow, Shnnsi, 
Shewn, Kwangsi, Yunnan, and Manchuria, 
combined. 

Higher Education — Kiangsu is better 
supplied with mission higher educational 
facilities than any other province in 
China. Five institutions, doing both 
junior and senior college work, are located 
in the 3 cities of Nanking, Shanghai, and 
Soochow. The University of Nanking and 
the Ginling College for women in the same 
city both offer high grade senior college 
courses. Shanghai College, just outside 
the city limits, is a union between the ABF 
and SBC societies. St. John's University, 
located in Jessfield just west of Shanghai, 
is an influential educational institution of 
long standing operated by the PE society. 
The MES supports a large university in 
Soochow. Over 700 young men and women 
are enrolled in the five above-mentioned 
higher educational institutions. 

Teacher Training Facilities— College 
courses in education are offered in the Uni- 
versity of Nanking, St. John's University, 
and Soochow University. A normal course 
for middle school students is also reported 
by the University of Nanking. The FCMS 
prepares young women to be primary 
school teachers in their girls' school at 
Nanking. The Laura Haygood High 
School for girls in Sooihow trains lower 
primary school and kindergarten teachers for the MES mission. The above- 
named institutions appear on the CCEA list of normal schools for 1920. 
The Eliza Yates (.iris* School (SBC) in Shanghai is said to have normal 
work, but no reply was received by the Normal School Committee. More- 
over, the Shanghai Baptist College offers courses in education for teachers 
in middle and primary schools. 

Number of Organized Churches and Lower Primary Schools Compared 
10 20 so 40 m eo ia 80 




QBBS Orisimz*! Charcfaes 
mgm Lower, Primair Schools 



Number of Communicants and Mission Primary Students Compares* 
sou 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 mm 




CoBuaanicant* 
I Mission Primary Schools 



) THE PROVINCE OP KIAXGSU 



143 



GOVERNMENT EDUCATION 
Statistical Summary— lv the 1916 Re- 
port d the Ministry of Education Kiangsu 
•was credited with over quarter erf a million 
lower primary students (260,783), and 
about one-tenth of this number of higher 
primary students {25,679). This is equi- 
valent to 85 primary students for every 
10,000 inhabitants in Kiangsu, which pro- 
portion is exceeded only in the following 
provinces : Chihli, Shantung, Shansi, 
Shensl, Chefciang, Yunnan, and Manchuria. 
If the exact number of children enrolled in 
primary schools throughout the province 
were desired, it would be necessary to add 
to the figures reported for goverment 
schools the many children now attending 
local and private primary schools. In the 
eastern provinces, especially, many private 
schools are known to exist from which 
no figures are obtainable. Moreover, the 
quality of work done in these schools, as 
well as the moral character of the teach- 
ing vary greatly. Certainly government 
statistics only indicate at best the relative 
emphasis on education within any province, 
not the actual numerical strength. In 
Kiaugsu, the hsien and private schools, 
not to mention the mission schools, in- 
crease the government figure of primary 
students by at least 17,000. In many pro- 
vinces, in addition to the few middle 
schools maintained by the central govern- 
ment, one frequently finds other middle 
schools, often of high grade, established by 
esien authorities in hsien cities where no 
government middle schools have as yet 
been founded. 

Government Education in the Various 
ompared — All three southern tao ex- 
ceed 75 government primary students per 



X. — Government Schools 




.xm « oMMEn mta •<mt*t sm» 

lam « wtgemm i«'i» nun sweet ^--^i' 



IY.— Extent of Occupation— The Christian School 



Mama of Society 



China Inland Mission 



CMS 
I*E 
A AM 

ABF (a) 

.SBC* 

SBColl 
BDB 

L.MS 
MEFB 

MES* 

PS 

l'< 

CIM 

AFM* 

AFO 

CCACZI 

CCAo 

COM 

CMA 

CSCB 

DHM* 
FCMS 
GC 

IBC 
In4* 

•TCMf 

SUA 
SRM 

rs 
wo 

TMCA 

rwcA 



Grand Total ... 354 120 51 



7,483 +.067 11.550 



150 

402 
1,168 



246 



24 

1,379 



167 
180 



10 

476 

a 

20 

ss 

306 



520 

516 

68 

30 

40 



llCKM 
66 



1.194 
90 
50 

1,083 

28 
20 

185 

708 

2,150 

873 

1,965 

73 

150 



100 
170 



24 

1,713 



227 
210 

30 

• 67 



1 I : 



145 
345 



110 
117 
394 

195 
386 



24 
150 



3.586 1,429 5,015 



... ■ 145 
136 : 481 
10 10 



10 
116 

233 



120 
233 

627 



130 i 325 
136 ', 522 
26 31 



• 120) 
4* 



150 

94 



10 11 12 



2.705 618 3^23 



45 
615 



191 

9 

80 

130 

359 



120 
225 

499 



15 ! 

153 

94 ! 

4* 



45 

695 
20 



95 
283 

45S 

134) 
354 



mm 
24 24 



19,888 



190 
2.370 

120 

50 

1,670 

384 

96 

400 

1,224 

3,230 

1 .334 

2.741 
109 
150 
177 



150 

252 



558 



4114 
210 



185 
1,579 






14 ; IS ~*16 



67",; ' N* «5« 



42% 







65% 
33% 
29% 


83 




37% 


74' , 




- 


: 






• 


100 ., 





50% 



S2% 
J4% 



58% 



l<.H--{, 
11% 



: 



100% 

... 

|ioo% 



'Incomplete retains. 



SSo returns. 






144 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 



XI. — Hospitals 




10,000 inhabitants, Huhai-tao in which Shanghai is located reporting 
the highest proportion, 186.5 students per 10,000 inhabitants. The two 
northern tao, Hwaiyang and Sfihai f report rather low proportions: 29.8 
and 38.2 per 10,000 respectively. In the extreme southeastern section 
of the province, all hsiens report over 100 lower primary schools each. 

Compare the accompanying map with Map V showing the location of 
evangelistic centers. Note on the one hand the strong government 
educational development in eastern Kiangsu just north of the Yangtze 
River, and on the other hand how relatively undeveloped this whole region 
is in terms cf evangelistic centers. 



Y.— Extent of Occupation— The Christian Hospital 



Name of Society 



Grand Total 



29 



II 829 



12 



718 17,537 



Anglican ... 
Baptist 



Congregational. 
Methodist... . 



Presbyterian 

China Inland Mission 
O.ber Societies 



CMS 
PE 
AAM 
ABF (a) 
SBC 



1 I 140 124 3,9*8 



8BC0I. 

SDB 
LM8 

MEFB (a) 

MES 



PX (a) 


1 


1 


PS (a) 


9 


6 


CIM 


I 


I 


AFO 


2 




FCM8 (a) 1 


1 1 





50 30 



10 
13 

115 



568 

1 
350 

2,044 

1,500 



35 
172 



*S* . 9 



c 1 X ' ~ .2? ' tf £ 

8 I I "" r° 



6 7 



IS 247 30 



53 



150 
13 
13 



Compare the accompanying map with 
Map IX on Mission Schools, Note the 
sparseness of mission lower primary 
schools north of the Yangtze in eastern 
Kiangsu, and south of the railroad between 
Nanking and Soochow, contrasting the com- 
paratively large number of government 
lower primary schools in the hsiens of 
these two districts. 

Middle Schools — Here the Committee 
has met with considerable difficulty in 
securing any reliable or exhaustive inform- 
ation. Most of the available sources are 
very contradictory, and it has been neces- 
sary to put all information to the test of 
comparison, and venture to check result* 
by correspondence and personal inquiry 
before the Committee dared make any 
conclusions. In 1919, there were approx- 
imately 22 government middle schoois 
for boys and 5 for girls in Kiangsu. Only 
4 of those reported, however, are located 
north of the Yangtze River. If others 
exist, they are undoubtedly maintained by 
hsien officials. Moreover, the larger cities 
throughout the province have many private 
middle schools of which no statistics are 
obtainable. 

Compare the accompanying map with 
Mip IX. There are more mission than 
government middle schools north of the 
Yangtze. The following cities without 
mission middle schools report government 
schools of similar grade : Hwaianfu, 
Tungchow, Haimenting, Tsungming, Wu- 
kiang, Ihing, Sungkiangfu t Taitsang, and 
Changchow. 

Nonrml Schools — Ten government nor- 
mal schools for beys with a student 
enrollment of 2,287, and 5 government 
normal schools for girls with 500 students, 
were reported in 1918. Only Hunan, and 
Fengtien excecklcd this province in the number of girls in government 
normal schools. Chekiang reported a higher number of normal schools for 
both girls and boys, but Kiangsu more students. Approximately 10 per 
cent of all the government normal school students in China are enrolled 
in the normal schools of Kiangsu. 

Government Higher Education — The non-mission higher educational 
institutions in Kiangsu include the following four colleges and universi- 
ties : The Futan University, the Aurora University established by the 
Reman Catholics, the Hatung College, and the Tatung College all located 
in Shanghai. There is also in this city the Government Institute of 
Technology, formerly Nanyang college, the Chinese Technical College, 
Nanyang Commercial College, Shanghai Normal School which offers 
advanced normal training, and a Uaw School of college grade. In Nan- 
king the largest higher grade non-mission institution is the Government 
Teachers' College under the leadership of Dr. P. W. Kuo. Plans are 
already Hearing completion for the establishment of the Southeastern 
University with the present Teachers' ColSege as nucleus. Its school 
of commerce will be opened in Shanghai while the departments of arts : 
science, education, engineering, and agriculture will be carried on in 
Nanking. In this city there is also the Engineering College, a Law 
College, and a Preparatory School for Malasians, the Chilian Institute. 
Outside of these two large cities, Soochow reports a Provincial Medical 
College, Tungchow an Agricultural College, and Woosung the Tungcbi 
Medical and Engineering College. Information also has recently come 
to hand regarding a new University planned by the Ministry of Com- 
munications with four separate departments to be located in Shanghai, 
Peking, Tangshnn, and Woosung respectively. If the plans materialize, 
Nanyang College in Shanghai will be known as the second college, 
while the fourth department or college for the training of naval architect* 
and pilots will be established in Woosung. 



Number of Chinese Employed Workeks peb i, 
23 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 



215 
3,960 j 4 
(For missionaries 
j 5.=5 1,122 j 1 
I 38 900 1 



11 

inly ) 
12* ; 
4 



26 



Ind* 


: 1 .. 
















SDA* 


! l : .. 


31 


8 


200 : 


1 


27 


10 


20 


UN* 


1 ., 


72 


: H 


I 1,100 j 


1 


21 


30 


i u 


WO 


1 .. 




120 


• 1,500 


1 


L8 


60 


| 120 



AFO 

Ind 

PN 

MEFB 

MES 

PE 

SDB 

SIM 

UfS 

SBC! 

PS 

rams 



Incomplete returns 



(a) In Union wori at Nanking 



THE PROVINCE OF KIANGSU 



145 



HOSPITALS 
General Summary— Mission hospital facilities are found in iS cities 
<«f Kiangsu. In these cities 29 mission hospitals have been reported, to 
-which the onion medical work at Xanking in which a number of societies eo- 
,<}perate, and that at Shanghai In connection with the Shanghai Baptist 
College, must be added- The PS ranks first in medical work among 
•mission societies, followed by the PE. The hospital credited to the CIM 
and located in Shanghai is mainly for the use of CIM missionaries. 

Besides mission hospitals, 10 non-mission institutions of modern 

-roedkine hare been located on the accompanying map, exclusive of 

numerous private hospitals and dispensaries scattered in many cities over 

•the province. The Roman Catholic Church reports 5 hospitals and 6 

.dispensaries. Of the non-mission hospitals reported, 4 are known to be 

under government supervision, 6 under Chinese control, 1 affiliated with a 

•Chinese medical college, and 4 under the supervision of foreign doctors. 

•AH mission hospitals reported for the province have been located on Map 

XL However, a few non-mission institutions could not be shown, due 

-to non-arrival of infamatson until after the map had been drawn. 

Christian Occupation in Terms of Doctors and Hospital Beds per 
jt,oo0,0oo Inhabitants — 

Foreign Physicians per t,ggg,ooo 

POtPtn-ATIOX 



{Average for Province r.5) 

SDB 14-8 

AFO S.3 

SUA ., - 5-7 

msm 3-5 

PN 3-3 

MES 2.5 

2-4 

I.MS .- i-3 

PS - -•-- o-9 

SBC 0.6 

FCMS 0.5 



Hosprr.u, Beds per 1,000,000 
Population 

(Average for Province 46) 

AFO 625 

SDB 321 

I.MS 197 

PE 106 

SDA 57 

MEFR 44 

FCMS 44 

PX 39 

PS 36 

MES 35 

SBC 24 



Societies not appearing in the lists above, except! the Ind, offer no 
hospital facilities Xote that while the PS reports the largest number 
of hospitals, and the largest foreign medical force, it ranks third to last 
both in the number of physicians and in the number of hospital beds 
per 1,000,000. 

When compared with other provinces, Kiangsu ranks below Chihli, 
Manchuria, Fukien, and Kwrvogtang in the number of mission doctors 
per million inhabitants. Fukien, Kwangtung, Chekiang, and Manchuria 
report more hospital beds in proportion to population. The two provinces 
reporting the largest number of graduate Chinese nurses are Fukien and 
Kiangsu. The provinces reporting the largest number of Chinese physicians 
are located along the coast, namely Chihli, Shantung, Kiangsu, Fukien, 
and Kwangtung. 

Hem Hospitals — The following societies plan new hospitals in the 
following centers before 1923 : PS Chinkiang; MES Snngkiaogfu ; and PS 
Taicbow. Recently the ABF and MES combined with the \\T to strength- 
en and extend medical work in the Margaret Williamson Hospital, West 
Gate, Shanghai where the last-named mission society has conducted a 
strong work for many years. Here a high-grade training school {or nurses 
will be conducted and coursvs given in public health education. 

Distribution of Hospitals — If we compare the accompanying map with 
Map II we find, at first glance, that the larger number of mission hospitals 
are located in the southern half of Ifcs province, which is by far the more 
densely settled. Out of 29 hospitals in the rro\-ince 22 are located south 
of the Yangtze. Moreover, the 3 new hospitals which are to be built 
during the next 5 years, according to information received, are also to be 
located in the southern half of the province. 

Compare the accompanying map with Maps VII and IX. The 
hospitals are located* in sections of the province where the largest number 
of communicants are concentrated. All cities with mission middle schools 
also offer mission hospital facilities. 



YL— Degree of Occupation and Table of Urgency 







« 






_ 




- 


5 - 


- 


S X 




■ * 


£ £ 


- 


_ 








































c 






























•3 


11 


- 


1 


g 


? I 


BE "3 


gg 


5- "= 


*■§ 


•X ~ 


5: = 


.r *r 


•fl 




£* 


£ -~ 


a - 


'- 


H 


g 


'Z '~ 


3 -- 


i. = 


I - 


g jy 


_^ s 


>. a 


>v — 


— -- 




3 




BvS 


9 


■ £ 


g 


5 


="~ 


e E 


c H 


~ J- 


9 B 


- 5 


— - 


— 


Name of Society 


z 




5 £ 


i 


3 


i 


*i 


Ȥ 


5 ^ 


^1 


□ — 


f- a 


~ 3 


ll 


8 2 






































< 


« 


h 


H 




2. 




- 


t ~ 




x =• 


a - 


- 


=■ 




1 


« 


3 . 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


Grand Total 




58,610*41* 


33,678,61!^ 


If8(e) 


MM 


29,783 


28 


85 


32 


96 


8.9 


1.236 


536 


U 


4C 


4»glu-»n ... CMS 

PE* 


B 

A 


4,000 


2,500,000 


8 

88 


12 

403 


3,013 


35 


161 


29 


134 


12 


1,201 


ES8 


2*4 


106 


Baptist AAM 

ABF* 
SBC* 


A 

A 
A 


M 
(b) 
5,000 


3.360.000 


S 
34 
41 


21 
192 


474 

106 
2.665 


12 


58 


11 

321 

16 


45 

30 

71 


8 


63H 
377 

778 


213 
500 

571 


u!«5 


24 


SBColl 
SDB 


A 

A 


•200 


135,000 


io 


40 
16 


142 
125 


74 


119 


77 


13 


9 


1,43*8 


669 


uk 


321 


<5oo§B^rittoB«i LMS* 

Metbodist , MEFB* 


B 

A 


800 
1.300 


760.000 

568.000 


15 

(35) 


»-> 


6*2i 
1,016 


30 
61 


99 
172 


24 
34 


119 

98 


- 
18 


1 751 
2.155 


4-4 
940 


1.3 

3.5 


44 

35 


MES* 


A 


8,000 


3.140,000 


97 


1 527 


7,975 


31 


170 


12 


m 


25 


1 1.248 


347 




Presfefterian PS* 

I*S* 


A 
A 


3,500 

2-5,000 


894,000 
1 1 ,670,000 


75 
110 


j 234 

', 400 


2,784 
4,155 


84 
10 


263 
35 


27 
26 


85 
95 


31 
4 


, 1,181 

4*9 


429 
592 


3.3 
0.9 


39 
36 


-China, Inland Mission ... ... CIM* 


Int 


1300 


1,900,000 


(181 


24 


1,004 


9 


13 


23 


24 

47 

146 


5 


260 


104 
500 
625 


— 




•Other Societies AFM* 

AFO 


B 
A 


1 .000 


... 
120,000 


21 
6 


14 
35 


300 
243 


50 


29-2 


2.1 


20 


873 


8.3 


#25 


CCACZ* 
CCAu* 
CGM* 
CMA* 


A 
B 
A 
A 


lb) 




3 

1 
6 


I 
5 

20 


50 

50 
120 






80 

14 
120 
42 


20 
74 
100 
167 




800 

1.600 
! 1.250 


2.206 

1,868 






CSCR* 


lot 


W 




i 


'' 






















DHM* 

FCMS* 


hit 
A 


<bi 
2.500 


2,000,000 


9 
SO 


20 

66 


603 


15 


33 


52 


114 


29 


j 1.762 


s* 


0-5 


44 


GC* 


A 


>M 




--> 






















... 


IBC* 


A 


<b> 






6 






















tat* 


Int 


1.200 


939,000 


19 


1 256 


3,455 


21 


272 


5 


73 


37 


| 1,351 


544 


1.0 




JCM* 
S»A* 


B 
A 




693 JG0 


2 

(30) 


1 
80 


293 


43 


116 


102 


276 


4 


! 1.734 


921 


M 


5T 


8BM* 


B 


*W 




2 


10 


300 






7 


33 




! 6,000 


700 




... 


IS* 


A 


(h) 




16 


80 






















WO 


A 


lb) 




- 


47 


233 






35 


204 




804 


700 


... 




YMCA* 


Int 






50 


• 132 






















IWCA* 


Int 


' 




23 


30 























t tor approximate estimates by awekiies m gw«» below . , . ,.,..»__ 

issi0BS«e tor the most part restrfeted to ka^e «*tt^ m* WJneaisAe earaoas. F«r this reawm no atteni-^ hm teen mad« to gir# aim wad po-mi*fti<» 

total foreign force in the prwiaee. Tbe traces la the oolaaia teiow tor ssrer^ ot the saaieties hare hsea redooei to #xel««k missionaries in general 



146 



THE CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 

KWANGSI 



I. — Hsien Boundaries 




HSIEN BOUNDARIES 

Political Divisions — Kwangsi is situated in the extreme south of China 
between Kwangtung and Yunnan, about 250 miles northwest of Hongkong, 
It is larger than the whole of the New England States, having an area 
-of 77,220 square miles, and contains a population approximating that of 
the Dominion of Canada. 

The province is divided for administrative purposes into 6 tao, sub- 
divided into 84 h^iens. In addition, there are "30 small semi-independent 
aboriginal cities, which, until recently, have been governed by their own 
hereditary tribesmen, called Tu-Sze. These, in turn, were under the 
jurisdiction of the nearest prefect, who presided at the trial of all criminal 
cases, and to whom were forwarded the revenue and taxes from the dis- 
trict. There were also 15 market towns, governed almost exclusively by 
the atcrigities.'" 

The capital of the province has recently been moved from Kweilin 
to Nanning, situated on a branch of the West River, 600 miles from Canton. 
Wucbow, Nanning, and Lungchow are treaty ports. The last named is 
located in the extreme southwestern section of the province, just 35 miks 
from the French Tocgking bordeT. Here, as well as in other sections 
of the province, French influence is strong. Following is an extract from 
an article in "The Chinese Empire" : "Ever since 1885, after the inglorious 
war (Tongking War, 1882), China has had France as a neighbour to the 
southwest. Throughout these years she has been pursued by a dread of 
French aggression, every move on the latter's part being met by a cor- 
responding move by China. Mutual suspicion has been the order of the 
day, and not always without reason, at least on China's side." 

A branch of the Haiphong- Yfinnanfu Railway extends to Langson 
and a few miles beyond, which is just across the border from Lungchow. 
All attempts, thus far, to carry the line of this railway across the border 
to the China treaty port have resulted in failure. "As an offset to French 
influence at the treaty port of Lungchow, the Chinese have opened Nan- 
ning as a treaty port. Stronger measures have also been taken by Chinese 
officials to suppress the perennial rebel&ons and minor disorders, especial- 
ly Jn the western pait of the province. These havs again and again 
provided just grounds for grievance on the part of France." 

Physical Features — "Kwangsi is wholly mountainous, and is simply 
the last step downwards from the Himalayan and Tibetan heights, the 
average elevation above sea level being not more than 1,000 feet, though 
the numerous limestone crags and peaks of the central granitic masses 
frequently Teich 3,000 feet. The province is abundantly watered by 3 
streams that divide it into 3 main valleys and unite to form the West River 
at Wuchcw. This river, from its source in the Yunnan plateau to its 
Canton delta, has a length of over 1,000 miles. The northern tributary, 
the Kwei River, rises near the borders of Hunan, and is connected by a 
*boit canal with the Slang River flowing northward through that province, 



thus affording a direct waterway from Canton to Hankow." The Pearl* 
River makes its way through beautiful gorges in the district commonly- 
known as the "Hundred Thousand Hills," and is navigable for small' 
craft as far as Poseh near the Yunnan border. 

Climate— The climate of Kwangsi is tropical in the south, where the- 
heat is excessive and the humidity great from May to September. In the - 
north, the climate is more moderate, although changes of temperature are- 
suddeu, and snow and frost not uncommon an winter. 

Economic Conditions— Kwangsi is frequently referred to as one of the 
poor provinces of China. However, customs receipts during the last ten> 
years do not support this general impression. The inhabitants are few 
and widely scattered. The. mineral resources of the province, though great,. 
are undeveloped. The forests have largely disappeared. Coal is found? 
in quantity but not mined. Agriculture is the common pursuit among 
the people in the river valleys, and Kwangsi has been called by one author- 
ity the "granary of Kwangtung." 

If the province is poor economically, it is due mainly to the general' 
lawlessness among the people especially in the west, where aboriginal 
tribes are feund in great numbers. In this province the Taiping Rebellion.' 
had its origin. Travel is attended with much elanger. It is only fewjr 
years since a group erf outlaws made themselves masters of the greater - 
part of the province, and were suppressed only after excessive barbarity 
and cruelty on the part of the government forces. Connected with thls- 
genera! unrest may be mentioned the baneful work of secret societies, 
together w:th the incompetence end rapacity of officials. Thousands of 
inhabitants have been massacred, and most ruthless methods have been» 
emplo\-ed in the suppressiem of former rebellions. 

Chinese and Aboriginal Tribes— The population of Kwangsi is com- 
posed of 3 principal races : the aborigines, the Cantonese, and the Hakkas- 
(^ iSO- Chinese inhabit the principal towns, and immigrants, especially 
from Hunan, are found in large numbers in the northern sections of the* 
province. The aborigines inhabit the northwestern and western areas. - 
The dress, customs, manners, and dialects of some of the tribes closely re- 
semble those of the Siamese. The names of a few of the main tribes are- 
Mfco (|gf ), Chung Kia {f$ %£), a branch of the Tai race, and Lolo ( ggg jg). 
Some are akin to the Tibetans. A few tribes are believed to possess a rudi- 
mentary form of writing. One or two of these tribal languages have been re- 
duced to writing by Frerch Roman Catholic missionaries. Little Protestant 
missionary work has as yet been attempted among these people. The 
chief industry is cutting timber in the mountains and floating it down to- 
the main rivers. The Hakkas were originally a cross between Chinese 
soldiers and Ikia women. They adopted most erf the Chinese customs, 
mingled with the natives, and being bold and enterprising, succeeded irt 
supplanting them. The Cantonese are the least numerous, occupying:: 
chiefy the south and southeastern sections. 



THE PROVINCE OF KWANGSI 
Language Areas 



147 




>1 l : ne* represent Mandarin areas and horiwmtil Ine* Cantonese areas. The vertical hoes 
. The saral! shvded area* in the nortli ate inhabited by aboriginal tribes whose languages are un» 
(•seats the l*o Mxn'a-'n district truieh is si II un?h»rlei. Throughout the dotted area the To or Chi 
tiarket towns and villa ;es. The crosses represent fUkk-i-speaking communities. 



Language— The accompanying map wil give a hotter understanding 
-«l the languages hcaid in the province tbrn js possible to set forth by 
any verbal description. In the northern section of Kwangsi, Mandarin 
» spoken by the majority of the people. Frequently here and there, 
■wherever aboriginal tribes exist, peculiar dialects are heard. Groups of 
Hakka-speaking people are scattered over the central part of the province, 
and on to the west. Throughout the southern section of Kwangsi, Canton- 
ese is the prevailing language. Just north of Pingnamyun there is a large 
area known as the Yao Mountain district still uncharfcta, where a local 
-dialect prevails ot which little is known. In the extreme southeast, while 
-Cantonese is used in the cities and market towns, the prevailing language 
is a local dialect not heard in any other section of the province. Through- 
"©afc the entire western section, intermingled with Mandarin in the north 
and Cantonese in the south, are many tribal dialects, chief among them 
heing the T*o, or Chuang dialect. All of these more or less resemble, the 
language of the Tai and Laos of Siam. In the southwest one hears a pure 
T*o dialect, except among the educated Chinese, where Mandarin or 
"Cantonese is spoken. 

Communications— The roads throughout Kwangsi are little more than 
narrow footpaths, poorly kept up. The excellent river systems provide 
*afer eonsmunkation to almost all parts of the province. Wuchow is in 
elosc touch with Canton during all seasons of the year. From Wuchow, 
'Chinese-built launches run as far inland as Liuchowfu, and Kweihsien. 
For 10 months in the year it is possible to travel by launch as far inland 
as Nanning, and occasionally on to withiu 2 days' journey from the Yunnan 
horder. These launches are generally adapted for passenger traffic, and 
«re amply provided against robbers and outlaws of every doscription. 
Beyond Lincbowtu communication with Kweiehow is possible by boat. 
Poseh is in communication with both Kweiehow and Yunnan by caravan 
routes. 

There are no railroads in the province. Several are projected, one 
entering the province front Canton and Samshui in Kwangtung, passing 
through Wuchow and Kweilin, and proceeding thence into Hunan, where 
it will join the Canton-Hankow line at Chuchow, Another proposed line 
extends from Yjmcbow in Kwangtung, in a northwesterly direction, 
through Kanning and Poseh, proceeding on to Hingi in Kweiehow, and 
thence westward to Yunnanfu. A third proposed line extends frean 
Wuchow to the interior of Kwangsi, touching SSnchow and linchowfu, 
and continuing to Kweilin. Except for the short distance between Lung- 
•chow in southwestern Kwangsi and Langson in Toughing, direct railway 
eommunicatios exists between southwestern Kwangsi and the seaport 
Haiphong. 



Postal Agencies — No increase in the number of either main offices or 
postal agencies during the year 1Q1&-19 is reported for Kwangsi. Accord- 
ing to the latest official figures there are 31 post offices of different classes 
and 341 post.il agencies iu the province. Kweiehow and Kansu only report 
a smaller number of r ost effices. Yunnan and Shensi report more offices 
but fewer agencies, in comparison with other provinces very little in* 
crease is shown in the total amount of mail matter dealt with annually. 

Postal Hongs — The government post office service in Kwangsi is 
supplemented, as in a number of other provinces, by the native postal 
"hongs." The following particulars as to these adjuncts of the postal 
service ate given, not so much for their immediate importance as for the 
opportunity thus afforded to explain the working of such agencies through- 
out China, and to point out their possible use in connection with news- 
paper evangelism. "Each morning these agencies send a messenger to 
all business establishments to eolket letters, making a charge of it or 
so cash per cover ; pre-payment is not compulsory, the fee being collected 
frean the addressee, if net paid here. In some cases half the fee is caid 
here, and half at the place of destination. These postal hongs receiv- 
letters for any place in China. Should they be addressed to a place where 
the hong has not an agency, they are placed in a separate cover, stamptL 
and posted through the government post office. Besides the postal hougs, 
there are private couriers running from Wuchow to Kweilin, and from 
Wuchow to Yfiiinfu. These couriers appear to do business entirely en 
their own account, and are generally trusted." 

Telegraph Facilities — The Chinese Government Telegraph Administra- 
tion maintains 51 stations in Kwangsi. For comparative purposes it is 
interesting to know that 14 stations only are maintained in Kweiehow, 
and 35 in Yunnan, According to the American Consul in Canton, telegraph 
conventions have been entered into between China and the governments 
of India and France, respecting communications over the Burma and Indo- 
China frontiers. 

Christian Occupation by Hsiens — It is difficult, if not impossible, to 
discuss the work of Christian missions in Kwangsi in terms of hsiens. 
to all relatively backward provinces it has often been necessary for the 
correspondents to group the statistics of work extending over 2 ot 
3 hsiens, under the name of a single hsien, this hsien generally being the 
best worked of the group. Accordingly, any statement regarding the number 
of hsiens reporting Christian communicants or Christian schools is bound. 
to be unsatisfactory. If this fact be kept in mind, we may venture on tit© 



14a 



THE CHKISTIAN OCCUPATION OF CHINA 
II.— Density of Population 









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following approximations : Nine listens report work by more than one 
mission society. On the statistical tables of Christian Occupation by 
Hsiens (Appendix A), 36 hsiens appear as unclaimed by any Protestant 
mbsion society. If we add to this number those hsiens, which although 
included within the field of some mission still remain wholly untouched, 
we have 53 hsiens out of the total 84 for which no figures of organized 
Christian